Physio chp 15 Quiz Flashcards


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1

Which of the following statements about the transport of the absorbed products of fat digestion is TRUE?

a. Free fatty acids and monoglycerides are transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein.

b. Products of fat digestion first go to the lymph system, and then to the veins leading to the heart.

c. Triglycerides are transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein to be processed.

d. Free fatty acids and monoglycerides are assembled into triglycerides before they are absorbed from the lumen of the gut into epithelial cells lining the tract.

e. Products of fat digestion are absorbed in the distal portion of the ileum, bound to intrinsic factor.

b. Products of fat digestion first go to the lymph system, and then to the veins leading to the heart.

2

Which is NOT true about receptors that mediate digestive reflexes?

a. They are located in the gastrointestinal tract wall.

b. They include chemoreceptors, osmoreceptors, and mechanoreceptors.

c. They may relay information to integrative centers in the CNS or to the enteric plexuses.

d. They may be endocrine cells.

e. They only activate feedforward pathways.

e. They only activate feedforward pathways.

3

Which of the following statements about neural control of digestion is FALSE?

a. Parasympathetic stimulation is excitatory to digestion.

b. Sympathetic stimulation is generally inhibitory to digestion.

c. Local neural networks (nerve plexuses) regulate digestive functions.

d. Nerve plexuses receive input from the autonomic nervous system

e. Parasympathetic stimulation inhibits GI exocrine gland secretions.

e. Parasympathetic stimulation inhibits GI exocrine gland secretions.

4

During the cephalic phase of gastric stimulation, which of the following does NOT occur?

a. Seeing, smelling, and/or tasting food reflexively increase(s) gastric acid secretion.

b. Parasympathetic stimulation of secretory cells in the gastric mucosa occurs.

c. Gastrin is secreted into the gastric lumen.

d. HCl is secreted into the gastric lumen.

e. Pepsinogen is secreted into the gastric lumen.

c. Gastrin is secreted into the gastric lumen.

5

Which of the following is NOT a part of the swallowing reflex?

a. Respiration is inhibited.

b. The glottis closes.

c. The upper esophageal sphincter relaxes.

d. The lower esophageal sphincter relaxes.

e. The pyloric sphincter relaxes.

e. The pyloric sphincter relaxes.

6

Which occurs during the secretion of hydrochloric acid by gastric epithelial cells?

a. There is a decrease in the pH of blood in the hepatic portal circulation.

b. Bicarbonate ions are secreted into the hepatic portal circulation.

c. Chloride ions are pumped from the cytosol of the gastric epithelial cells into the hepatic portal circulation blood.

d. Both H+ and K+ are actively pumped from the epithelial cell cytosol into the lumen of the stomach.

e. Vesicles containing H+/K+ -ATP-ase proteins are endocytosed into vesicles within the gastric epithelial cells.

b. Bicarbonate ions are secreted into the hepatic portal circulation

7

Which is TRUE about gastric motility?

a. The basic electrical rhythm of the gastric smooth muscle (three depolarizations per minute) is the same regardless of whether or not food is present.

b. Gastric contractions are strongest in the fundus of the stomach.

c. The force of contraction is decreased by gastrin and increased by enterogastrones.

d. When a wave of excitation reaches the pyloric sphincter, action potentials become inhibitory and the sphincter opens wide to allow chyme to exit.

e.The term "slow waves" refer to gastric contractions, while "pacemaker" refers to gastric action potentials.

a. The basic electrical rhythm of the gastric smooth muscle (three depolarizations per minute) is the same regardless of whether or not food is present.

8

Bicarbonate is

a. secreted into the lumen by gastric epithelial cells and into the interstitial fluid by pancreatic duct cells.

b. secreted into the lumen by pancreatic acinar (exocrine) cells, and into the interstitial fluid by pancreatic duct cells.

c. secreted into the lumen by pancreatic duct cells, and into the interstitial fluid by pancreatic acinar (exocrine) cells.

d. secreted into the interstitial fluid by gastric epithelial cells, and into the lumen by pancreatic duct cells.

e. secreted into the lumen by both gastric epithelial cells and pancreatic duct cells.

d. secreted into the interstitial fluid by gastric epithelial cells, and into the lumen by pancreatic duct cells.

9

A person without a gallbladder

a. cannot secrete bile.

b. cannot store bile.

c. will have no difficulty digesting a large, fat-rich meal.

d. cannot digest fats.

e. cannot store lipase.

b. cannot store bile.

10

In which region(s) of the GI tract do peristaltic contractions occur?

a. The small intestine

b. The large intestine

c. The stomach

d. The esophagus

e. All of these options are correct.

e. All of these options are correct.

11

Which of the following is NOT characteristic of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)?

a. Bleeding, edema, and ulceration anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract

b. Pain relief when changing to a diet higher in fiber

c. Perforations in the mucosa and intestinal wall, leading to infection by bacteria, which are normally present and benign

d. Inflammation and thickening of the bowel wall to the point of preventing the usual passage of feces

e. Pain in the lower right abdomen frequently mistaken for appendicitis

b. Pain relief when changing to a diet higher in fiber

12

The exact causes of inflammatory bowel diseases continue to be explored, but it is relatively clear that

a. it is equally common among people of all ages and racial groups within the population.

b. it is likely to result from a combination of environmental and genetic factors.

c. individuals suffering from its effects are largely experiencing the consequences of the absence of immune mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract.

d. it can be easily diagnosed since its symptoms are always very specific and the affected areas are always limited to a very focused area within the small intestine.

e. the cause is allergy to a single particular food, and patients get immediate relief by simply not eating that food.

b. it is likely to result from a combination of environmental and genetic factors.

13

Sarah has been diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. The first treatment is to remove 90% of her pancreatic tissue surgically. Due to the loss of exocrine tissue, which of the following foods will Sarah have more difficulty digesting post-surgery?

a. Lipids

b. Proteins and peptides

c. Starches

d. All of these

d. All of these

14

You’re going hiking and want to pack emergency food in case you get lost or the hike takes longer than you anticipate. Your goal is to pack a food that will have the biggest increase on your blood glucose level to be able to supply your hiking muscles with glucose for cellular respiration. Which of the following foods will lead to the biggest and most immediate increase in blood glucose?

a. A snack rich in lipids, such as slices of cheese

b. A snack rich in protein, such as a dried meat stick

c. A snack rich in digestible polysaccharides such as a cooked potato

d. All of these will have equal impacts on blood glucose level

e. A snack rich in cellulose, such as a bag of celery

c. A snack rich in digestible polysaccharides such as a cooked potato

15

Sarah is taking antacids every day. This habit is raising her stomach and duodenal pH close to neutral. Which of the following enzymes may have decreased activity?

a. Amylase

b. Lipase

c. Trypsin

d. Pepsin

e. Chymotrypsin

d. Pepsin

16

Andrew has his gall bladder removed after developing several large gall stones. After surgery, he cannot release large batches of bile into the duodenum, instead, bile is added slowly in small amounts. Which of the following might be TRUE?

a. Carbohydrate digestion may be compromised.

b. He may become deficient in water-soluble vitamins such as B12.

c. He may become deficient in fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamin E.

d. He may start to suffer from protein deficiency.

e. None of these would occur.

c. He may become deficient in fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamin E.

17

Which of the following would lead to an increase in the secretion of gastrin?

a. Adding chyme to the duodenum

b. An increase in the presence of starch in the lumen of the stomach

c. An increase in the presence of lipids in the duodenum

d. An increase in the presence of peptides in the duodenum

e. An increase in the presence of peptides in the stomach

e. An increase in the presence of peptides in the stomach

18

Anders is born with a mutation in the gene for CCK and he produces and secretes an inactive form of this hormone. Which of the following would be TRUE of Anders’ digestion?

a. A reduction in the release of pancreatic enzymes

b. A reduction in the release of HCl

c. An increase in the release of bile

d. An increase in the amount of bile salts present in the bile

e. None of these would occur

a. A reduction in the release of pancreatic enzymes

19

Which of the following breakfasts would likely remain in the stomach longest?

a. Toast, orange juice, and coffee

b. Fried eggs, bacon, and hash browns

c. A bowl of cereal with skim milk

d. A boiled egg, toast, and juice

e. The type of meal has no effect on the rate of gastric emptying.

b. Fried eggs, bacon, and hash browns

20

Following diagnosis with pancreatic cancer, Neil had a large portion of his pancreas removed. All of the following will now be found in lower amounts in Neil’s GI tract, except one. Which of the following will NOT be affected?

a. Bicarbonate ions

b. Amylase

c. Bile salts

d. Trypsinogen

e. Lipase

c. Bile salts`

21

Following diagnosis with pancreatic cancer, Neil had a large portion of his pancreas removed. Which of the following hormones will now be found in lower amounts?

a. Vasopressin

b. Thryoid hormone

c. CCK

d. Oxytocin

e. Insulin

e. Insulin

22

Elizabeth has been diagnosed with a gastric ulcer. Carl has been diagnosed with a duodenal ulcer. Both of them are

a. treated by interventions that inhibit digestive enzymes.

b. caused by hypersecretion of gastric acid.

c. treated by interventions that inhibit acid secretion.

d. caused by removal of the gallbladder.

e. found in the large intestine.

c. treated by interventions that inhibit acid secretion.

23

Julia comes to see her doctor with a variety of symptoms. Her doctor eventually diagnoses her with gallstones. Which of the following was NOT one of Julia’s symptoms?

a. Lactose intolerance

b. Abdominal pain

c. Difficulty digesting high-fat meals

d. Nutritional deficiencies

e. Jaundice

a. Lactose intolerance

24

Barry’s children seem to be struggling often with constipation. To help prevent it, their pediatrician recommends

a. avoiding foods that can lead to accumulation of toxins in feces.

b. making the children sit on the toilet until they defecate at least once a day.

c. feeding the children foods with a high proportion of cellulose and other indigestible carbohydrates.

d. feeding the children foods with more lipid content.

e. avoiding milk, the children may be lactose intolerant.

c. feeding the children foods with a high proportion of cellulose and other indigestible carbohydrates.

25

Which is NOT a function performed by saliva?

a. Moistening and lubricating food for swallowing

b. Starch digestion

c. Enabling the sense of taste

d. Killing bacteria

e. Emulsifying lipids

e. Emulsifying lipids

26

What structure secretes the enzyme that breaks down starch to smaller carbohydrates?

a. The esophagus

b. Pancreatic exocrine cells

c. Pancreatic duct cells

d. The liver

e. The large intestine

b. Pancreatic exocrine cells

27

Which of the following statements regarding digestion and absorption of carbohydrates is TRUE?

a. Carbohydrate digestion begins in the stomach.

b. Lactose intolerance results from an insufficiency of the enzyme amylase.

c. Digestible polysaccharides are broken down into the monosaccharides glucose, galactose, and fructose, which can be absorbed.

d. Sucrose is the main form of carbohydrate that can be absorbed by active transport across the intestinal epithelium.

e. Cellulose from plants is a polymer of glucose that can be easily digested and absorbed by the human GI tract.

c. Digestible polysaccharides are broken down into the monosaccharides glucose, galactose, and fructose, which can be absorbed.

28

Which of the following statements regarding protein digestion and absorption is TRUE?

a. Only the exocrine pancreas produces enzymes that can digest proteins.

b. After absorption, the products of protein digestion are carried by blood directly to the liver.

c. Pepsin digests protein mainly in the small intestine.

d. The enzymes that digest protein are secreted in active form.

e. Free amino acids are the only product of protein digestion that can be absorbed from the lumen into intestinal epithelial cells.

b. After absorption, the products of protein digestion are carried by blood directly to the liver.

29

Which accurately describes lipase?

a. It is mainly produced in the liver, and secreted into the small intestine.

b. It emulsifies lipids.

c. It is secreted by the endocrine pancreas.

d. It is produced in the exocrine pancreas, and catalyzes the degradation of chylomicrons into proteins and fats.

e. It catalyzes the breakdown of triglycerides into monoglycerides and free fatty acids.

e. It catalyzes the breakdown of triglycerides into monoglycerides and free fatty acids.

30

Which of the following statements regarding hormonal regulation of gastrointestinal function is TRUE?

a. An increase of H+ in the small intestine stimulates secretion of the hormone secretin, which in turn stimulates HCO3 - secretion by the pancreas.

b. The presence of fatty acids in the stomach stimulates secretion of CCK, which in turn stimulates enzyme secretion by cells in the antrum of the stomach.

c. The presence of amino acids in the small intestine stimulates secretion of gastrin, which in turn stimulates HCl secretion by parietal cells.

d. The presence of fatty acids in the small intestine stimulates the secretion of the hormone secretin, which causes contraction of the gallbladder.

e. The hormone somatostatin stimulates the secretion of H+ into the lumen of the stomach.

a. An increase of H+ in the small intestine stimulates secretion of the hormone secretin, which in turn stimulates HCO3 - secretion by the pancreas.

31

Which of the following plays a central role in stimulating the secretion of the hormone gastrin?

a. The hormone secretin

b. The hormone cholecystokinin (CCK)

c. Distention of the stomach

d. An increase in [H+] in the lumen of the stomach

e. Histamine

c. Distention of the stomach

32

Which of the following statements concerning secretin is correct?

a. The most potent stimulus for secretin secretion is the presence of fat in the duodenum.

b. Secretin is the most potent stimulus for pancreatic digestive enzyme secretion.

c. Secretin is the most potent stimulus for pancreatic HCO3 - secretion.

d. Secretin stimulates secretion by the parietal and chief cells.

e. Secretin stimulates gastrin secretion by parietal cells.

c. Secretin is the most potent stimulus for pancreatic HCO3 - secretion.

33

Which of the following statements regarding lipid digestion and absorption is TRUE?

a. The presence of fatty acids in the duodenum stimulates the secretion of CCK, which in turn stimulates secretion of pancreatic enzymes.

b. The presence of fatty acids in the duodenum stimulates the secretion of secretin, which in turn stimulates contraction of the gallbladder.

c. The presence of fatty acids in the duodenum stimulates the secretion of gastrin, which in turn stimulates bile synthesis in the gallbladder.

d. The presence of fatty acids in the duodenum stimulates emptying of the stomach.

e. The presence of fatty acids in the stomach stimulates the secretion of secretin, which inhibits motility of the large intestine.

a. The presence of fatty acids in the duodenum stimulates the secretion of CCK, which in turn stimulates secretion of pancreatic enzymes.

34

Which is TRUE regarding the three phases of the control of HCl secretion?

a. In the intestinal phase, an increase in osmolarity of the contents of the duodenum decreases HCl secretion.

b. In the gastric phase, distension of the stomach decreases HCl secretion.

c. In the cephalic phase, increased nutrient concentration in the duodenum stimulates HCl secretion.

d. In the intestinal phase, increased peptide concentration in the stomach inhibits HCl secretion.

e. In the gastric phase, decreased H+ concentration in the stomach inhibits HCl secretion.

a. In the intestinal phase, an increase in osmolarity of the contents of the duodenum decreases HCl secretion

35

Which of the following would be most likely to cause metabolic alkalosis?

a. Severe vomiting

b. Severe diarrhea

c. Hyperventilation

d. Strenuous exercise

e. Hypoventilation

a. Severe vomiting