Anatomy and Physiology final Flashcards


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1

Together, just four elements make up more than 95 percent of the body’s mass. These include ________.

a. calcium, magnesium, iron, and carbon
b. oxygen, calcium, iron, and nitrogen
c. sodium, chlorine, carbon, and hydrogen
d. oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen

oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen

2

The smallest unit of an element that still retains the
distinctive behavior of that element is an ________.
a. electron
b. atom
c. elemental particle
d. isotope

atom

3

The characteristic that gives an element its distinctive
properties is its number of ________.
a. protons
b. neutrons
c. electrons
d. atoms

protons

4

Which of the following is a molecule, but not a
compound?
a. H2O
b. 2H
c. H2
d. H+

H2

5

A molecule of ammonia contains one atom of nitrogen
and three atoms of hydrogen. These are linked with
________.
a. ionic bonds
b. nonpolar covalent bonds
c. polar covalent bonds
d. hydrogen bonds

polar covalent bonds

6

When an atom donates an electron to another atom, it
becomes
a. an ion
b. an anion
c. nonpolar
d. all of the above

an ion

7

A substance formed of crystals of equal numbers of
cations and anions held together by ionic bonds is called
a(n) ________.
a. noble gas
b. salt
c. electrolyte
d. dipole

salt

8

Which of the following statements about chemical
bonds is true?
a. Covalent bonds are stronger than ionic bonds.
b. Hydrogen bonds occur between two atoms of
hydrogen.
c. Bonding readily occurs between nonpolar and
polar molecules.
d. A molecule of water is unlikely to bond with an
ion.

covalent bonds are stronger than ionic bonds

9

The energy stored in a foot of snow on a steep roof is
________.
a. potential energy
b. kinetic energy
c. radiant energy
d. activation energy

potential energy

10

The bonding of calcium, phosphorus, and other
elements produces mineral crystals that are found in bone.
This is an example of a(n) ________ reaction.
a. catabolic
b. synthesis
c. decomposition
d. exchange

synthesis

11

AB → A + B is a general notation for a(n) ________
reaction.
a. anabolic
b. endergonic
c. decomposition
d. exchange

decomposition

12

________ reactions release energy.
a. Catabolic
b. Exergonic
c. Decomposition
d. Catabolic, exergonic, and decomposition

catabolic, exergonic, and decomposition

13

Which of the following combinations of atoms is most
likely to result in a chemical reaction?
a. hydrogen and hydrogen
b. hydrogen and helium
c. helium and helium
d. neon and helium

hydrogen and hydrogen

14

Chewing a bite of bread mixes it with saliva and
facilitates its chemical breakdown. This is most likely due to the fact that ________.
a. the inside of the mouth maintains a very high
temperature
b. chewing stores potential energy
c. chewing facilitates synthesis reactions
d. saliva contains enzymes

saliva contains enzymes

15

CH4 is methane. This compound is ________.
a. inorganic
b. organic
c. reactive
d. a crystal

organic

16

Which of the following is most likely to be found
evenly distributed in water in a homogeneous solution?
a. sodium ions and chloride ions
b. NaCl molecules
c. salt crystals
d. red blood cells

sodium ions and chloride ions

17

Jenny mixes up a batch of pancake batter, then stirs in
some chocolate chips. As she is waiting for the first few
pancakes to cook, she notices the chocolate chips sinking to
the bottom of the clear glass mixing bowl. The chocolate chip
batter is an example of a ________.
a. solvent
b. solute
c. solution
d. suspension

suspension

18

A substance dissociates into K+ and Cl- in solution.
The substance is a(n) ________.
a. acid
b. base
c. salt
d. buffer

salt

19

Ty is three years old and as a result of a "stomach bug"
has been vomiting for about 24 hours. His blood pH is 7.48.
What does this mean?
a. Ty's blood is slightly acidic.
b. Ty's blood is slightly alkaline.
c. Ty's blood is highly acidic.
d. Ty's blood is within the normal range

Ty's blood is lightly alkaline

20

What organic compound do brain cells primarily rely
on for fuel?
a. glucose
b. glycogen
c. galactose
d. glycerol

glucose

21

Which of the following is a functional group that is part
of a building block of proteins?
a. phosphate
b. adenine
c. amino
d. ribose

amino

22

A pentose sugar is a part of the monomer used to build
which type of macromolecule?
a. polysaccharides
b. nucleic acids
c. phosphorylated glucose
d. glycogen

nucleic acids

23

A phospholipid ________.
a. has both polar and nonpolar regions
b. is made up of a triglyceride bonded to a
phosphate group
c. is a building block of ATP
d. can donate both cations and anions in solutio

has both polar and nonpolar regions

24

In DNA, nucleotide bonding forms a compound with a
characteristic shape known as a(n) ________.
a. beta chain
b. pleated sheet
c. alpha helix
d. double helix

double helix

25

The ability of an enzyme's active sites to bind only
substrates of compatible shape and charge is known as
________.
a. selectivity
b. specificity
c. subjectivity
d. specialty

specifity

26

Uracil __________ .
a. contains nitrogen
b. is a pyrimidine
c. is found in RNA
d. all of the above

all of the above

27

The diffusion of substances within a solution tends to move those substances ________ their ________ gradient.

down, concentration

28

Because they are embedded within the membrane, ion channels are examples of.

integral proteins

29

Choose the answer that best completes the following analogy: Diffusion is to ________ as endocytosis is to ________.

osmosis; pinocytosis

30

Which of the following is a function of the rough ER?
a. production of proteins
b. detoxification of certain substances
c. synthesis of steroid hormones
d. regulation of intracellular calcium concentrations

production of proteins

31

Which type of stem cell gives rise to red and white blood cells?
a. endothelial
b. epithelial
c. hematopoietic
d. mesenchymal

hematopoietic

32

Ion pumps and phagocytosis are both examples of ________.
a. endocytosis
b. passive transport
c. active transport
d. facilitated diffusion

active transport

33

The rough ER has its name due to what associated structures?
a. Golgi apparatus
b. ribosomes
c. lysosomes
d. proteins

ribosomes

34

Transcription and translation take place in the ________ and ________, respectively.
a. nucleus; cytoplasm
b. nucleolus; nucleus
c. nucleolus; cytoplasm
d. cytoplasm; nucleus

necleus; cytoplasm

35

Which of the following is not made out of RNA?
a. the carriers that shuffle amino acids to a growing polypeptide strand
b. the ribosome
c. the messenger molecule that provides the code
for protein synthesis
d. the intron

the ribosome

36

Which of the following is not a difference between DNA and RNA?
a. DNA contains thymine whereas RNA contains uracil
b. DNA contains deoxyribose and RNA contains ribose
c. DNA contains alternating sugar-phosphate molecules whereas RNA does not contain sugars
d. RNA is single stranded and DNA is double
stranded

DNA contains alternating sugar-phosphate molecules whereas RNA does not contain sugars

37

Choose the term that best completes the following analogy: Cytoplasm is to cytosol as a swimming pool containing chlorine and flotation toys is to _____.
a. the walls of the pool
b. the chlorine
c. the flotation toys
d. the water

the water

38

Place the following structures in order from least to most complex organization: chromatin, nucleosome, DNA, chromosome
a. DNA, nucleosome, chromatin, chromosome
b. nucleosome, DNA, chromosome, chromatin
c. DNA, chromatin, nucleosome, chromosome
d. nucleosome, chromatin, DNA, chromosome

DNA, nucleosome, chromatin, chromosome

39

The nucleus and mitochondria share which of the following features?
a. protein-lined membrane pores
b. a double cell membrane
c. the synthesis of ribosomes
d. the production of cellular energy

a double cell membrane

40

Which of the following organelles produces large quantities of ATP when both glucose and oxygen are available to the cell?
a. mitochondria
b. peroxisomes
c. lysosomes
d. ER
a. mitochondria

mitochondria

41

Which of the following structures could be found within the nucleolus?
a. chromatin
b. histones
c. ribosomes
d. nucleosomes

ribosomes

42

Which of the following is a feature common to all three components of the cytoskeleton?
a. They all serve to scaffold the organelles within the cell.
b. They are all characterized by roughly the same diameter.
c. They are all polymers of protein subunits.
d. They all help the cell resist compression and
tension.CGAATATA

they are all polymers of protein subunits.

43

How many "letters" of an RNA molecule, in sequence, does it take to provide the code for a single amino acid?
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4

3

44

Which of the following phases is characterized by preparation for DNA synthesis?
a. G0
b. G1
c. G2
d. S phase

G1

45

A mutation in the gene for a cyclin protein might result in which of the following?
a. a cell with additional genetic material than normal
b. cancer
c. a cell with less genetic material than normal
d. any of the above

any of the above

46

What is a primary function of tumor suppressor genes?
a. stop all cells from dividing
b. stop certain cells from dividing
c. help oncogenes produce oncoproteins
d. allow the cell to skip certain phases of the cell
cycle

stop certain cells from dividing

47

What multipotent stem cells from children sometimes banked by parents?
a. fetal stem cells
b. embryonic stem cells
c. cells from the umbilical cord and from baby teeth d. hematopoietic stem cells from red and white blood cells

cells from the umbilical cord and from baby teeth

48

Four major categories of tissues

Epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue, neural tissue