Ch. 9 - Joints/Articulations

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1

1) Joints can be classified structurally as A) bony. B) fibrous. C) cartilaginous. D) synovial. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

2

2) The synarthrosis that binds the teeth to the bony sockets is a A) suture. B) gomphosis. C) synchondrosis. D) synotosis. E) syndesmosis.

B) gomphosis.

3

3) An immovable joint is a(n) A) synarthrosis. B) diarthrosis. C) amphiarthrosis. D) syndesmosis. E) symphysis.

A) synarthrosis.

4

4) A synovial joint is an example of a(n) A) synarthrosis. B) amphiarthrosis. C) diarthrosis. D) symphysis. E) syndesmosis.

C) diarthrosis.

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5) A ligamentous connection such as an antebrachial interosseous membrane is called a A) syndesmosis. B) symphysis. C) synchondrosis. D) synostosis. E) gomphosis.

A) syndesmosis.

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6) A slightly movable joint is a(n) A) synarthrosis. B) diarthrosis. C) amphiarthrosis. D) gomphosis. E) synostosis.

C) amphiarthrosis.

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7) A suture is an example of a(n) A) synarthrosis. B) syndesmosis. C) symphysis. D) diarthrosis. E) amphiarthrosis.

A) synarthrosis.

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8) An epiphyseal line is an example of a A) gomphosis. B) synchondrosis. C) synostosis. D) symphysis. E) syndesmosis

C) synostosis.

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9) Joints in which the bones are closely fitted are A) weak joints with restricted movement. B) strong joints with restricted movement. C) strong and free-moving joints. D) synovial joints. E) joints in the limbs that function for locomotion.

B) strong joints with restricted movement.

10

10) Dense fibrous connective tissue is to a suture as a periodontal ligament is to a(n) A) amphiarthrosis. B) syndesmosis. C) synostosis. D) synchondrosis. E) gomphosis.

E) gomphosis.

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11) An example of a synchondrosis is the articulation of the A) ribs with the sternum. B) radius and the ulna. C) femur with the acetabulum. D) atlas and the axis. E) navicular bone with the cuniform bones.

A) ribs with the sternum.

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12) There is limited movement between the ribs and the sternum. Such joints are classified structurally as A) amphiarthroses. B) symphyses. C) diarthroses. D) hemiarthroses. E) synarthroses.

E) synarthroses.

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13) A freely movable joint is a(n) A) synarthrosis. B) diarthrosis. C) amphiarthrosis. D) syndesmosis. E) symphysis.

B) diarthrosis.

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14) The intervertebral disc joint is called a A) synarthrosis. B) glide joint. C) condylar joint. D) synchondrosis. E) symphysis.

E) symphysis.

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15) A joint where bones fuse together with bone tissue is called a A) synchondrosis. B) syndesmosis. C) synostosis. D) symphysis. E) suture.

C) synostosis.

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16) Which of the following is one of the four major types of synarthrotic joints? A) suture B) gomphosis C) synchondrosis D) synostosis E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

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17) Syndesmosis is to ligament as symphysis is to A) fibrous cartilage. B) dense regular connective tissue. C) periodontal ligament. D) rigid cartilaginous bridge. E) completely fused.

A) fibrous cartilage.

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18) Which of the following occurs when the articular cartilage is damaged? A) The matrix begins to break down. B) The exposed surface appears rough. C) Friction in the joint increases. D) Normal synovial joint function is unable to continue. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

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19) Which of the following is not a function of synovial fluid? A) shock absorption B) increases osmotic pressure within joint C) lubrication D) provides nutrients E) protects articular cartilages

B) increases osmotic pressure within joint

20

20) Bursae are found in all of the following areas except A) tendon sheaths. B) beneath the skin covering a bone. C) within connective tissue exposed to friction or pressure. D) around blood vessels. E) around many synovial joints.

D) around blood vessels.

21

21) Which of the following is not a property of articular cartilage? A) covered by perichondrium B) lubricated by synovial fluid C) enclosed by an articular capsule D) similar to hyaline cartilage E) smooth, low-friction surface

A) covered by perichondrium

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22) The surface of articular cartilage is A) slick. B) flat. C) smooth. D) rough. E) both slick and smooth.

E) both slick and smooth.

23

95) The most common athletic knee injury produces damage to the A) patella. B) lateral meniscus. C) ligaments. D) tendons. E) medial meniscus.

E) medial meniscus.

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23) Which of the following is not a characteristic of articular cartilage? A) There is no perichondrium. B) The matrix contains more water than other cartilages. C) Surfaces are normally slick and smooth. D) It is composed of cartilage similar to hyaline cartilage. E) It secretes synovial fluid.

E) It secretes synovial fluid.

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94) Factors that increase the stability of the hip joint include A) strong muscular padding. B) tough capsule. C) almost complete bony socket. D) supporting ligaments. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

26

24) Which of the following is not considered an accessory synovial structure? A) fat pads B) menisci C) tendons D) bursae E) synovial membrane

E) synovial membrane

27

93) Which of the following explains the occurrence of a hip fracture rather than a hip dislocation? A) There is a severe lack of capsular fibers in hip joints compared to other synovial joints. B) Only three ligaments are present in hip joints to provide stability. C) Stress gets transferred from head of femur to the diaphysis via the thin neck. D) Muscles surrounding the hip joint are altogether small and thus provide little stability. E) All of the above.

C) Stress gets transferred from head of femur to the diaphysis via the thin neck.

28

25) Degenerative changes in a joint can be the result of all of the following except A) bursitis. B) bacterial infection. C) mechanical stress. D) immobilization of the joint. E) inflammation.

A) bursitis.

29

92) Complete dislocation of the knee is rare because A) the knee is protected by the patella. B) the femur articulates with the tibia at the knee. C) the knee contains seven major ligaments. D) the knee contains fat pads to absorb shocks. E) the knee is extremely resilient.

C) the knee contains seven major ligaments.

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26) Mike falls off his skateboard and sprains his ankle. Which of the following most likely occurs with this type of accident? A) A bursa is damaged and leaks synovial fluid. B) A ligament is stretched and collagen fibers in the ligament are damaged C) Articulating bones are forced out of position and ligaments are torn. D) Dislocation of the ankle occurs. E) The tibia is broken and must be set in a cast.

B) A ligament is stretched and collagen fibers in the ligament are damaged

31

91) The medial surface of the knee joint is reinforced by the ________ ligament. A) cruciate B) fibular collateral C) patellar D) popliteal E) tibial collateral

E) tibial collateral

32

27) Which of the following is not a property of synovial joints? A) freely movable B) lined by a secretory epithelium C) covered by a serous membrane D) contain synovial fluid E) covered by a capsule

C) covered by a serous membrane

33

90) The back of the knee joint is reinforced by ________ ligaments. A) tibial collateral B) anterior cruciate C) posterior cruciate D) patellar E) popliteal

E) popliteal

34

28) Which structure acts as a cushion and consists of fibrous cartilage? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 E) 5

D) 4

35

29) Identify the structure at label "1." A) meniscus B) bursa C) articular cartilage D) synovial membrane E) joint cavity

B) bursa

36

89) The normal movement of the knee joint during walking involves A) abduction. B) adduction. C) flexion. D) extension. E) both flexion and extension.

E) both flexion and extension.

37

88) The structures that assist the bursae in reducing friction between the patella and other tissues are the A) fat pads. B) medial menisci. C) lateral menisci. D) popliteal ligaments. E) cruciate ligaments.

A) fat pads.

38

30) Identify the structure labeled "2." A) serous membrane B) synovial membrane C) joint capsule D) periosteum E) intracapsular ligament

B) synovial membrane

39

87) In the knee joint, the medial and lateral menisci A) are cartilages that bind the knee to the tibia. B) act as cushions between the articulating surfaces. C) take the place of bursae. D) are found between the patella and femur. E) are prominent fat pads to protect the articulating bones.

B) act as cushions between the articulating surfaces.

40

31) What type of tissue occurs at the structure labeled "3"? A) fibrocartilage B) synovial membrane C) articular cartilage D) bone tissue E) dense connective tissue

C) articular cartilage

41

86) The ligaments that limit the anterior-posterior movement of the tibia and maintain the alignment of the femoral and tibial condyles are the ________ ligaments. A) cruciate B) fibular collateral C) patellar D) popliteal E) tibial collateral

A) cruciate

42

32) Identify the structure labeled "5." A) serous membrane B) synovial membrane C) joint capsule D) periosteum E) intracapsular ligament

E) intracapsular ligament

43

85) Which of the following ligaments is not associated with the hip joint? A) iliofemoral ligament B) pubofemoral ligament C) ischiofemoral ligament D) ligamentum teres E) anterior cruciate ligament

E) anterior cruciate ligament

44

33) The knuckle joint is classified as a ________ joint. A) condylar B) hinge C) glide D) saddle E) pivot

A) condylar

45

84) The ligament that provides support to the front of the knee joint is the ________ ligament. A) anterior cruciate B) posterior cruciate C) patellar D) popliteal E) tibial collateral

C) patellar

46

34) The joint between the forearm bones and the wrist is a ________ joint. A) saddle B) glide C) hinge D) condylar E) pivot

D) condylar

47

83) Which of the following athletes are at greatest risk of developing a rotator cuff injury? A) tennis players B) soccer players C) runners D) baseball pitchers E) high jumpers

D) baseball pitchers

48

35) Ankle extension is also called A) dorsiflexion. B) inversion. C) eversion. D) plantar flexion. E) protraction.

D) plantar flexion.

49

82) The largest and strongest articulation at the elbow is the A) humero-ulnar joint. B) ulnar joint. C) ulnaradial joint. D) radial joint. E) humeroradial joint.

A) humero-ulnar joint.

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36) Pronation is defined as A) a rolling of the distal epiphysis of the radius over the ulna. B) a twisting of the ulna medially. C) twisting the forearm so that the palms face anteriorly. D) the shortening of the angle between the radius and the humerus. E) movement of the mandible anteriorly, as seen when biting the upper lip.

A) a rolling of the distal epiphysis of the radius over the ulna.

51

81) Which of the following ligaments assists in stabilization of the shoulder joint? A) coracoacromial B) subscapularis C) coracoclavicular D) coracoacromial and subscapular ligaments E) coracoacromial and coracoclavicular ligaments

E) coracoacromial and coracoclavicular ligaments

52

37) A movement away from the midline of the body is called A) inversion. B) abduction. C) adduction. D) flexion. E) extension.

B) abduction.

53

80) The "rotator cuff" of the shoulder functions to A) reinforce the joint capsule. B) limit the range of movements. C) allow biaxial movement. D) allow monaxial movement. E) reinforce the joint capsule and limit the range of movements.

E) reinforce the joint capsule and limit the range of movements.

54

38) To pinch with a thumb and finger involves a movement called A) rotation. B) opposition. C) circumduction. D) eversion. E) retraction.

B) opposition.

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79) Which of the following is false? A) The rotator cuff functions to limit the range of movements of the shoulder joint. B) The shapes of the articulating surfaces within the joint help prevent movement in a particular direction and strengthen and stabilize the joint. C) The tighter two bones are held together within a joint, the stronger the joint. D) The more movement a joint allows, the stronger the joint. E) The tension produced by muscle tendons surrounding a joint help stabilize the joint.

D) The more movement a joint allows, the stronger the joint.

56

39) A common injury to the ankle occurs by excessive turning of the sole inward, called A) eversion. B) protraction. C) dorsiflexion. D) plantar flexion. E) inversion.

E) inversion.

57

78) The joint that permits the greatest range of mobility of any joint in the body is the ________ joint. A) hip B) shoulder C) elbow D) knee E) wrist

B) shoulder

58

40) The ankle joint is an example of a(n) ________ joint. A) condylar B) saddle C) hinge D) ball-and-socket E) gliding

C) hinge

59

77) Contraction of the muscle that is attached to the radial tuberosity results in A) flexion of the forearm. B) extension of the forearm. C) abduction of the forearm. D) adduction of the forearm. E) rotation of the shoulder.

A) flexion of the forearm.

60

41) Which of the following movements is a good example of flexion? A) opening the mouth B) turning the hand palm upward C) extreme bending of the head backwards D) moving the hand toward the shoulder E) spreading the fingers

D) moving the hand toward the shoulder

61

76) Muscles that extend the elbow attach to the A) coronoid process. B) radial tuberosity. C) olecranon process. D) medial epicondyle. E) lateral epicondyle.

C) olecranon process.

62

42) A twisting motion of the foot that turns the sole of the foot outward is known as A) inversion. B) plantar flexion. C) eversion. D) dorsiflexion. E) pronation.

C) eversion.

63

75) The elbow joint is extremely stable because A) the ulna and humerus interlock. B) the articular capsule is thin. C) the capsule lacks ligaments. D) several muscles support the joint capsule. E) the joint lacks bursae.

A) the ulna and humerus interlock.

64

43) The joints that connect the four fingers with the metacarpal bones are A) condylar joints. B) saddle joints. C) pivot joints. D) hinge joints. E) condyloid joints.

A) condylar joints.

65

74) A herniated disc occurs when the A) nucleus pulposus breaks through the anulus fibrosus. B) disc slips out from between the adjacent vertebrae. C) adjacent bones fuse. D) knee is hyperextended. E) inner core of the disc is squeezed to one side.

A) nucleus pulposus breaks through the anulus fibrosus.

66

44) The joint between the trapezium and metacarpal bone of the thumb is an example of a ________ joint. A) saddle B) gliding C) condylar D) hinge E) pivot

A) saddle

67

73) A herniated intervertebral disc is caused by A) loss of annulus fibrosis elasticity. B) slippage of the fibrocartilage disc. C) ossification of the vertebral disc. D) protrusion of the nucleus pulposus. E) transformation of fibrocartilage to hyaline cartilage.

D) protrusion of the nucleus pulposus.

68

45) Monaxial joints are known as ________ joints. A) saddle B) gliding C) ball-and-socket D) condylar E) hinge

E) hinge

69

72) Which ligament connects the clavicle and the acromion? A) coracohumeral B) coracoacromial C) coracoclavicular D) glenohumeral E) acromioclavicular

E) acromioclavicular

70

46) Which type of joint is found between the carpal bones? A) saddle B) gliding C) hinge D) ball-and-socket E) pivot

B) gliding

71

71) All of the following movements occur at the intervertebral joints except A) flexion. B) rotation. C) dorsiflexion. D) lateral flexion. E) extension.

C) dorsiflexion.

72

47) Which of the following types of joints is monaxial, but capable of only rotation? A) saddle B) gliding C) hinge D) ball-and-socket E) pivot

E) pivot

73

70) Identify the type of joint at label "5." A) hinge B) condylar C) gliding D) saddle E) pivot

A) hinge

74

48) Curling into the "fetal position" ________ the intervertebral joints. A) hyperextends B) flexes C) abducts D) extends E) rotates

B) flexes

75

69) Identify the type of joint at label "4." A) hinge B) gliding C) condylar D) saddle E) pivot

C) condylar

76

49) The movements known as dorsiflexion and plantar flexion involve moving the A) hand. B) arm. C) foot. D) leg. E) hip.

C) foot.

77

68) Identify the type of joint at label "3." A) hinge B) gliding C) condylar D) saddle E) pivot

D) saddle

78

50) The elbow joint is an example of a(n) ________ joint. A) saddle B) gliding C) condylar D) hinge E) pivot

D) hinge

79

67) Identify the type of joint at label "2." A) hinge B) condylar C) gliding D) saddle E) pivot

C) gliding

80

51) In a triaxial articulation, A) movement can occur in all three axes. B) movement can occur in only two axes. C) movement can occur in only one axis. D) only circumduction is possible. E) no movement is possible.

A) movement can occur in all three axes.

81

66) Identify the type of joint at label "1." A) hinge B) condylar C) gliding D) saddle E) pivot

B) condylar

82

52) An extension past the anatomical position is known as A) double-jointed. B) extension. C) flexion. D) rotation. E) hyperextension.

E) hyperextension.

83

65) Which of the following movements would you associate with chewing food? A) elevation B) abduction C) flexion D) pronation E) circumduction

A) elevation

84

53) All of the following are structural classifications of synovial joints except A) hinge. B) gliding. C) rolling. D) saddle. E) pivot.

C) rolling.

85

64) Nodding your head "yes" is an example of A) lateral and medial rotation. B) circumduction. C) flexion and extension. D) pronation and supination. E) protraction and retraction.

C) flexion and extension.

86

54) Which of the following joints is an example of a ball-and-socket joint? A) elbow B) knee C) ankle D) wrist E) shoulder

E) shoulder

87

63) Which of the following movements is a good example of depression? A) opening the mouth B) turning the hand palm upward C) extreme bending of the head backwards D) moving the hand toward the shoulder E) spreading the fingers

A) opening the mouth

88

55) The radiocarpal joint is a(n) ________ joint. A) saddle B) immovable C) hinge D) gliding E) condylar

E) condylar

89

62) Which of the following movements is a good example of abduction? A) opening the mouth B) turning the hand palm upward C) extreme bending of the head backwards D) moving the hand toward the shoulder E) spreading the fingers

E) spreading the fingers

90

56) The intercarpal articulations are ________ joints. A) saddle B) condylar C) hinge D) gliding E) ball-and-socket

D) gliding

91

61) Which of the following movements is a good example of hyperextension? A) opening the mouth B) turning the hand palm upward C) extreme bending of the head backwards D) moving the hand toward the shoulder E) spreading the fingers

C) extreme bending of the head backwards

92

57) The joints between vertebrae are examples of ________ joints. A) saddle B) pivot C) condylar D) hinge E) gliding

E) gliding

93

60) Lifting a stone with the tip of foot is A) circumduction. B) eversion. C) inversion. D) plantar flexion. E) dorsiflexion.

E) dorsiflexion.

94

58) Which foot movement enables the ballerina to stand on her toes? A) dorsiflexion B) plantar flexion C) inversion D) rotation E) eversion

B) plantar flexion

95

59) Which of the following movements is a good example of supination? A) opening the mouth B) turning the hand palm upward C) extreme bending of the head backwards D) moving the hand toward the shoulder E) spreading the fingers

B) turning the hand palm upward