##### Chapter 3

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1

Photon

• the smallest quantity of any type of energy
• it contains no charge or mass
• in waveform or sine wave
2

another name of photon is

electromagnetic energy

3

Quantum

bundle of energy

4
1. Draw a sine wave and label crest, valley, amplitude and wavelength Valley is also called trough

5

What is common among all the electromagnetic

All travel at the speed of light

6

What is the velocity of all electromagnetic radiation

3x108m/s

7

Wavelength distance from one crest to another

8

Amplitude of a wave

one half of the range from crest to valley

9

Frequency of a wave

Number of wavelengths that pass a point of
observation per second
Shorter the wavelength, higher the frequency

10

Explain the relationship between wavelength and frequency.

They are inversely propotional

11

wave equation

Wavelength= velocity/frequency

V=f λ

12

electromagnetic wave equation

C=fλ

13

What is the relationship between the energy of a photon and its frequency?

Energy of a photon is directly proportional to its frequency

• Higher the frequency, higher the energy
• Higher the frequency higher the penetration.
• Shorter the wavelength, higher the frequency
• Shorter the wavelength, higher the penetration.
14

is diagnostic ultrasound a part of the electromagnetic spectrum?

No

• Ultrasound is a wave of moving molecules
• Doesn’t have constant velocity
15

Refraction Although photons of visible light travel in straight lines, their course can be deviated when they passed from one transparent medium to another this deviation in line of travel

16

Wave Particle Duality

• Visible-light photons tend to behave more like waves than particles
• even though it is electromagnetic it can behave like particles in waves sometimes
• Ex. x-ray
17

Structures that absorb x-rays

Like bone
Structures that transmit x-rays

Like soft tissue

18

Objects absorb light in three degrees

• Not at all (transmission)
• Partially (attenuation)
• Completely (absorption)
19

Inverse square law The inverse square law describes the relationship between radiation intensity and distance from the radiation source.

Can be applied to distances greater than 7 times the longest dimension of the source

20

Planck’s quantum theory

The energy of a photon is directly proportional to its frequency

E = hf

21

Relativity theory

(E = MCC)

E equal MC2

22

Attenuation

the change of energy in radiation as it passes through body

23

Gamma Rays

linear acceleration make it possible to produce xray or gamma rays to treat cancer cells