A&P ll Final Review

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created 3 months ago by Haylee_Bertelson
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updated 2 months ago by Haylee_Bertelson
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biol 2402
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1

The ___ are channels between cardiac muscles cells that are found within the intercalated discs

gap junctions

2

The contraction phase of the cardiac cycle is termed ___

systole

3

The network of nerve fibers found lining the ventricle walls are called ___

purkinjie fibers

4

A condition in which the myocardium is partially contracting in an disorganized manner with no effective pumping action is called ___

fibrillation

5

The serous membrane that surrounds the heart and contains the pericardial fluid is called ___

parietal pericardium

6

ventricle depolarization =

QRS wave

7

atrial depolarization =

P wave

8

ventricle repolarization =

T wave

9

time in which no action potentials are being generated =

TP interval

10

smaller heart chambers =

atria

11

inside lining of the heart chambers =

endocardium

12

carries blood to the cardiac muscle tissue between the atria and ventricles =

coronary artery

13

chambers that contain trabeculae carneae =

ventricles

14

makes up the interatrial septum

myocardium

15

empties into the right atrium =

coronary sinus

16

same as the epicardium =

visceral pericardium

17

The volume of blood ejected from each ventricle each heart beat is called the:

stroke volume

18

An increase in the afterload pressure results in:

stronger contractions by the ventricles

19

Which blood vessel has the highest concentration of oxygen?

pulmonary veins

20

Damage to which of tissues would affect the resistance of blood flow throughout the body?

smooth muscle

21

An ECG (EKG) provides information about:

electrical currents across the heart

22

Ventricular contraction

begins just after the Q wave

23

In order for blood to enter the heart

the atria must not only be at rest but the the atrial pressure must be lower than the veins

A and B

24

Which of the following is longer?

the absolute refractory period of cardiac muscle

25

The chordae tendineae:

prevent the AV valve flaps from folding into the atrium

26

During ventricular diastole, the:

ventricles fill with blood from the atria

27

The purpose of having valves in the cardiovascular system is to

ensure the blood flows in one direction

28

The difference between systolic and diastolic pressure is called the

pulse pressure

29

Which blood pressure readings would be indicative of hypertension?

150/95

30

The AV node is important because it

directs electrical impulses from the atria to the ventricles and delays the transmission of electrical impulses to the ventricles in order for the atria to finish contracting

A and B

31

Which blood vessel would contain the greatest volume of blood?

vena cava

32

Select the best statement about blood flow.

it moves slower in veins compared to the capillaries

33

Which statement best describes arteries?

all carry blood away from the heart

34

The portion of the cardiac conduction system located in the interventricular septum is the:

bundle branches

35

The delay in the AV node

ensures that the atria contract and empty their contents into the ventricles

36

What is not correct concerning the location of the heart

inferior to the diaphragm

37

The second sound of the heart occurs when:

the semilunar valves close

38

As a result of the extended absolute refractory period, cardiac muscle cannot exhibit

tetanus

39

A drug like Digitalis, which slows the heart rate, would be given to a patient to:

increase the venous return volume by slowing the heart rate

40

What is not associated with capillaries

ability to control blood pressure

41

Which of the following would increase the stroke volume?

when venous return is increased

42

Ventricle systole:

forces open the semilunar valves

43

Which statement is false?

medium veins have a MAP of around 60 mmHg

44

Which conditions would have the fastest effect on peripheral resistance?

decrease the diameter of a vessel

45

What will increase the heart rate?*

A and B*

46

A typical action potential of a myocardial contractile cell last ___ milliseconds

at least 200

47

The ECG of a person suffering from a complete AV heart block would show

more P waves than QRS waves

48

Whole blood is the combination of plasma and ___

formed elements

49

The rarest of the leukocytes is the ___

basophils

50

The term used to describe the production of blood cells is called ___

hematopoiesis

51

During childhood, T lymphocytes are programmed in the ___

thymus

52

How many polypeptide chains make up hemoglobin?

four

53

When monocytes migrate into the interstitial spaces to fight infection, they change to a different type of cell called ___

macrophages

54

NO exchange of gases occurs here =

segmental bronchi

55

Secrete a fluid containing surfactant =

Type ll cells

56

Where the respiratory zone of the lungs begins =

respiratory bronchioles

57

Composed of simple squamous epithelium =

Type l cells

58

Terminates in alveoli =

alveolar duct

59

composed of cuboidal cells

type ll cells

60

the respiratory membrane is composed of fused basement membrane of the capillary walls and ___

type l cells

61

TV + IRV + ERV + RV =

total lung capacity

62

ERV + RV =

functional residual capacity

63

TV + IRV + ERV =

vital capacity

64

TV + IRV

inspiratory capacity

65

Stem cell for all formed elements =

myeloid

66

Numbers of this cell will increase during a parasitic infection =

eosinophils

67

hemostasis

fast series of reactions for stoppage of bleeding

68

A phagocytic cell that is found in the tissues =

monocytes

69

Releases heparin in response to inflammation =

basophils

70

Most common white blood cell =

neutrophils

71

Produce antibodies to attack antigens =

B-lymphocytes

72

T/F: each hemoglobin molecule can only carry two molecules of oxygen

false

73

T/F: the immediate response to blood vessel injury is coagulation

False

74

T/F: when erythrocytes are destroyed, some of the heme is converted into bilirubin and then secreted as bile

true

75

T/F: basophils increase in number when parasitic invasions occurs

false

76

T/F: lymphocytes reside temporarily in lymphoid tissue, then move to other parts of the body

true

77

T/F: Peyer's patches are clusters of lymphoid tissue found primarily in the large intestine

false

78

T/F: as carbon dioxide enters systemic blood, it causes more oxygen to dissociate from hemoglobin (the Haldane effect), which in turn allows more CO2 to combine with hemoglobin and more bicarbonate ions to be generated (the Bohr effect)

false

79

T/F: a drop in blood pH is likely to cause a slower breathing rate

false

80

T/F: the parietal pleura lines the thoracic wall

true

81

Fred's blood was determined to be AB positive. What does this mean?

there are no antibodies to A, B, or to Rh antigens in the plasma

82

What organ in the body regulates erythrocyte production?

kidney

83

If a person is severely dehydrated you would expect to see all of the following EXCEPT ___

lower immunity

84

Leukocytes displaying red cytoplasmic granules when treated with Wright's stain are most likely ___

eosinophils

85

What would you except to have the least effect on hematocrit percentage?

prolonged or excessive fever

86

With a patient that is administered an injection of erythropoietin (EPO) you would except to see ___

increased hematocrit

87

A person with an extremely high count of neutrophils is likely suffering ___

a bacterial infection

88

The cells responsible for producing platelets are called ___

megakaryocytes

89

If you centrifuge (spin) whole blood you will find the band of white blood cells and platelets (the buffy coat) is much thinner than the packed red blood cells below it. This difference reflects the fact that ___

white blood cells are fewer in number than red blood cells

90

What is the average normal pH range of blood?

7.35-7.45

91

A patient with type A positive blood can, in theory, safely donate blood to someone with ___ blood

A positive or AB positive

92

What is NOT a part of the lymphatic system?

blood vessels

93

Peyer's patches are found in the distal portion of the ___

small intestine

94

Which lymphoid organs and tissues are characterized by a cortex and medulla?

lymphoid nodes and thymus only

95

What would NOT be classified as a lymphoid organ?

pancreas

96

When the lymphatic structures of a limb are blocked due to tumors, the result is ___

severe localized edema (swelling) distal to the blockage of that limb

97

Which of the following correctly describes the pathway of lymph?

lymphatic capillaries to lymphatic vessels to lymphatic trunks to lymphatic ducks

98

Select the correct statement about lymph transport

lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles

99

Which lymphoid organ atrophies as we age?

thymus

100

Although B and T lymphocytes originate in the bone marrow, T cells mature in the ___

thymus

101

The tonsils located at the base of the tongue are the ___

lingual tonsils

102

What provides the greatest surface area for gas exchange?

alveoli

103

Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is ___

greater than the pressure in the atmosphere

104

Which law describes the relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas?

Boyle's law

105

The relationship between gas pressure and gas volume is described by ___

Boyle's law

106

Tidal volume is air ___

exchanged during normal breathing

107

What is NOT a factor that promotes oxygen binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin?

number of red blood cells

108

In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is ___

only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in blood

109

The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type l and type ll alveolar cells. The function of the type ll alveolar cells is to ___

secrete surfactant

110

The statement, "in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture" paraphrases

Dalton's law

111

What counteracts the movement of bicarbonate ions from the RBC?

chloride shifting

112

Intrapulmonary pressure is the ___

pressure within the alveoli of the lungs

113

What determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?

partial pressure gradient

114

The symptoms of hyperventilation may be averted by breathing into a paper bag because it ___

helps retain carbon dioxide in the blood

115

What is NOT part of the respiratory membrane of the lungs?

thick layer of mucus lining the cavity

116

The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called ___

inspiratory reserve volume

117

The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is ___

increase of carbon dioxide

118

For inspiration of air, which of the following happens first?

diaphragm descends, thoracic volume begins to increase, and rib cage rises

119

How is the bulk of carbon dioxide transported in blood?

as bicarbonate ions in plasma after first entering the red blood cells

120

T/F: fats significantly delay the emptying of the stomach through hormonal and neuronal signals

true

121

T/F: dentin anchors the tooth in place

false

122

T/F: the major means of propulsion through the alimentary canal is peristalsis

true

123

T/F: the soft palate reflexively opens the nasopharynx to allow the passage of food, which is now called a bolus

false

124

T/F: when swallowing, the glottis covers the epiglottis

true*

125

T/F: most gastric ulcers are due to excessive production of hydrochloric acid

false

126

T/F: all the chemical and mechanical phases of digestion from the mouth through the small intestine are directed toward changing food into forms that can pass through the epithelial cells lining the mucosa into the underlying blood and lymphatic vessels

true

127

T/F: food often contains bacteria, but the HCL of the stomach is effective in killing most ingested microbes

true

128

T/F: the digestive function of the liver is to produce digestive enzymes

false

129

T/F: the pancreas has both an endocrine and an exocrine function

true

130

T/F: the parietal peritoneum lines the abdominal pelvic cavity

true*

131

T/F: a stimulus for production of intestinal hormones is distention or irritation mucosa by hypertonic or acidic chyme

true

132

T/F: the largest amount of carbon dioxide is transported in the bloodstream in the form of carbonic anhydrase

false

133

T/F: increased temperature results in decreased O2 unloading from hemoglobin

false

134

Oxygenated hemoglobin releases oxygen more readily when the pH is less acidic

false

135

T/F: the macula densa cells are chemoreceptors that respond the changes in the water content to the filtrate

false

136

T/F: atrial natriuretic peptide inhibits sodium reabsorption

true

137

T/F: high blood pressure triggers granular cells of the juxtaglomerular complex to release renin

false

138

T/F: both the male and female urethras serve both the urinary and the reproductive systems

false

139

T/F: in the kidneys, the countercurrent mechanism involves the interaction between the flow of filtrate through the nephron loop of the juxtamedullary nephrons (the countercurrent multiplier) and the flow of blood through the limbs of adjacent blood vessels (the countercurrent exchanger). This relationship establishes and maintains an osmotic gradient extending from the cortex through the depths of the medulla that allows the kidneys to vary urine concentration dramatically

true

140

T/F: glomerular filtration is an ATP-driven process

false

141

T/F: the proximal convoluted tubule is the portion of the nephron that attaches to the collecting duct

false

142

T/F: the path urine takes after it is formed until it leaves the body is in the renal calyces, renal pelvis, urethra, urinary bladder, and finally the ureter

false

143

T/F: blood pressure in the renal glomerulus is lower than most parts of the body in order to conserve body water

false

144

T/F: incontinence is the inability to control voluntary micturition

true

145

T/F: if the GFR is too low, needed substances may pass so quickly through the renal tubules that they are not absorbed and instead are lost in the urine

false

146

The Bohr effect describes the tendency for hemoglobin to more readily unload oxygen under which condition?

decreased pH and increased pCO2

147

What are NOT a factor that promotes oxygen binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin?

number of red blood cells

148

What does NOT influence hemoglobin saturation?

nitric oxide

149

The symptoms of hyperventilation may be averted by breathing into a paper bag because it ___

helps retain carbon dioxide in the blood

150

What is NOT a stimulus for breathing?

rising blood pressure

151

What counteracts with the movement of bicarbonate ions from the RBC?

chloride shifting

152

What determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?

partial pressure gradient

153

What statement about CO2 is FALSE?

more CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs

154

What incorrectly describes mechanisms of CO2 transport?

attached to the heme part of hemoglobin

155

Blood cells and plasma proteins are physically prevented from passing through the filtration membrane. This has the following effect on filtration.

increasing osmotic pressure in the glomerular capillaries that reduce the amount of filtration

156

What is NOT a function of the urinary system?

regulation of lymphocyte production

157

What would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal?

net filtration would decrease

158

The factor that promotes filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the ___

glomerular hydrostatic pressure

159

Hydrostatic pressure is the primary driving force of plasma through the filtration membrane into the capsular space. All but one of the following statements reflects why hydrostatic pressure is so high in the glomerular capillaries. Select the one statement that does NOT explain the high pressure with in the glomerular capillaries.

the volume of the plasma in the efferent arteriole is higher when compared to the afferent arteriole

160

What is the salt level-monitoring part of the nephron?

macula densa

161

The ureters are composed of ___ epithelium

transitional

162

If the diameter of the afferent arterioles leading to the glomerulus increases (vasodilation), what is NOT likely to occur?

systemic blood pressure will decrease

163

What is NOT reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?

creatinine

164

What is NOT a method by which the cells of the renal tubules can raise blood pH?

by secreting sodium ions

165

What is NOT associated with the renal corpuscle?

vasa recta

166

If the diameter of the efferent arterioles leading away from the glomerulus increases (vasodilation), which of the following is NOT likely to occur

systemic blood pressure will decrease

167

An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule of water is due to a(n) ___

increase in the production of ADH

168

Except for potassium ions, tubular secretion of most unwanted substances occurs in the ___

proximal convoluted tubule

169

Reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by ___

secondary active transport

170

If blood pressure drops very low (MAP is below 80 mmHg) renin enzyme will be secreted by granular cells. What is NOT likely to occur?

kidney perfusion will increase

171

The function of angiotensin ll is to ___

constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure

172

The fluid found in the glomerular space is similar to plasma except that is does NOT contain a significant amount of ___

plasma proteins

173

What acts as the trigger for the initiation of micturition (voiding)?

stretching of the bladder wall

174

What is NOT a function of the juxtaglomerular complex?

podocyte cells

175

The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin ___

by a decrease in the blood pressure

176

Nervous stimulation of gastric secretion is provided by ___

the vagus nerve and enteric plexus

177

The chemical and mechanical processes of food breakdown are called ___

digestion

178

Pepsinogen, an inactive digestive enzyme, is secreted by the ___

chief cells of the stomach

179

What produces intrinsic factor?

parietal cells

180

What stomach secretion is necessary for normal hemoglobin production in RBCs?

intrinsic factor

181

From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen.

mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

182

What is true concerning the number and type of permanent teeth?

there are 32 permanent teeth and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge

183

What is NOT true of saliva?

contains acids which aid in chemical digestion

184

Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by the process of ___

catabolism

185

What is least involved in the mechanical breakdown of food, digestion, or absorption?

the esophagus

186

The lamina propria is composed of ___

loose connective tissue

187

What is NOT a factor that helps create the stomach mucosal barrier?

renin

188

What would likely be absorbed in the stomach?

a serving of alcohol

189

Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?

B12

190

The bolus is liquefied in the ___ and it is now called chyme

stomach

191

The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the ___

lamina propria

192

When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called ___

chemical digestion

193

What part of the tooth bears the force and resists the friction of chewing?

enamel

194

Major regions of the large intestine include the

ascending/descending colon, cecum, transverse colon, sigmoid colon, rectum

195

Which water-soluble vitamin cannot be absorbed by the intestinal mucosa unless it has been bound to intrinsic factor?

vitamin B12

196

Steroid hormones include what?

sex and adrenal cortical hormones

197

In Type II diabetes, insulin levels are frequently normal, yet the target cells are less sensitive to the effects of insulin. This suggests that the target cells

may lack enough insulin receptors

198

The fold of skin that covers the tip of the penis is the

prepuce

199

The neck or narrowing portion of the uterus is called the:

cervix

200

The structure responsible for producing 60% of the ejaculate fluid and is slightly alkaline is:

the seminal vesicle

201

In regards to tissue composition, the penis is to the male as the ___ is to the female

clitoris

202

Which of the following will occur immediately after ovulation?

the endometrium enters its secretory phase

203

A sperm or egg is sometimes referred to as a "Haploid" cell. What does this contain?

23 chromosomes

204

When stimulated by a specific hormone, there is a marked increase in the activity of G proteins in the membrane. The hormone is probably

a peptide

205

The link between the first messenger and the second messenger in a cell is referred to as

a G protein

206

When the level of ADH is decreased:

more urine is produced

207

The erectile tissue that directly surrounds the urethra in the male is called the:

corpus spongiosum

208

The inside lining of the uterus is termed:

endometrium

209

The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on

the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ

210

What is an incorrect statement about hormones

they are used to communicate between different organisms

211

What hormone binds with a receptor inside the cell?

testosterone

212

The homologous chromosomes become separated during ___ of meiosis

anaphase l

213

Which of the following is not a tropic hormone?

growth hormone

214

One of the least complicated of the endocrine release mechanisms directly responds to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients. Which of the following describes this mechanism?

humoral stimulation

215

The small paired glands at the base of the penis that produce a lubricating secretion are the

bulbourethral glands

216

To increase blood calcium levels in the blood, the body would increase the

parathyroid hormone*

217

Nurse Nancy should except a client with hypothyroidism to report which health concerns

puffiness of the face and hands

218

Which hormone does not act on another endocrine gland?

growth hormone

219

An increase in estrogen within the body has the most effect of which stage in the ovarian cycle?

the follicular phase*

220

An enlargement of the thyroid gland is a condition known as ___

goiter

221

Menstruation is initiated by

a drop in estrogen and progesterone*

222

A reduction in iodine within the diet could affect production of which of the following hormones?

thyroid hormone

223

Three of the four answers listed below have two sets of chromosomes. Select the exception.

gamete

224

Hormones can alter cellular operations by doing all the following, except:

permeability of a nuclear membrane

225

If a parent cell has 16 chromosomes and undergoes meiosis, the resulting cells will have how many chromosomes?

8

226

The hypothalamus hormone that controls the release of aldosterone is

angiotensin ll

227

The Luteal phase occurs during days

10-14

228

The adrenal glands are located:

atop both kidneys

229

The release of an egg from the follicle in the ovary is termed:

ovulation

230

In which phase does independent assortment take place in meiosis?

metaphase l

231

Which of the following is NOT a function of cholecystokinin (CCK)?

increased production of stomach acid

232

Bile salts surround fat soluble molecules creating Micelles. This role of bile salts is best described as ___.

liquid emulsification

233

Fat absorption through the plasma membrane of the epithelial cells

occurs by simple diffusion because lipids are able to penetrate the hydrophobic fatty acid tails within the plasma membrane

234

Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the large intestine?

is longer than the small intestine

235

What is an essential role plated by large intestine bacteria?

synthesizes vitamin K

236

A ruptured appendix is life threatening because ___

it is likely to cause massive infection of the abdominal pelvic

237

When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called ___

chemical digestion

238

During the defecation reflex, the

the internal anal sphincter relaxes and the external anal sphincter contracts

239

Functions of the large intestine include

reabsorption of water and compaction of feces

240

An expanded pouch in the region of the ileum at the ileocecal valve is the

cecum