Test 2 Flashcards


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1

Name the researcher who showed that when a child's attention to relevant aspects of the conservation task is improved, the child is more likely to conserve.

Gelman

2

Name the cognitive theorist who emphasized the social contexts of learning and the construction of knowledge through social interaction.

Vygotsky

3

Name the Italian physician-turned-educator who at the beginning of the twentieth century crafted a revolutionary approach to young children's education in which children are given considerable freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities.

Montessori

4

The substage of preoperational thought in which a young child gains the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present is known as the _____ function substage.

symbolic

5

Identify the inability to distinguish between one's own perspective and the perspective of another.

egocentrism

6

Identify the term that refers to the awareness that altering an object's or a substance's appearance does not change its basic properties.

conservation

7

The approach that emphasizes the social contexts of learning and asserts that knowledge is mutually built and constructed is called the social _____ approach.

constructivist

8

The term for the range of tasks that are too difficult for children to master alone but can be learned with guidance and assistance from adults or more-skilled children is known as the zone of _____ development.

proximal

9

The term that refers to awareness of one's own mental processes and the mental processes of others is "theory of _____.

mind

10

Aubrey is in a school that takes into account the typical development of children within an age span as well as the uniqueness of the child. It also emphasizes the importance of creating settings that encourage active learning and reflect the child's interests and capabilities. This view represents a method known as _____.

DAP

11

The Reggio Emilia approach is employed in a(n)

A) nutrition program for young children.
B) educational program for young children.
C) program for training kindergarten and elementary school teachers.
D) parenting education program

B

12

Sandra is informed by a pediatrician that her 4-year-old son Manuelhas gained 6 pounds over the past year. Sandra should be

A) alarmed, because Manuel has gained a lot of weight.
B) concerned, because Manuel has gained less weight than has become common at this age.
C) positive and make changes to Manuel's diet.
D) content, because this is normal for Manuel's age.

D

13

During early childhood, girls are _____ than boys.

A) much lighter
B) more muscular
C) slightly smaller
D) considerably taller

C

14

By the end of early childhood, girls have more _____ tissue than boys.

A) fatty
B) muscle
C) epithelial
D) nervous

A

15

A review of the height and weight of children around the world concluded that there are

A) congenital differences.
B) ethnic differences among them.
C) no visible differences.
D) cases of hyperthyroidism.

B

16

What are the two most important contributors to height differences among children worldwide?

A) nationality and culture
B) education and exercise
C) prenatal care and emotional challenges
D) ethnic origin and nutrition

D

17

Who among the following 5-year-olds is most likely to be the tallest?

A) Timothy, who is a White, urban, middle-socioeconomic-status, later-born boy
B) Tina, who is a White, urban, middle-socioeconomic-status, firstborn girl
C) Tyrone, who is an African American, urban, middle-socioeconomic-status, firstborn boy
D) Tucker, who is an African American, rural, lower-socioeconomic-status, later-born boy

C

18

_____ is a process by which the nerve cells are covered and insulated with a layer of fat cells.

A) Centration
B) Myelination
C) Tropism
D) Neurogenesis

B

19

_____ involves an increase in the speed and efficiency of information traveling through the nervous system during brain development in children between the ages of 3 and 5.

A) Centration
B) Myelination
C) Tropism
D) Neurogenesis

B

20

Scientists have discovered that there are _____ the brains of children in the 3- to 5-year age range.

A) dramatic changes in local patterns within
B) phenomenal increases in the overall size of
C) insignificant anatomical changes in
D) hardly any internal metamorphisms within

A

21

Identify a characteristic of autobiographical memory.

A) It pertains to information acquired during adolescence rather than childhood.
B) It allows people to do routine work without requiring conscious thought.
C) It involves memory of significant events and experiences in one's life.
D) It is limited to information that is retained for up to 30 seconds if it is not rehearsed.

C

22

Among 3- to 6-year-olds, the volume of autobiographical memory is directly linked to

A) the volume of self-knowledge.
B) body mass index.
C) the size of thecerebral cortex.
D) race and ethnicity.

A

23

Researchers have found that in children from 3 to 6 years of age, the most rapid growth takes place in the _____ lobe areas of the brain.

A) temporal
B) parietal
C) frontal
D) occipital

C

24

Toby is 3years old. His parents are concerned because he always runs and jumps around. He cannot sit still. Even when watching his favorite cartoon on TV, he fidgets and wiggles. It is especially frustrating for his parents when Toby does not sit still through dinner. Which of the following should Toby's parents do?

A) They should have him tested for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
B) They should enroll him in a behavior modification program.
C) They should provide structured and cognitively challenging activities for Toby, to help develop his attention span.
D) They should avoid panicking, as Toby's behavior is normal for kids in his age group.

D

25

When 4-year-olds and 5-year-olds scramble over jungle gyms and race their friends, they demonstrate their

A) cognitive skills.
B) fine harboring skills.
C) gross motor skills.
D) reflective skills.

C

26

Fred and Wayne are 4-year-olds. When they are together, they often wrestle, run, race, push, and shove each other. Although their activities often aggravate their parents, these activities will

A) help the boys develop their gross motor skills.
B) stop when their brains become better myelinated.
C) be temporary, as the boyswill not be friends for long.
D) help the boys overcome narcolepsy.

A

27

Irene is a 3-year-old girl. Her father takes her to a nearby park in the evening. In the context of the development of gross motor skills in children her age, which activity is Irene most likely to engage in at the park?

A) She will hop and jump just for the sheer delight of performing these activities.
B) She will scramble over low jungle gyms to display her athletic prowess.
C) She will perform hair-raising stunts on all climbing objects.
D) She will run hard and enjoy races with her father and other children.

A

28

Debra is a very active child. She loves to tumble and show off. She always trieswhat her parents consider"hair-raising" stunts. She also loves running and believes she can run faster than her parents. This type of activity level and confidence is most characteristic of

A) 1-year-olds.
B) 2-year-olds.
C) 3-year-olds.
D) 5-year-olds.

D

29

Jim, a 3-year-old boy, gets a box of colorful blocks as a birthday gift from his uncle. He is excited to see the gift and demands to play with the blocks immediately. In the context of physical and cognitive development in early childhood, when playing with the blocks, Jim is most likely to

A) place each block on top of the other with intense concentration.
B) stack each block on top of the other in a completely straight line.
C) find it impossible to pick up the blocks.
D) juggle all the blocks perfectly.

A

30

Based on the recommendations of the World Health Organization (2019), a child's life should center around

A) meals.
B) activities.
C) discipline.
D) academics.

B

31

Four-year-old Nathan is good at stacking blocks to make tall structures; however, he occasionally knocks them down. Which of the following is the most likely reason for this?

A) His gross motor skills are underdeveloped.
B) He tries to place each block perfectly on top of the other, upsetting those already stacked.
C) His coordination skills are not developing normally for his age.
D) He is showing signs of dyslexia.

B

32

Which of the following should be minimized in order to improve the eating behavior of children?

A) competing activities
B) a predictable schedule
C) parents eating healthy food
D) making mealtimes pleasant occasions

A

33

Which of the following determines the categories for obesity, overweight, and at risk of being overweight?

A) weight
B) average calories consumed daily
C) waist-to-hip ratio
D) body mass index

D

34

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2020) has established categories for weight that are determined by body mass index. Children and adolescents at or above the 97th percentile are classified as

A) obese.
B) overweight.
C) at risk of being overweight.
D) severely malnourished.

A

35

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2020), a person with a body mass index (BMI) at the 90th percentile is

A) obese.
B) overweight.
C) at risk of being overweight.
D) underweight.

C

36

Six-year-old Gina has a body mass index (BMI) at the 95th percentile. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2020), she is

A) obese.
B) overweight.
C) at risk of being overweight.
D) not at risk of being overweigh

B

37

Which of the following statements about childhood obesity is true?

A) Children who are overweight at age 3 are also at risk of being overweight at age 12.
B) There is no indication that overweight children will become overweight adults.
C) No link has been found between obesity andtype 2 (adult-onset) diabetes in children.
D) Obesity actually leads to a decrease in hypertension levels in children when they are 5 years of age.

A

38

The World Health Organization recommends that young children engage in about _____ of physical activity per day total.

A) 15 minutes
B) 30 minutes
C) 3 hours
D) 4 hours

C

39

Many young children from low-income families suffer from a lack of all of the following, EXCEPT

A) iron.
B) vitamins.
C) protein.
D) carbohydrates

D

40

The leading cause of death in young childrenin the United States is

A) heart disease.
B) malnutrition.
C) accidents.
D) domestic violence

C

41

Which of the following statements about parental smoking is true?

A) Children are at risk for health problems when they live in homes in which a parent smokes.
B) Most children and adolescents in the United States are exposed to tobacco smoke in their homes.
C) Children exposed to tobacco smoke in their homes are nomore likely to develop asthma than children in nonsmoking families.
D) Parental smoking is the leading cause of death in young children in the United States.

A

42

Which of the following can enhance a child's safety and reduce the likelihood of injury?

A) a decrease in home/school partnerships
B) the absence of playground hazards
C) reducingpool fencing
D) reducing frequent parent protective behaviors

B

43

Which of the following steps can be taken to enhance children's safety and prevent injury, specifically in the context of family and home?

A) activesurveillance ofenvironmental hazards
B) promotion of home/school partnerships
C) development ofsocial skills and the ability to regulate emotions
D) frequent parent protective behaviors

D

44

According to the National Center for Health Statistics (2019), which of the following isthe most common cause of accidental death in young children in the United States?

A) drowning
B) deformity
C) homicide
D) suffocation

A

45

Many of the deaths of young children around the world could be prevented by reductions in

A) nutrition.
B) sanitation.
C) poverty.
D) education.

C

46

Which of the following statements is true of Piaget's preoperational stage of cognitive development?

A) In this stage, a child can perform operations independently without adult supervision.
B) In this stage, children begin to represent the world with words, images, and drawings.
C) This stage lasts from approximately 3 months to 2 years of age.
D) This stage involves the ability to use deductive reasoning.

B

47

Six-year-old Patricia loves to draw pictures and describe them. Her ideas are more balanced now than earlier. She has started to analyze and understand things. However, she is egocentric and holdswhat her parents describe as, "magical beliefs." Patricia is in Piaget's _____ stage of development.

A) sensorimotor
B) concrete operational
C) formal operational
D) preoperational

D

48

Piaget's preoperational stage is so named because he believed that children in this stage of development

A) cannot yet perform reversible mental actions.
B) cannot yet form stable concepts.
C) are unable to reason.
D) cannot operate electronic devices like televisions

A

49

Brian is 2 1/2years old. He dwells in his own imaginary world and represents objects that are not present. On walls, he often scribbles patterns that represent clouds, trees, birds, and so on. Brian's behavior indicates that he is in Piaget's _____ of cognitive development.

A) symbolic function substage
B) intuitive thought substage
C) concrete operational stage
D) formal operational stage

A

50

Three-year-old Ruth draws a picture with lavender, purple, and blue colors intermixed with green, yellow, and brown. "It is a boat in the ocean at sunset, with whales jumping all around it!" she explains to her teacher. Which of the following does this explain?

D

51

The inability to distinguish between one's own perspective and someone else's perspective is known as

A) animism.
B) empathy.
C) egocentrism.
D) symbolism.

C

52

Wendy, a 4-year-old girl, decides to gift her father a teddy bear on his birthday, because Wendylikes teddy bears. She asks her elder brother to help her wrap the gift. She does not consider the fact that her father may not like the gift or have no use for it. In the context of cognitive development in early childhood, this scenario illustrates

A) animism.
B) egocentrism.
C) decentration.
D) conservation

B

53

Olivia, a 3-year-old girl, loves to play with her toy train. She names it Max and takes it with her everywhere. One day, while drinking milk, she spills the milk on the floor. To avoid being scolded, Olivia tells her mother that Max has spilled the milk. Another day, she blames Max for soiling her dress. In the context of cognitive development in early childhood, this scenario illustrates the concept of

A) egocentrism.
B) conservation.
C) animism.
D) centration

C

54

"My computer does not like me. It keeps eating my pictures," says 3-year-old Kimberly. This is an example of

A) animism.
B) intuitive thinking.
C) conservation.
D) egocentrism

A

55

The second substage of preoperational thought, occurring between approximately 4 and 7 years of age, is characterized by the use of

A) reversible mental actions.
B) egocentric views.
C) primitive reasoning.
D) symbolic thought.

C

56

Derek, a 4-year-old boy, is curious by nature and exhausts his parents with "why" questions; however, he is not able to comprehend ideas. His imagination does not resemble reality. Whenhe sees a rainbow, he believes that a fairy has painted it with watercolors. In the context of cognitive development in early childhood, this scenario illustrates

A) Piaget's sensorimotor stage.
B) Piaget's intuitive thought substage.
C) the overjustification effect.
D) the misinformation effect

B

57

Piaget called the second substage of the preoperational stage "intuitive" because children know something, but they know it without the use of

A) symbolic function.
B) primitive reasoning.
C) centration.
D) rational thinking

D

58

Juan and his little sisterAnneare each given a large cookie. Their mother breaks Anne's cookie into four pieces to enable her to eat it easily. Juan immediately begins to cry and says that it is not fair that his sister got more cookies than him. Juan is showing a lack of

A) constancy.
B) conservation.
C) intuition.
D) symbolic function.

B

59

Which of the following best describes the relation between centration and conservation?

A) Conservation requires centration.
B) Centration is due to the lack of conservation.
C) Centration is evidenced in young children's lack of conservation.
D) Conservation is independent of centration

C

60

Diego is 3 years old. His mother pours orange juice for him and his older sister Maria. Because theirmother does not have two glasses of the same size, she pours Maria's juice into a taller glass than she uses for Diego. Though both glasses have the same amount of juice, Diego starts to cry because he thinks his sister has more juice. In the context of cognitive development in early childhood, this scenario illustrates the concept of

A) egocentrism.
B) centration.
C) animism.
D) imitation

B

61

In general, conservation involves the ability to understand that changing an object's appearance

A) does not change its basic properties.
B) affects its inherent features.
C) determines the total volume needed for a given task.
D) must be considered before the characteristics of the object can be determined

A

62

In Piaget's theory, failing the conservation-of-liquid task demonstrates

A) that a child is at the sensorimotor stage of cognitive development.
B) that a child is unable to think fluidly.
C) centration.
D) rational thought

C

63

According to Rochel Gelman, _____ is especially important in explaining conservation.

A) the age of a child
B) heredity
C) attention
D) intuition

C

64

The zone of proximal development (ZPD) is Vygotsky's term for

A) a young adult's cognitive development achieved through interaction with children.
B) the variety of work that a child can do with ease at a particular stage of cognitive development.
C) how a child's environment and his or her genetically programmed learning ability interact during a critical period.
D) the range of tasks that are too difficult for a child to master alone but can be learned with guidance and assistance from adults or more-skilled children.

D

65

According to research, which of the following factors can enhance the effectiveness of the zone of proximal development?

A) ambivalent attachment
B) absolute emotion control
C) child compliance
D) maternal strictness

C

66

Kevin is just learning to walk. He can take a few steps by himself if he uses both hands to hold on to a piece of furniture for support. He can walk to the middle of a room only if one of his parents holds his hands. Which of the following represents the lower limit of Kevin's zone of proximal development (ZPD) for walking?

A) Kevin learning to run after he has mastered walking by himself
B) Kevin going back to crawling when he becomes frustrated trying to walk by himself
C) Kevin walking alone by holding on to a piece of furniture with his hands
D) Kevin learning to walk by holding his parents' hands

C

67

Three-year-old Sharon can solve four-piece jigsaw puzzles on her own but needs her parents' help to solve six-piece jigsaw puzzles. Which of the following represents the upper limit of Sharon's zone of proximal development (ZPD) for solving such puzzles?

A) Sharon moving on to 10-piece puzzles
B) Sharon solving six-piece puzzles with her parents' help
C) Sharon helping her 2-year-old brother solve four-piece puzzles
D) Sharon mastering four-piece puzzles

B

68

Which of the following did Vygotsky call the "buds" or "flowers" of development?

A) tasks a child can accomplish independently
B) intuitive thinking and rational thinking
C) a child's cognitive skills that are in the process of maturing
D) a child's gross motor skills when fully developed

C

69

When adults are working with young children, they often provide a lot of hints, assistance, instructions, and other support to help the children succeed. As the children indicate that they can do more for themselves, the adults begin to withdraw their support. This shows the adults' involvement in the children's

A) zone of proximal development.
B) development of conservational abilities.
C) enhancement of intuitive reasoning.
D) process of centration

A

70

Which of the following refers to teachers' adjustment of their level of support and guidance to the level of the skills of their students?

A) accommodation
B) regulation
C) scaffolding
D) assimilation

C

71

Over the past week, Walter has been learning to tie his shoelaces. Initially, his mother held his hands and worked his fingers through the process. Now that Walter is better at it, she only guides him verbally. This is an example of

A) how heredity shapes cognitive development.
B) intuitive reasoning.
C) scaffolding.
D) conservation

C

72

Natalie is 4 years old. When she buttons her shirt, she talks to herself and describes the steps. This helps her in self-regulating and guiding her behavior. In the context of cognitive and physical development in early childhood, this scenario illustrates the concept of

A) centration.
B) belief perseverance.
C) avolition.
D) private speech

D

73

Which of the following describes Lev Vygotsky's belief about the development of thought and language?

A) Thought and language are merged early in development, and they later separate.
B) Thought depends on language, and thought and languageare merged throughout development.
C) Thought and language initially develop independently of each other and then merge.
D) Thought and language are two separate functions that remain independent throughout development

C

74

For Vygotsky, private speech is

A) immature.
B) a tool used by children to regulate others'behavior.
C) an important tool of thought during the early childhood years.
D) egocentric.

C

75

Kristi works in a daycare center. She notices that Pablo, a 4-year-old boy, often indulges in private speech when doing any activity on his own. She has heard him talking to himself when solving puzzles. Kristi believes in Piaget's theory of cognitive development in children. After seeing Pablo's behavior, Kristi is likely to assume that Pablo's usage of private speech is

A) egocentric.
B) mature.
C) an important tool of thought.
D) a means of guiding one's behavior

A

76

Four-year-old Michelle talks to herself frequently. She does this especially when she is trying to solve a difficult problem. Lev Vygotsky would say that Michelle is

A) engaging in egocentric and immature thinking.
B) likely to be socially competent.
C) functioning at the upper limit of her zone of proximal development (ZPD).
D) engaging in scaffolding

B

77

Three-year-old Amy looks at her grandmother's collection of glass animals and says, "Those are a 'no-no.'Do not touch." It appears that Amy is using _____ to regulate her own behavior.

A) mindstream
B) intuitive reasoning
C) private speech
D) symbolic function

C

78

Which of the following is an appropriate application of Vygotsky's theory in education?

A) IQ should be assessed to test a child's learning capabilities.
B) A child should learn on his or her own to realize his or her capabilities.
C) A child's use of private speech reflects immaturity and egocentrism.
D) Teaching should begin toward the upper limit of a child's zone of proximal development

D

79

Which of the following scenarios best represents Vygotsky's view of mental and behavioral development?

A) A teacher assigns challenging tasks that students must complete on their own.
B) An instructor helps students with laboratory work, showing the studentshow to do things theycannot yet do on their own.
C) A teacher waits patiently for students to come up with good answers and assesses their learning capabilities.
D) An instructor systematically offers standardized tests to students to evaluate their mental abilities on varying subjects.

B

80

Based on Vygotsky's theory, which of the following educational strategies should be incorporated in classrooms?

A) making each child responsible for his or her work without relying on peers or teachers for support
B) formal, standardized tests to assess children's learning
C) discouraging distractions like self-talk or private speech
D) offering just enough assistance to a child to accomplish a task

D

81

According to Gauvain (2016) and Holzman (2017), the main implication of Vygotsky's theory is that students need

A) many opportunities to learn with more-skilled peers.
B) to just be left alone long enough to figure out a problem.
C) to be directed firmly in a lesson, andthen to work independently.
D) the opportunity to teach less-skilled peers in order to learn a concept or skillthemselves

A

82

In moving from Piaget to Vygotsky, the conceptual shift is one from

A) the individual to collaboration.
B) collaboration to sociocultural activity.
C) construction to discovery.
D) socializing to operational thought

A

83

In the context of cognitive development in early childhood, Vygotsky argued that

A) formal, standardized tests are the best way to assess children's learning.
B) assessment should focus on determining a child's zone of proximal development.
C) educators should focus on abstract presentations of material.
D) teaching should begin toward the lower limit of the zone of proximal development.

B

84

Vygotsky believed that children construct knowledge through

A) self-discovery.
B) social interaction.
C) the reorganization of existing knowledge.
D) transforming previous knowledge

B

85

In the context of theories of cognitive development, unlike Vygotsky, Piaget believed that

A) children construct knowledge through social interaction.
B) education plays a central role in helping children learn the tools of culture.
C) language plays a powerful role in shaping thought.
D) cognition primarily directs language

D

86

Tools of the Mind is a program that is grounded in _____ theory of cognitive development.

A) Vygotsky's
B) Erikson's
C) Sternberg's
D) Piaget's

A

87

In a Tools of the Mind classroom, _____ has a central role.

A) nutrition
B) didactic lecture
C) dramatic play
D) abstract presentation

C

88

Ted is in a Tools of the Mind classroom. His teacher guides him in planning his own message by drawing a line to stand for each word he says. Ted then repeats the message, pointing to each line as he says the word. Finally, he writes on the lines, trying to represent each word with some letters or symbols. This process is best described as

A) model drawing.
B) scaffolding writing.
C) word visualizing.
D) positive role-play

B

89

Which of the following is among the criticisms of Vygotsky's theory?

A) Vygotsky was specific about age-related changes and generalized all individuals.
B) Vygotsky overemphasized the role of language in thinking.
C) Vygotsky particularly described how changes in socioemotional capabilities contribute to cognitive development, which is highly subjective.
D) Vygotsky putno emphasis on guidance, which plays an important role in learning

B

90

According to McClelland and others (2017), _____ attention involves action planning, allocating attention to goals, error detection and compensation, monitoring progress on tasks, and dealing with novel or difficult circumstances.

A) salient
B) relevant
C) executive
D) sustained

C

91

_____ attention is focused and extended engagement with an object, task, event, or other aspect of the environment.

A) Salient
B) Relevant
C) Executive
D) Sustained

D

92

A police officer visits Heather's class to discuss safety rules. To attract the children's attention, the officer brings colorful balloons and jars of bubbles. Later, Heather tells her parents all about the balloons and bubbles but cannot remember any of the safety rules the officer talked about. Heather obviously paid more attention to what was

A) salient.
B) relevant.
C) habituated.
D) intended

A

93

A police officer visits Timothy and Evelyn's class to discuss safety rules. To attract the children's attention, the officer brings colorful balloons and jars of bubbles for the children to blow. Later, Timothy tells his parents about all the safety rules discussed by the officer. Timothy obviously paid attention to what was

A) salient.
B) relevant.
C) habituated.
D) superfluous

B

94

Patsy is a 5-year-old girl. She participates in a laboratory experiment in which random letters of the alphabetare rapidly read out to her. After 20 seconds, she is asked to recall those sequences. In the context of information processing, this experiment has been conducted to assess Patsy's

A) command over syntax.
B) pragmatics usage.
C) short-term memory.
D) interest in literature

C

95

The ability of preschool children to control and sustain their attention is related to

A) school readiness and focus.
B) the decreased likelihood of obesity.
C) increased short-term memory capacity.
D) an increase in implicit memory

A

96

When experimenters ask children to judge whether two complex pictures are the same, preschool children tend to use a haphazard comparison strategy, not examining allthe details before making a judgment. The children exhibit a lack of

A) conservation.
B) attention to the salient.
C) centration.
D) planfulness

D

97

Regarding short-term memory, which of the following statements is true?

A) One method of assessing short-term memory is the memory-span task.
B) In short-term memory, individuals retain information for up to 5 minutes if there is no rehearsal of the information.
C) Short-term memory involves memory of significant events and experiences in one's life.
D) One aspect of short-term memory that has been extensively studied in research on children's development is autobiographical memory

A

98

Irene conducts a laboratory experiment to test the memory of children. She rapidly reads out a list of colors to three children aged 4, 6, and 13 years. The children are then asked to repeat the names of the colors. Irene notices that the 6-year-old and the 13-year-old are able to recall more colors than the 4-year-old. This experiment illustrates that

A) younger children tend to rehearse information more than older children do.
B) short-term memory decreases inlate childhood.
C) information is retained in short-term memory for a long period without rehearsal.
D) memory span varies from one individual to another

D

99

Using rehearsal, we can keep information in short-term memory for a much longer period. In this context, rehearsal means

A) preparing for a memory-span test.
B) doing mental exercises daily to keep one's mind sharp.
C) repeating information after it has been presented.
D) taking regular memory-span tests

C

100

Research with the memory-span task suggests that

A) short-term memory increases inearly childhood.
B) long-term memory reaches maturation by early childhood.
C) memory span depends on one's ethnic origin.
D) heredity is one of the major factors affecting memory

A

101

In a study comparing the memory spans of preschool and elementary school children, the latter group consistently scored better. This apparent increase in memory span with age could be explained partly by how

A) peer groups play a part in short-term memory.
B) older children rehearse the digits from their tests more than younger children do.
C) elementary schools practice scaffolding.
D) memory-span tests are not always an accurate measure of short-term memory

B

102

Six-year-old Shirley, a witness to a robbery, was asked to testify at a trial. The defense argued that her testimony could be invalid because

A) at her age, she has no long-term memory.
B) her memories are highly susceptible to suggestion.
C) she is more likely to embellish her memories.
D) children cannot recall details of events sequentially

B

103

_____ refers to an umbrella-like concept that consists of a number of higher-level cognitive processes linked to the development of the brain's prefrontal cortex, which play a role in managing thoughts to engage in goal-directed behavior and self-control.

A) Executive attention
B) Executive function
C) Prefrontal control
D) Prefrontal inhibition

B

104

Theory of _____ refers to awareness of one's own mental processes and the mental processes of others.

A) self-awareness
B) recognition
C) mind
D) consciousness

C

105

Eighteen-month-old Alan hates spinach but says, "Yum!" when he sees his mother eating her favorite spinach casserole. This indicates that

A) he will also like spinach when he grows up.
B) he recognizes that someone else may have different desires from his own.
C) he has started to recognize false beliefs.
D) he has started to understand that people can have ambivalent feelings

B

106

Children begin to understand three mental states from 18 months to 3 years of age. One of these is _____, illustrated bychildren's realization, by 3 years of age,that looking leads to knowing what's inside a container.

A) suspicion
B) emotion
C) desire
D) perception

D

107

Russell conducts an experiment to study children's theory of mind. He selects participants and divides them into two groups. The first group consists of 3-year-olds, whereas the second group consists of 5-year-olds. Russell takes a crayon box and places candies in it. He opens the box and shows it to both groups. Next, he asks the first group what a child who has never seen the box will think is actually inside the box. The group replies, "Candies!" To the same question, the second group replies, "Crayons!" This scenario illustrates that

A) children refer to cognitive states earlier than they refer to desires.
B) 3-year-old children have a deepening appreciation of the mind.
C) 5-year-old children believe that people's behaviors necessarily reflect their thoughts and feelings.
D) children younger than 4 years old do not understand that it is possible to have a false belief.

D

108

_____ includesseveral operationssuch as inhibition and planningthat are important for flexible, future-oriented behavior and are also connected to theory of mind development.

A) Operational thought
B) Sustained attention
C) Executive function
D) Intuitive reasoning

C

109

Executive function involves

A) managing one's thoughts to engage in goal-directed behavior and self-control.
B) learning difficult tasks with guidance and assistance from adults or more-skilled children.
C) focusing attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others.
D) building memories of significant events and experiences in one's life

A

110

Recent research results have indicated that fathers' _____ improved young children's executive function (Meuwissen & Carlson, 2018).

A) employment status
B) autonomy support
C) executive position
D) race and ethnicity

B

111

A recent study (Zelazo & others, 2018) has shown that a six-week group training program focusing on _____was no more effective than a _____ training program in improving young children's executive function.

A) mindfulness and reflection; literacy
B) executive leadership; team-building
C) life-span development; cognition
D) myelination; conservation

A

112

A comparison of data from the original "marshmallow" experiment and more recent data found that young children in the 1960s waited an average of _____than their counterparts in the 2000s, showing a distinct change in children's ability to delay gratification.

A) 2 minutes less
B) 2 minutes longer
C) 1 minute less
D) 1 minute longer

A

113

The increase in delay of gratification in recent years likely is due to

A) increases in symbolic thought.
B) less exposure to technological innovation.
C) less exposure to early childhood education programs.
D) public awareness of the superiority of earlier generations

A

114

Pointing to a tree, young Leo says, "Bird flied away." Leo's interesting but incorrect use of "-ed" in "flied" shows that he is trying to learn the _____ rules of language.

A) phonological
B) morphological
C) pragmatic
D) syntactic

B

115

Three-year-old Zelda always asks questions like "Where Daddy is going?" and "What Mommy is doing?" This indicates that she hasyet to learn the auxiliary-inversion rule and to apply the rules of

A) pragmatics.
B) morphology.
C) syntax.
D) phonology

C

116

Jean Berko's experiment involving "wugs" demonstrated that young children who took part in the experiment were able to apply

A) phonological rules.
B) the rules of syntax.
C) pragmatics.
D) morphological rules

D

117

_____ is a process that helps to explain how young children learn the connection between a word and its referent so quickly.

A) Vertical thinking
B) Centration
C) Fast mapping
D) Conservation

C

118

According to Harris, Golinkoff, and Hirsh-Pasek (2011), which of the following is a key principle in young children's vocabulary development?

A) Children learn words best when grammar and vocabulary are given less emphasis.
B) Children learn the words they hear most often when interacting with their parents, teachers, siblings, and peers.
C) Children learn words more effectively when they are passive, rather than active, learners.
D) Children learn new words more effectively when new words are encountered as isolated facts rather than in integrated contexts

B

119

In the context of cognitive development in early childhood, which of the following is true of pragmatics?

A) It refers to relating a word to its referent quickly.
B) It is the awareness that changing an object's appearance does not change its basic properties.
C) It refers to focusing one's attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others.
D) It is the appropriate use of language in different contexts

D

120

Five-year-old Donna uses shorter, simpler sentences when talking to her baby brother. She speaks in a very informal way with her friends, and she uses a more formal language with her father's friends. Donna is demonstrating her grasp of

A) pragmatics.
B) morphology.
C) syntax.
D) phonology

A

121

In the context of early childhood education, developmentally appropriate practice emphasizes

A) the importance of creating settings that encourage active learning and reflect children's interests and capabilities.
B) the education of the whole child and concern for his or her physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development.
C) the importance of giving children considerable freedom in choosing activities and allowing them to move from one activity to another as they desire.
D) the content of learning rather than the process of learning

A

122

_____ is a philosophy of education in which children are given considerable freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities.

A) The child-centered kindergarten
B) The Montessori approach
C) Developmentally appropriate practice
D) Developmentally inappropriate practice

B

123

Nicole, a 3-year-old girl, goes to a school that follows the Montessori approach to education. Which of the following is likely true regardingNicole's teachers?

A) They will make all the decisions for her.
B) They will show her how to perform intellectual activities.
C) They will act as director rather than facilitator.
D) They will ensure that Nicole indulges in the activities that they feel are most desirable

B

124

Nurturing is a key aspect of _____, which emphasizes the education of the whole child and concern for his or her physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development.

A) the child-centered kindergarten
B) the Montessori approach
C) developmentally appropriate practice
D) the Reggio Emilia approach

A

125

Dorothy is enrolled in a preschool where she spends much of her time in unstructured activities. She plays with the toys she chooses, and her teacher acts as a facilitator rather than a director. Which of the following approaches is Dorothy's preschool using?

A) the kindergarten approach
B) the Rogerian approach
C) the Montessori approach
D) the success-oriented approach

C

126

Which of the following is among the criticisms of the Montessori approach?

A) It putsa lot of emphasis on social interaction.
B) It does not employ self-corrective materials.
C) It putsa lot of emphasis on imaginative play.
D) It neglects children's socioemotional development

D

127

_____ is based on knowledge of the typical progress of a child within an age span as well as the uniqueness of the child.

A) The child-centered kindergarten
B) Developmentally appropriate practice
C) The Montessori approach
D) The success-oriented approach

B

128

In 1965, the federal government began an effort to break the cycle of poverty and substandard education for young children in the United States through

A) the Maria Montessori Program.
B) the Emancipation Undertaking.
C) the Reggio Emilia Project.
D) Project Head Start

D

129

Karla is a single mother of a 5-year-old boy. She works in a bakery on a meager salary. Recently, she found out about a government-funded program that provides children from low-income families with the opportunity to acquire the skills important for success in school. The program aims to improve substandard education and alleviate poverty. Karla decides to apply for the program. The program being referred to in this scenario is

A) the child-centered kindergarten.
B) the Montessori Program.
C) Big Brothers Big Sisters of America.
D) Project Head Start

D

130

Which of the following is true of Head Start programs?

A) They provide for low-income families.
B) They focus on children of a particular ethnic origin.
C) They have a negative effect on young children's language development.
D) They are funded by private corporate sectors

A

131

Two current controversies in early childhood education involve

A) the curriculum, and the idea of universal preschool education in the United States.
B) the quality of inner-city schools, and free education to all in the United States.
C) the use of corporal punishment in schools, and the use of uniforms.
D) Christian holidays for all students, and boarding schools

A

132

According to Feeney, Moravcik, and Nolte (2019), competent early childhood programs should focus

A) on cognitive development and socioemotional development.
B) exclusively on cognitive development.
C) on preoperational skills.
D) on academics alone

A

133

Which of the following was arguedby Zigler and his colleagues in support of universal preschool in the United States?

A) It is more important to improve preschool education for young children who are disadvantaged than to fund preschool education for all 4-year-old children.
B) The quality of inner-city schools has often been found to be questionable.
C) Research has proven that the gains attributed to preschool and kindergarten education are often overstated.
D) Universal preschool would bring cost savings on the order of billions of dollars because of a diminished need for remedial and justice services

D

134

Critics of the idea of universal preschool education argue that

A) quality preschools prepare children for school readiness and academic success.
B) research has not proven that nondisadvantaged children benefit from attending a preschool.
C) the gains attributed to preschool and kindergarten education are often understated.
D) quality preschool programs increase the likelihood that a child will later drop out of school

B

135

One of the arguments made against universal preschool education is that

A) quality preschools prepare children for school readiness and academic success.
B) it is more important to improve preschool education for young children who are disadvantaged than to fund preschool education for all 4-year-old children.
C) preschool programs decrease the likelihood that once children go to elementary and secondary school they will be retained in a grade or drop out of school.
D) there is a lot of pressure on young children to achieve, and universal preschool education does not provide any opportunities to actively construct knowledge

B

136

The theorist _____ (provide the last name only) stated that the psychological stage of childhood was "initiative versus guilt

...

137

The theorist _____(provide the last name only) suggested that children internalize their parents' standards of right and wrong in order to reduce anxiety and avoid punishment

...

138

The theorist _____(provide the last name only) proposed that gender differences result from the contrasting roles of men and women in societies where women have less power and status than men and control fewer resources.

...

139

The theorist _____(provide the last name only) proposed four classifications of parenting, involving combinations of acceptance and responsiveness on one hand and demand and control on the other

...

140

The theorist _____ (provide the last name only) described the three important characteristics of sibling relationships as emotional quality, familiarity and intimacy, and variation.

...

141

In the context of how parents talk with their children about emotions, the _____ approach is taken by parents who monitor their children's emotions, view their children's negative emotions as opportunities for teaching, and assist them in labeling their emotions. (Note the term must be hyphenated.)

...

142

According to Jean Piaget, _____ morality is the first stage of moral development in which children think of justice and rules as unchangeable properties of the world.

...

143

The social _____ theory of gender states that children's gender development occurs through observing and imitating what other people say and do and through being rewarded and punished for gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate behavior

...

144

Nathan's parents are highly involved in his life but place few demands and controls on him. They believe that the combination of warm involvement and few restraints will produce a creative, confident child, so they allow him to do whatever he wants. Nathan's parents practice what Diana Baumrind would call _____ parenting

...

145

_____ is the name for the parenting technique for handling misbehavior in children that is characterized by removing the child from a setting that offers positive reinforcement? (Note the term must be hyphenated.)

...

146

_____ is the term for the support that parents provide one another in jointly raising a child.

...

147

In the context of the types of children's play, _____ play combines sensorimotor/practice play with symbolic representation and occurs when children engage in the self-regulated creation of a product or a solution.

...

148

According to Erik Erikson, the psychosocial stage that characterizes early childhood is

A) initiative versus guilt.
B) autonomy versus shame and doubt.
C) industry versus inferiority.
D) trust versus mistrust.

...

149

According to Erik Erikson, the great governor of initiative is

A) conscience.
B) independence.
C) fear.
D) obedience

...

150

In Erikson's portrait of early childhood, the young child clearly has begun to develop _____, which is the representation of self, the substance, and content of self-conceptions.

A) self-control
B) self-confidence
C) self-understanding
D) self-centeredness

...

151

Four-year-old Harlan says, "I'm always happy!" Researchers suggest that Harlan, like other kids his age, has self-descriptions that are typically

  1. A) reflective of reality.
    B) reflective of what others think about them.
    C) abstract and magical.
    D) unrealistically positive.

...

152

_____ especially plays a key role in children's ability to manage the demands and conflicts they face in interacting with others. It is an important component of executive function.

A) Moral integrity
B) Emotion regulation
C) Moral development
D) Independence

...

153

Hans feels ashamed when his parents say, "You should feel bad about biting your sister!" To experience a _____ emotion like shame, Hans must be able to refer to himself as distinct from others.

A) social
B) self-conscious
C) penitent
D) sympathetic

...

154

In the context of expressing emotions, at what age does self-awareness occur?

A) at 2 months of age
B) at 6 months of age
C) at 12 months of age
D) at 18 months of age

...

155

Brianna is extremely upset because she got scolded by her teacher. Her mother decides to facilitate an open discussion about what happened and why Brianna is upset to help her figure out how to deal with the negative emotions. Her mother's approach of talking to Brianna about her emotions indicates that Brianna's mother is a(n)

A) emotion-dismissing parent.
B) authoritarian parent.
C) emotion-coaching parent.
D) indulgent parent.

...

156

_____ parents interact with their children in a less rejecting manner, use more scaffolding and praise, and are more nurturant than are emotion-dismissing parents.

A) Emotion-dismissing
B) Emotion-facilitating
C) Emotion-coaching
D) Emotion-encouraging

...

157

The children of _____ parents are better at soothing themselves when they get upset, are more effective in regulating their negative affect, focus their attention better, and have fewer behavior problems than the children of emotion-dismissing parents.

A) emotion-coaching
B) emotion-facilitator
C) emotion-encouraging
D) emotion-independent

...

158

Developmental psychologists describe Jennifer as an emotion-dismissing parent to her son. Which of the following actions is Jennifer most likely to display?

A) Jennifer will praise her son when he performs a task well.
B) Jennifer will try to change her son's negative emotions.
C) Jennifer will use scaffolding to interact with her son.
D) Jennifer will assist her son in labeling emotions.

...

159

Barbara monitors her children's emotions. Her daughter is upset because she got reprimanded by her teacher. Barbara initially ignores her daughter's lamentations but then decides to try to change her daughter's emotions by saying that everyone gets reprimanded and that it is not a big deal. Barbara's approach of talking to her daughter about her negative emotions indicates that Barbara is a(n)

A) indulgent parent.
B) emotion-dismissing parent.
C) emotion-coaching parent.
D) authoritarian parent.

...

160

Marjorie's son places last in a running race in his school. This makes him upset. He comes home and tells his mother about the result of the competition. His mother initially ignores him, thinking that he will stop thinking about the competition. Later, when she sees that her son is still upset, she tries to distract him from the negative emotion by trying to change it. Marjorie's way of talking to her son about his negative emotions indicates that Marjorie is a(n)

A) emotion-coaching parent.
B) authoritarian parent.
C) emotion-dismissing parent.
D) indulgent parent.

...

161

A recent study found that young children who were more skilled in emotion regulation were

  1. A) more popular with their peers.
    B) less popular with adults.
    C) less likely to have experienced secure attachment.
    D) more likely candidates for truancy in adolescence.

...

162

Toddlers' lower emotional competence has been linked in a recent study to

  1. A) emotion-dismissing mothers.
    B) the poor emotion-coaching of fathers.
    C) the emotion-dismissing behaviors of grandparents.
    D) a lack of emotion-coaching from peers.

...

163

Which of the following involves thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding rules and conventions about what people should do in their interactions with other people?

A) immanent justice
B) superego
C) moral development
D) pragmatism

...

164

According to Freud, the moral element of personality is called the

A) id.
B) superid.
C) ego.
D) superego

...

165

Which of the following aspects of moral development most likely involves anxiety and guilt?

A) moral reasoning
B) moral thoughts
C) moral behavior
D) moral feelings

...

166

According to Freud, to reduce anxiety, avoid punishment, and maintain parental affection, children identify with parents, internalizing their standards of right and wrong, thus forming the

  1. A) alter ego.
    B)
    C) superego.
    D) id.

...

167

Which of the following terms refers to responding to another person's feelings with an emotion that echoes the other's feelings?

A) anxiety
B) empathy
C) coaching
D) modeling

...

168

When her mother asks Selena why she feels so sad, Selena says it is because her best friend just lost her puppy. Selena is exhibiting

A) guilt.
B) empathy.
C) correspondence.
D) a lack of perspective taking.

...

169

The ability to discern another's inner psychological state is known as

A) correspondence.
B) congruence.
C) perspective taking.
D) nurturance.

...

170

Which of the following is the first stage of Piaget's theory of moral development?

A) autonomous morality
B) initiative versus guilt
C) heteronomous morality
D) autonomy versus shame and doubt

...

171

From about _____ years of age, children display heteronomous morality.

A) 1 to 3
B) 2 to 4
C) 4 to 7
D) 10 to 12

...

172

Susan, a 5-year-old, thinks of justice and rules as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people. In the context of Jean Piaget’s theory of moral development, Susan is most likely in the stage of moral reasoning known as

A) heteronomous morality.
B) empathy.
C) autonomous morality.
D) sympathy.

...

173

According to Piaget's theory, from _____ years of age, children are in a transition, showing some features of the first stage of moral reasoning and some features of the second stage, autonomous morality.

A) 1 to 4
B) 4 to 7
C) 7 to 10
D) 10 to 12

...

174

At about _____ years of age and older, children show autonomous morality.

A) 4
B) 5
C) 7
D) 10

...

175

Jerome, 6, and Hani, 10, get up early on Saturday morning to make "breakfast in bed" for their mother. While reaching for the bed tray in the back of the hall cabinet, they accidentally break their mother's favorite porcelain doll. Jerome knows that he's going to get into "big trouble." Hani tells him not to worry and that their mom would understand that it was an accident. In what stage would Jean Piaget categorize the moral reasoning of Jerome and Hani?

A) Jerome—autonomous morality; Hani—heteronomous morality
B) Jerome—heteronomous morality; Hani—autonomous morality
C) Jerome—universal law morality; Hani—context-specific morality
D) Jerome—context-specific morality; Hani—universal law morality

...

176

Ben, a 12-year-old, judges the rightness or goodness of behavior by considering its consequences, not the intentions of the actor. In the context of Jean Piaget’s theory of moral development, Ben will most likely be classified as a(n)

A) autonomous moralist.
B) heteronomous moralist.
C) pragmatist.
D) authoritarian.

...

177

Julie believes that Jason's accidental act of breaking 12 plates is worse than Peter intentionally breaking two plates. Julie can be best described as a(n)

A) moral autonomist.
B) gender-typed individual.
C) empathic thinker.
D) heteronomous moralist.

...

178

Dante is a 10-year-old boy who likes to play soccer during recess. One day, a friend teaches him a different set of rules about the game. Dante accepts the rules and now plays soccer in a new way. Dante is in which stage of moral development?

A) autonomous morality
B) heteronomous morality
C) basic morality
D) extended morality

...

179

Katrina, a 6-year-old, becomes extremely upset when her brother tries to change the rules of their game and yells, "You can't do that! You can't change rules!" Which of the following types of moral reasoning is Katrina exhibiting?

  1. A) autonomous morality
    B) heteronomous morality
    C) peer-negotiated morality
    D) immanent justice morality

...

180

In the context of Jean Piaget’s theory of moral development, which of the following is a characteristic of children showing heteronomous morality?

A) They believe intentions are more important than consequences when judging behavior.
B) They think of justice as an unchangeable property of the world.
C) They are nonbelievers of the concept of immanent justice.
D) They are aware that rules and laws are created by people.

...

181

Older children, who are _____, recognize that punishment occurs only if someone witnesses the wrongdoing and that even then, punishment is not inevitable.

A) moral autonomists
B) empathic thinkers
C) gender-typed
D) heteronomous thinkers

...

182

Maria believes that if a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately. In the context of Jean Piaget’s theory of moral development, this scenario indicates that Maria believes in the concept of

A) immanent justice.
B) restorative justice.
C) reciprocal socialization.
D) egocentrism.

...

183

Piaget concluded that the changes in moral reasoning in children come about through

  1. A) authoritative parent-child relations.
    B) religious and social conditioning.
    C) the children's family experiences.
    D) the mutual give-and-take of peer relations.

...

184

According to Jean Piaget, parent-child relations are less likely to advance moral reasoning than peer relations because

A) parents are inconsistent in delivering the consequences for broken rules.
B) peers are less likely to allow negotiation and reasoning about broken rules.
C) parents often hand down rules in an authoritarian way.
D) peer groups immediately mete out punishments for rule breaking.

...

185

Which of the following approaches holds that the processes of reinforcement, punishment, and imitation explain the development of moral behavior?

A) Freud's psychoanalytic approach
B) the evolutionary psychology approach
C) the behavioral and social cognitive approach
D) the biological approach

...

186

Twice each month, Gini helps to serve dinner at the "Community Table," a program that assists homeless people in the town. She brings her two children (aged 9and 11)with her and talks to them about the need to share time, food, and kindness with others who are less fortunate. Social cognitive theorists would say that Gini's children

A) are likely to develop moral behavior that includes helping others.
B) are not likely to be impacted by this, as their moral behavior is modeled on peers, not parents.
C) will not benefit from these experiences until they are teens.
D) will fail to model their behavior ontheir mother's unless they see some reward in it.

...

187

_____ involves a sense of one's own gender, including knowledge, understanding, and acceptance of being a girl/woman, boy/man, another gender, or no gender.

A) Gender role
B) Gender typing
C) Gender identity
D) Gender labeling

...

188

Sets of expectations that prescribe how females and males should think, act, and feel are known as gender

A) roles.
B) identities.
C) expectancies.
D) rules.

...

189

Meena is a 3-year-old. She is aware that she is a girl and understands and accepts being a female. This indicates that Meena is conscious of her

A) gender neutrality.
B) gender identity.
C) ethnicity.
D) socioeconomic status.

...

190

Gender _____ refers to acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role.

A) acquisition
B) reflection
C) typing
D) acceptance

...

191

Social role theory suggests that

A) a social hierarchy and division of labor are important causes of gender differences in power, assertiveness, and nurturing.
B) the mother role and the father role are social constructions that have emerged from our evolutionary past.
C) social roles are chosen, not determined.
D) nature is the primary determinant of differences between the social labels that we call "gender."

...

192

The _____ of gender stems from the view that a preschool child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent.

A) psychoanalytic theory
B) social cognitive theory
C) evolutionary psychology view
D) social role theory

...

193

The psychoanalytic theory of gender stems from Freud's view that a preschool child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent. Which of the following refers tothis condition in girls?

A) the Galatea effect
B) the Electra complex
C) the Golem effect
D) the Oedipus complex

...

194

According to Freud, preschool boys develop a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent in a process called the

A) Oedipus complex.
B) Electra complex.
C) Pygmalion effect.
D) Golem effect.

...

195

From a young age, Karen has always been praised by her parents for her feminine behavior. Her parents reward her behavior by saying such statements as "Karen, you look very pretty in your frock." Her brother, on the other hand, is reprimanded for playing with Karen's dolls. In the context of social influences on gender development, this scenario is in accordance with the _____ of gender.

A) psychoanalytic theory
B) social cognitive theory
C) gender schema theory
D) social role theory

...

196

According to a research review by Bronstein (2006), which of the following statements is true of parental influences on children's gender development?

A) Mothers socialize their sons to be more obedient and responsible than their daughters.
B) Mothers place more restrictions on sons’ autonomy than on daughters’.
C) Fathers engage in more activities with their daughters than with their sons.
D) Fathers put more effort into promote sons’ intellectual development than daughters’

...

197

Who among the following is most likely to be rejected by peers based on conformation to gender roles?

A) a little girl in boy's clothing
B) a little boy playing with a doll
C) a little boy playing with a toy truck
D) a little girl carrying a baseball mitt

...

198

Around the age of _____, children already show a preference forspending time with same-sex playmates.

A) 1
B) 1½
C) 2
D) 3

...

199

Children between the ages of 4 and 12 usually prefer to play in groups that are made up of

A) mixed ages.
B) the same sex as theirs.
C) both boys and girls.
D) children from their own socioeconomic status.

...

200

In the context of the size of same-sex groups of children, from about 5 years of age onward

A) boys are more likely to associate together in larger clusters than girls are.
B) girls are more likely to engage in rough-and-tumble play than boys.
C) girls are more likely to participate in organized group games than boys are.
D) boys are more likely than girls to play in dyads or triads.

...

201

According to research on how gender influences children's friendship groups (Maccoby, 1998, 2002), which of the following statements is true of how boys and girls interact in same-sex groups?

A) Girls are more likely to act in a reciprocal manner.
B) Boys are more likely to avoid rough-and-tumble play.
C) Girls are more likely to engage in ego display.
D) Boys are more likely to engage in collaborative discourse.

...

202

A _____ is a cognitive structure, a network of associations that guides an individual's perceptions.

A) format
B) schema
C) subset
D) system

...

203

A gender _____ organizes the world in terms of female and male.

A) role
B) identity
C) bias
D) schema

...

204

Children are internally motivated to perceive the world and to act in accordance with their developing

A) preferences.
B) schemas.
C) roles.
D) orientations.

...

205

Bit by bit, children pick up what is gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate in their culture and develop gender _____ that shape how they perceive the world and what they remember.

A) identities
B) roles
C) schemas
D) types

...

206

Which of the following fuels gender typing?

A) gender schema

B) gender identity

C) gender bias
D) gender mismatch

...

207

Who of the following is most likely to engage in gender-stereotyping, according to the latest research?

A) a 3-year old boy
B) a 7-year old boy
C) a 6-year old girl
D) an 8-year old girl

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208

Suzie, aged 3, must eat everything on her plate at dinner. When she does not, her father punishes her by sending her to bed without dinner the next day. Suzie also has strict schedules for playing, watching television, and studying, and any disobedience leads to spanking and punishment. Suzie's father is most likely a(n)

A) authoritarian parent.
B) authoritative parent.
C) indulgent parent.
D) neglectful parent.

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209

Juan, a father of two, tells his children, "In my house, my word is the law." He spanks his children frequently when they do not follow his rules. His children are fearful of Juan and try their best to avoid him when he is around. In the context of Diana Baumrind’s parenting styles, Juan is best classified as a(n)

A) authoritarian parent.
B) authoritative parent.
C) indulgent parent.
D) neglectful parent.

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210

A parent who uses a restrictive, punitive style to control the behavior of his or her children is a(n)

A) authoritarian parent.
B) authoritative parent.
C) indulgent parent.
D) neglectful parent.

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211

Lucy frequently spanks her children, enforces rigid household rules, and exhibits rage toward them when those rules are broken. Her children are unhappy and have weak communication skills. Lucy also pressures them to eat when they are already full. In the context of Diana Baumrind’s parenting styles, Lucy is most likely a(n)

A) authoritarian parent.
B) authoritative parent.
C) indulgent parent.
D) neglectful parent.

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212

A parent who encourages his or her children to be independent but still places limits and controls on their actions is a(n)

A) authoritarian parent.
B) authoritative parent.
C) indulgent parent.
D) neglectful parent.

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213

Logan is a warm and loving parent, but he also has high expectations of his kids. As Logan encourages independent and age-appropriate behavior from his children, Baumrind would classify him as a(n)

A) authoritarian parent.
B) authoritative parent.
C) indulgent parent.
D) neglectful parent.

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214

Ursula can set her own schedules for playtime and for studying. Her mother drives her to her ballet classes and soccer practice. However, Ursula needs to keep her grades up and must go to bed early on most weeknights. Ursula's mom is most likely a(n)

A) authoritarian parent.
B) authoritative parent.
C) indulgent parent.
D) neglectful parent.

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215

In the context of Diana Baumrind’s parenting styles, children of authoritative parents differ from children of authoritarian parents in that children of authoritative parents

A) cope poorly with stress.
B) are more anxious about comparing themselves to others.
C) are more achievement-oriented.
D) are more likely to be overweight or obese.

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216

According to Baumrind, a parent who is uninvolved in a child's life, showing neither responsiveness nor control, is displaying a(n) _____ parenting style.

A) authoritarian
B) authoritative
C) indulgent
D) neglectful

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217

According to Baumrind, a parent who is highly involved with his/her children but places few demands or controls on them is displaying a(n) _____ parenting style.

A) authoritarian
B) authoritative
C) indulgent
D) neglectful

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218

Josh's mother makes his favorite food—burgers, fries, and pizza—every night for dinner. His mother lets Josh play as much as he wants to and study only when he feels like it, and she imposes no fixed bedtime. Josh's mom is most likely a(n)

A) authoritarian parent.
B) authoritative parent.
C) indulgent parent.
D) neglectful parent.

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219

Bernard brought home his report card and placed it on the television set. Bernard told his dad that he was required to take the card back to school tomorrow with the signature of one of his parents. Bernard's dad told him to move out of the way, as he could not see the television set. The next morning, Bernard found his report card where he had left it the previous day and it was unsigned. He signed his dad's name and put it in his backpack. Bernard's dad is most likely a(n)

A) authoritarian parent.
B) authoritative parent.
C) indulgent parent.
D) neglectful parent.

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220

Misha was sent to his room for hitting his baby sister. Later, his mother talks to him about why he cannot treat his sister this way and about other, more acceptable ways for him to express his anger. Which parenting style does this exemplify?

  1. A) authoritarian parenting
    B) authoritative parenting
    C) indulgent parenting
    D) neglectful parenting

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221

In which parenting style do parents show pleasure and support in response to children's constructive behavior?

  1. A) authoritarian parenting
    B) authoritative parenting
    C) indulgent parenting
    D) neglectful parenting

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222

Which parenting style could lead to social incompetence, truancy, and delinquency in children?

A) authoritarian parenting
B) authoritative parenting
C) indulgent parenting
D) neglectful parenting

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223

Which parenting style leads to egocentric, domineering, and noncompliant behavior in children?

  1. A) authoritarian parenting
    B) authoritative parenting
    C) indulgent parenting
    D) neglectful parenting

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224

Which parenting style is demanding and controlling while also being accepting and responsive?

A) authoritarian parenting
B) indulgent parenting
C) authoritative parenting
D) neglectful parenting

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225

In the context of Diana Baumrind’s parenting styles, which of the following is a characteristic of parents following an indulgent parenting style?

A) They let their children do what they want.
B) They are uninvolved in their children’s lives.
C) They allow little verbal exchange and place firm limits on their children.
D) They show pleasure in response to their children's constructive behavior.

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226

Which parenting style is undemanding and uncontrolling but also rejecting and unresponsive?

A) authoritarian parenting
B) indulgent parenting
C) authoritative parenting
D) neglectful parenting

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227

Which parenting style is demanding and controlling while also being rejecting and unresponsive?

A) authoritarian parenting
B) indulgent parenting
C) authoritative parenting
D) neglectful parenting

...

228

Which parenting style is undemanding and uncontrolling but is also accepting and responsive?

A) authoritarian parenting
B) indulgent parenting
C) authoritative parenting
D) neglectful parenting

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229

Research conducted by Ruth Chao suggests that

A) the high control of Asian parents is best conceptualized as "training" and is distinct from the domineering control characteristic of an authoritarian style of parenting.
B) "authoritarian" parenting is "authoritarian" parenting, whether the parent is Asian American, African American, or European American.
C) contrary to stereotypes, Asian parents are indulgent and permissive.
D) consistent with stereotypes, Asian parents are domineering and controlling and have rigid/unrealistic expectations for academic achievement in their children

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230

According to most child psychologists, which of the following is an effective way of handling a child's misbehavior?

A) mild spanking that would not hurt the child
B) time out, in which the child is removed from a setting that offers positive reinforcement
C) shouting at the child just enough to get the point across
D) instilling rigid household rules and meting out severe corporal punishment if those rules are broken

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231

Four-year-old Becky has just hit her sister again. According to most developmental psychologists, Becky's mother should

A) spank Becky; she is too young to understand reasoning.
B) explain to Becky that "hitting hurts"; she is old enough to understand the consequences of her behavior for others.
C) send Becky to bed without dinner; she is too young to understand reasoning.
D) spank Becky; she is old enough to understand the consequences of her behavior and would expect to be punished accordingly.

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232

Which of the following is true about the controversy over the effects of punishment on children's development?

  1. A) It remains difficult to determine whether the effects of physical punishment are harmful to children’s development.
    B) Research on punishment is monodirectional in nature, making it easy to discover causal factors.
    C) A minority of leading experts on parenting conclude that physical punishment has harmful effects on children and should not be used.
    D) The defenders of spanking have produced evidence that spanking produces positive outcomes for children.

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233

Tom and Katie have recently split up, but for the benefit of their child, they attempt to provide one another support in jointly raising their child. This is an example of

A) joint parenting.
B) cooperative parenting.
C) collaborative parenting.
D) coparenting.

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234

The public and many professionals use the term child abuse to refer to both abuse and neglect; developmentalists, however, increasingly use the term

  1. A) child neglect.
    B) child maltreatment.
    C) child battery.
    D) child assault.

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235

Punching, beating, kicking, biting, burning, and shaking a child constitute

A) verbal abuse.
B) sexual abuse.
C) child neglect.
D) physical abuse

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236

In the context of child maltreatment, which of the following would most likely constitute child neglect?

A) beating a child
B) allowing chronic truancy
C) commercial exploitation of a child
D) fondling a child's genitals

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237

Damian's parents fail to provide for his basic needs; he is often unfed and dirty when he gets to school. This constitutes

A) physical abuse.
B) mental injury.
C) child neglect.
D) child inattention.

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238

Nine-year-old Tadako's uncle has been taking pictures of her naked body and selling them on the Internet. This constitutes

A) verbal abuse.
B) sexual abuse.
C) child neglect.
D) physical abuse.

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239

In 2018, what percentage of maltreated children were physically abused?

A) 11 percent
B) 31 percent
C) 51 percent
D) 71 percent

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240

Eight-year-old Sara's mom has repeatedly called her fat and worthless, which has caused Sara to become withdrawn at home and in school. These actions are best characterized as

A) child neglect.
B) sexual abuse.
C) emotional abuse.
D) child assault

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241

Which of the following is true about childhood maltreatment?

A) Two-thirds of parents who are abused go on to abuse their own children.
B) Childhood maltreatment can be caused by a single factor.
C) Violence on television does not impact the violence we see in families.
D) Parenting stress, substance abuse, social isolation, single parenting, and socioeconomic difficulties all may contribute to childhood maltreatment.

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242

Laurie Kramer, who has conducted a number of research studies on siblings, says that

A) it is best to not intervene in sibling conflict and to allow the siblings to work it out on their own.
B) it is best to let sibling conflicts escalate so that children learn coping strategies to handle anger and disagreement with peers.
C) intervening and helping children resolve sibling conflict isnot a good strategy.
D) not intervening and letting sibling conflict escalate isnot a good strategy.

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243

Which of the following is true of the characteristics of sibling relationships as described by Judy Dunn?

A) There is no observable variation in sibling relationships.
B) Most siblings report that they do not really know each other very well.
C) There is considerable variation in sibling relationships.
D) Most children have predominantly negative feelings toward their siblings

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244

In the context of birth order, research indicates that firstborn children are _____ than later-born children.

A) more rebellious
B) less self-controlled
C) less helpful
D) more adult-oriented

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245

Why do many researchers think that birth-order influences on child development have been emphasized too strongly?

A) There are no clear patterns of birth-order influences on personality.
B) With continued study on birth-order influences, the findings are bound to create self-fulfilling prophecies that will perpetuate birth order.
C) The patterns of birth-order influences that scientists describe are largely speculation and are not based on evidence.
D) Birth order by itself shows limited ability to predict behavior when all the factors that influence behavior are considered.

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246

Which of the following is true of how parents' work affects the development of their children?

A) The nature of parents’ work has more influence on children’s development than whether a parent works outside the home.
B) Children of working mothers are less likely to develop a secure attachment to their parents.
C) Children (especially girls) of working mothers engage in more gender stereotyping.
D) Whether one or both parents work outside the home is critical to children's development.

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247

In the context of working parents, a consistent finding is that in contrast to children whose mothers are not employed outside the home, children of working mothers

A) have more egalitarian views of gender.
B) engage in more gender stereotyping.
C) are more stressed and demanding.
D) enjoy more free time

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248

Maribel works as a housekeeper at a hotel. She has no autonomy in her work, works long hours, and feels quite stressed by her job. Kim is a lawyer who works long hours but has control over her work and a great office environment. Ann Crouter would say that

A) Kim's children are likely to experience less effective parenting than Maribel's children.
B) Maribel's children are likely to experience less effective parenting than Kim's children.
C) both Maribel's and Kim's children are likely to do poorly in school.
D) neither Maribel's nor Kim's children will be negatively affected by their mothers' jobs.

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249

Which of the following is true of children in divorced families?

A) Most children in divorced families have a harder time adjusting than those from nondivorced families.
B) Divorces inevitably impair children's ability to adapt to difficulties in their lives.
C) Competent children cannot be raised in single-parent families.
D) Children in divorced families are no more likely than children in nondivorced families to have academic problems.

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250

Bernice is raised by two lesbian mothers, whereas Jessica is raised by a heterosexual couple. According to research, in the absence of other factors it is most likely that

A) Bernice is more popular than Jessica, whereas Jessica is more psychologically adjusted than Bernice.
B) Bernice and Jessica are the same with regard to popularity and mental health.
C) Bernice will have a homosexual orientation; Jessica will have a heterosexual orientation.
D) both will grow up and marry men, but Bernice is more likely to get divorced.

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251

The overwhelming majority of children from gay or lesbian families

A) are also homosexual.
B) have a heterosexual orientation.
C) are likely to be bisexual.
D) grow up confused about their sexual orientation

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252

In contrast withlower-socioeconomic status parents, higher-socioeconomic status parents

  1. A) are less directive and more conversational with their children.
    B) are more concerned that their children conform to society’s expectations.
    C) use physical punishment more in disciplining their children.
    D) are more likely to create a home atmosphere with an authoritarian style of parenting.

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253

Which of the following is the essence of the "deficit model" in the study of ethnic differences in parenting and child development?

A) Children and adolescents in ethnic minority groups have been inherently challenged and overwhelmed by stressors.
B) Children and adolescents in ethnic minority groups have only thrived and prospered in the face of adversity.
C) Children and adolescents in ethnic minority groups have not endured the same disadvantages as native-born children.
D) Researchers of ethnic backgrounds joined the study of child development and parenting far later than their native-born oriented peers.

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254

All of the following factors determine whether and how ethnic minority families deal with stress, EXCEPT

A) the parents' immigration status.
B) the time spent in the United States.
C) the family's socioeconomic status.
D) the family's political affiliation in their country of origin.

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255

Which of the following is most likely a function performed bya child's peer group that would bedifficult for a sibling to perform?

A) having a same-sex friend
B) getting a chance to share intimate feelings
C) providing comparison on how the child compares with other children of the same age
D) giving a view of what the world looks like from another person's perspective

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256

Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson considered play to be valuable because

A) it helps a child master anxieties and conflicts.
B) it advances a child's cognitive development.
C) it helps children satisfy their need for mastery over their environment.
D) it allows children to interact with their peers.

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257

Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky considered play to be valuable because

A) it helps children release tension.
B) it advances children's cognitive development.
C) it helps children satisfy their need for mastery over their environment.
D) it allows children to interact with their peers.

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258

Which statement best summarizes Daniel Berlyne's views about children's play?

A) Play is important for developing motor skills and coordination.
B) Play is important only because it occupies children during times when they are not learning more important things.
C) Children use play to digest past experiences and to derive meaning from what has happened to them.
D) Children use play to explore new things to satisfy their natural curiosity about the world.

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259

_____ play, which can be engaged in throughout life, involves the repetition of behavior when new skills are being learned or when physical or mental mastery and coordination of skills are required for games or sports.

A) Pretense
B) Practice
C) Social
D) Sensorimotor

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260

In the context of the types of children’s play, identify a true statement about practice play.

A) Practice play primarily involves social interactions with peers.
B) Practice play is confined to infancy as children learn to transform objects.
C) Practice play occurs when a child transforms the physical environment into a symbol.
D) Practice play can be engaged in throughout life.

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261

In the context of the types of children’s play, identify a true statement about pretense play.

  1. A) In this type of play, children transform the physical environment into a symbol.
    B) This type of play often appears at about 7 months of age.
    C) In this type of play, children refuse to share their pretend play with peers.
    D) In this type of play, children transform people and act toward them as if they were other people.

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262

In the context of the types of children’s play, the play in which infants engage in exploratory and playful visual and motor transactions in the second quarter of the first year of life is known as

A) practice play.
B) sensorimotor play.
C) social play.
D) constructive play.

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263

In the context of the types of children’s play, which of the following is a form of play that occurs when children engage in the self-regulated creation of a product or a solution?

  1. A) constructive play
    B) games
    C) collective play
    D) social play

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264

In the context of the types of children’s play, which of the following is most likely a characteristic of constructive play?

A) It involves deriving pleasure from exercising sensorimotor schemes.
B) It increases in the preschool years, as symbolic play increases and sensorimotor play decreases.
C) It involves interaction with peers.
D) It leads to children transforming objects and acting toward them as if they were other objects.

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265

Which of the following refers to activities engaged in for pleasure that include rules and often involve competition with one or more individuals?

A) symbolic play
B) role-play
C) constructive play
D) games

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266

A meta-analysis of studies in 14 countries (Mares & Pan, 2013) found that children's shows such as Sesame Street

  1. A) produced positive outcomes in the area of social reasoning.
    B) were detrimental to children learning positive social interchange.
    C) were good electronic babysitters but not good at teaching any skills.
    D) led to negative attitudes toward outgroups.

...