Together, just four elements make up more than 95 percent of the body’s mass. These include ________.
a. calcium, magnesium, iron, and carbon
b. oxygen, calcium, iron, and nitrogen
c. sodium, chlorine, carbon, and hydrogen
d. oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen
oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen
The smallest unit of an element that still retains
distinctive behavior of that element is an ________.
c. elemental particle
The characteristic that gives an element its
properties is its number of ________.
Which of the following is a molecule, but not
A molecule of ammonia contains one atom of nitrogen
and three atoms of hydrogen. These are linked with
a. ionic bonds
b. nonpolar covalent bonds
c. polar covalent bonds
d. hydrogen bonds
polar covalent bonds
When an atom donates an electron to another atom,
a. an ion
b. an anion
d. all of the above
A substance formed of crystals of equal numbers of
cations and anions held together by ionic bonds is called
a. noble gas
Which of the following statements about chemical
bonds is true?
a. Covalent bonds are stronger than ionic bonds.
b. Hydrogen bonds occur between two atoms of
c. Bonding readily occurs between nonpolar and
d. A molecule of water is unlikely to bond with an
covalent bonds are stronger than ionic bonds
The energy stored in a foot of snow on a steep roof
a. potential energy
b. kinetic energy
c. radiant energy
d. activation energy
The bonding of calcium, phosphorus, and other
elements produces mineral crystals that are found in bone.
This is an example of a(n) ________ reaction.
AB → A + B is a general notation for a(n)
________ reactions release energy.
d. Catabolic, exergonic, and decomposition
catabolic, exergonic, and decomposition
Which of the following combinations of atoms is most
likely to result in a chemical reaction?
a. hydrogen and hydrogen
b. hydrogen and helium
c. helium and helium
d. neon and helium
hydrogen and hydrogen
Chewing a bite of bread mixes it with saliva and
facilitates its chemical breakdown. This is most likely due to the fact that ________.
a. the inside of the mouth maintains a very high
b. chewing stores potential energy
c. chewing facilitates synthesis reactions
d. saliva contains enzymes
saliva contains enzymes
CH4 is methane. This compound is ________.
d. a crystal
Which of the following is most likely to be found
evenly distributed in water in a homogeneous solution?
a. sodium ions and chloride ions
b. NaCl molecules
c. salt crystals
d. red blood cells
sodium ions and chloride ions
Jenny mixes up a batch of pancake batter, then stirs in
some chocolate chips. As she is waiting for the first few
pancakes to cook, she notices the chocolate chips sinking to
the bottom of the clear glass mixing bowl. The chocolate chip
batter is an example of a ________.
A substance dissociates into K+ and Cl- in solution.
The substance is a(n) ________.
Ty is three years old and as a result of a "stomach
has been vomiting for about 24 hours. His blood pH is 7.48.
What does this mean?
a. Ty's blood is slightly acidic.
b. Ty's blood is slightly alkaline.
c. Ty's blood is highly acidic.
d. Ty's blood is within the normal range
Ty's blood is lightly alkaline
What organic compound do brain cells primarily rely
on for fuel?
Which of the following is a functional group that is part
of a building block of proteins?
A pentose sugar is a part of the monomer used to build
which type of macromolecule?
b. nucleic acids
c. phosphorylated glucose
A phospholipid ________.
a. has both polar and nonpolar regions
b. is made up of a triglyceride bonded to a
c. is a building block of ATP
d. can donate both cations and anions in solutio
has both polar and nonpolar regions
In DNA, nucleotide bonding forms a compound with
characteristic shape known as a(n) ________.
a. beta chain
b. pleated sheet
c. alpha helix
d. double helix
The ability of an enzyme's active sites to bind only
substrates of compatible shape and charge is known as
Uracil __________ .
a. contains nitrogen
b. is a pyrimidine
c. is found in RNA
d. all of the above
all of the above
The diffusion of substances within a solution tends to move those substances ________ their ________ gradient.
Because they are embedded within the membrane, ion channels are examples of.
Choose the answer that best completes the following analogy: Diffusion is to ________ as endocytosis is to ________.
Which of the following is a function of the rough ER?
a. production of proteins
b. detoxification of certain substances
c. synthesis of steroid hormones
d. regulation of intracellular calcium concentrations
production of proteins
Which type of stem cell gives rise to red and white blood
Ion pumps and phagocytosis are both examples of ________.
b. passive transport
c. active transport
d. facilitated diffusion
The rough ER has its name due to what associated structures?
a. Golgi apparatus
Transcription and translation take place in the ________ and
a. nucleus; cytoplasm
b. nucleolus; nucleus
c. nucleolus; cytoplasm
d. cytoplasm; nucleus
Which of the following is not made out of RNA?
a. the carriers that shuffle amino acids to a growing polypeptide strand
b. the ribosome
c. the messenger molecule that provides the code
for protein synthesis
d. the intron
Which of the following is not a difference between DNA and
a. DNA contains thymine whereas RNA contains uracil
b. DNA contains deoxyribose and RNA contains ribose
c. DNA contains alternating sugar-phosphate molecules whereas RNA does not contain sugars
d. RNA is single stranded and DNA is double
DNA contains alternating sugar-phosphate molecules whereas RNA does not contain sugars
Choose the term that best completes the following analogy: Cytoplasm
is to cytosol as a swimming pool containing chlorine and flotation
toys is to _____.
a. the walls of the pool
b. the chlorine
c. the flotation toys
d. the water
Place the following structures in order from least to most complex
organization: chromatin, nucleosome, DNA, chromosome
a. DNA, nucleosome, chromatin, chromosome
b. nucleosome, DNA, chromosome, chromatin
c. DNA, chromatin, nucleosome, chromosome
d. nucleosome, chromatin, DNA, chromosome
DNA, nucleosome, chromatin, chromosome
The nucleus and mitochondria share which of the following
a. protein-lined membrane pores
b. a double cell membrane
c. the synthesis of ribosomes
d. the production of cellular energy
a double cell membrane
Which of the following organelles produces large quantities of ATP
when both glucose and oxygen are available to the cell?
Which of the following structures could be found within the
Which of the following is a feature common to all three components of
a. They all serve to scaffold the organelles within the cell.
b. They are all characterized by roughly the same diameter.
c. They are all polymers of protein subunits.
d. They all help the cell resist compression and
they are all polymers of protein subunits.
How many "letters" of an RNA molecule, in sequence, does it
take to provide the code for a single amino acid?
Which of the following phases is characterized by preparation for DNA
d. S phase
A mutation in the gene for a cyclin protein might result in which of
a. a cell with additional genetic material than normal
c. a cell with less genetic material than normal
d. any of the above
any of the above
What is a primary function of tumor suppressor genes?
a. stop all cells from dividing
b. stop certain cells from dividing
c. help oncogenes produce oncoproteins
d. allow the cell to skip certain phases of the cell
stop certain cells from dividing
What multipotent stem cells from children sometimes banked by
a. fetal stem cells
b. embryonic stem cells
c. cells from the umbilical cord and from baby teeth d. hematopoietic stem cells from red and white blood cells
cells from the umbilical cord and from baby teeth
Four major categories of tissues
Epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue, neural tissue