Physio Chp 17 Quiz

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1

With regard to reproduction, which is correct about SRY?

a. It is a protein that is normally coded for by a gene that is present on the Y chromosome.

b. It is a protein normally coded for by a gene that is present on the X chromosome.

c. It is a gene that codes for testosterone.

d. It is a protein that causes the degeneration of the Wolffian ducts.

e. It is a gene found in both males and females.

a. It is a protein that is normally coded for by a gene that is present on the Y chromosome.

2

In the differentiation of a normal female:

a. Müllerian inhibiting substance causes the Müllerian ducts to regress.

b. The uterus and fallopian tubes are formed from the Wolffian ducts.

c. Female genitalia form in the absence of hormonal stimulation.

d. The gonads remain undifferentiated throughout fetal life.

e. The SRX protein present on X chromosomes makes the gonads differentiate into ovaries.

c. Female genitalia form in the absence of hormonal stimulation.

3

The process of spermatogenesis from primary spermatocyte to sperm

a. takes about three weeks in the human.

b. occurs when a male is an embryo, ceasing at birth.

c. requires participation of Sertoli cells.

d. occurs in the epididymis.

e. occurs as the cells gradually travel between two closely attached Leydig cells.

c. requires participation of Sertoli cells.

4

Which of the following is FALSE regarding erection of the penis?

a. It is a spinal reflex.

b. It is a result of sympathetic stimulation of vascular smooth muscle in the erectile tissue of the penis.

c. It can be triggered by stimulation of tactile receptors in the penis.

d. It is a result of arteriolar vasodilation and venous constriction of blood vessels in the penis.

e. It can be inhibited by input to the autonomic nerves from higher brain centers.

b. It is a result of sympathetic stimulation of vascular smooth muscle in the erectile tissue of the penis.

5

Ejaculation of semen from the penis is caused by

a. a parasympathetic reflex that contracts the seminal vesicles, epididymis, and vas deferens.

b. a somatic reflex that initiates sperm production and motility, and contracts skeletal muscle surrounding the vas deferens.

c. voluntary relaxation of the internal urethral sphincter, and sympathetic stimulation of smooth muscle contraction in the walls of the ureters and the urethra.

d. sympathetic nerve firing, which initiates smooth muscle contraction in the epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory ducts, prostate, and seminal vesicles.

e. parasympathetic stimulation of smooth muscle in the ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.

d. sympathetic nerve firing, which initiates smooth muscle contraction in the epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory ducts, prostate, and seminal vesicles.

6

If you start at the plasma membrane of an oocyte in a mature follicle and move outward, which is the correct order in which you would encounter the three structures listed below?

a. Zona pellucida; granulosa cells; theca cells

b. Zona pellucida; theca cells; granulosa cells

c. Granulosa cells; zona pellucida; theca cells

d. Granulosa cells; theca cells; zona pellucida

e. Theca cells; zona pellucida; granulosa cells

a. Zona pellucida; granulosa cells; theca cells

7

In the ovarian cycle, the dominant follicle

a. undergoes atresia.

b. continues to grow beyond day 7 of the cycle, while the other developing follicles degenerate.

c. is selected on day 1 of the cycle, and no other follicles develop beyond that day.

d. is selected to continue growing at about the middle of the luteal phase.

e. ruptures during ovulation on day 21 of the cycle.

b. continues to grow beyond day 7 of the cycle, while the other developing follicles degenerate.

8

Which is TRUE about the maturation of ovarian follicles?

a. Granulosa cells produce androgens, which stimulates follicle maturation.

b. Theca cells produce estrogen, which is converted to the androgens that stimulate follicle maturation.

c. On day 1 of the cycle, growing follicles have both FSH and LH receptors on granulosa cells.

d. Growing follicles produce estrogen, which further stimulates follicle maturation.

e. Follicle maturation is stimulated when FSH binds to theca cells and LH binds to granulosa cells.

d. Growing follicles produce estrogen, which further stimulates follicle maturation.

9

Which of the following is TRUE of follicular estrogen synthesis?

a. Granulosa cells synthesize an androgen which the theca cells convert to estrogen.

b. Sertoli cells synthesize an androgen which the granulosa cells convert to dihydrotestosterone.

c. Theca cells synthesize an androgen which luteal cells convert to estrogen.

d. Production of progesterone by the corpus luteum requires cooperative interaction between two cell types.

e. Theca cells synthesize an androgen which the granulosa cells convert to estrogen.

e. Theca cells synthesize an androgen which the granulosa cells convert to estrogen.

10

Beginning on the first day of the menstrual cycle, the order of phases in the uterus is

a. proliferative, secretory, menstrual.

b. secretory, proliferative, menstrual.

c. menstrual, secretory, proliferative.

d. menstrual, proliferative, secretory.

e. secretory, menstrual, proliferative.

d. menstrual, proliferative, secretory.

11

Shedding of the endometrial lining occurs

a. because ovulation disrupts the growing follicle.

b. as a result of a fall in plasma levels of estradiol and progesterone.

c. a day after the LH surge.

d. because of an increase in the level of FSH.

e. because the nondominant follicles undergo atresia.

b. as a result of a fall in plasma levels of estradiol and progesterone.

12

Which is a function of LH?

a. It stimulates androgen production by theca cells.

b. It stimulates the growth of granulosa cells.

c. It stimulates production of inhibin by theca cells.

d. It stimulates estrogen production by theca cells.

e. It inhibits GnRH secretion by the hypothalamus during ovulation.

a. It stimulates androgen production by theca cells.

13

During the early part of the menstrual cycle, __________ acts on granulosa cells, which __________. __________ acts on theca cells, which __________.

a. LH; convert androgens to estrogens; FSH; synthesize androgens

b. LH; synthesize androgens; FSH; convert androgens to estrogens

c. FSH; convert androgens to estrogens; LH; synthesize androgens

d. FSH; synthesize androgens; LH; convert androgens to estrogens

e. progesterone; synthesize androgens; LH; secrete estrogens

c. FSH; convert androgens to estrogens; LH; synthesize androgens

14

How does estradiol increase the likelihood that an egg will be fertilized?

a. It inhibits the motility of uterine smooth muscle.

b. It stimulates inhibin levels, which causes a surge of FSH.

c. It increases libido, or sex drive, in women.

d. It changes cervical mucus to a watery consistency that allows sperm to penetrate the cervix.

e. It stimulates LH receptors that help maintain a corpus luteum.

d. It changes cervical mucus to a watery consistency that allows sperm to penetrate the cervix.

15

Which is NOT true about the actions of progesterone?

a. It increases contractions and activity of the fallopian tube smooth muscle and cilia.

b. It induces thick, sticky mucus in the cervix.

c. It inhibits the milk-inducing effects of prolactin.

d. It increases body temperature.

e. It exerts negative feedback on the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary.

a. It increases contractions and activity of the fallopian tube smooth muscle and cilia.

16

Which is TRUE about sperm delivery?

a. Most of the ejaculated sperm arrive in the vicinity of the ovum (if there is one).

b. Sperm transport through the cervix is made possible by actions of progesterone on the cervical mucus.

c. Of the several hundred million sperm in an ejaculation, only about 100 to 200 reach the fallopian tube.

d. Sperm are able to fertilize an egg from the instant they arrive in the female reproductive tract.

e. Sperm can survive for up to 2 weeks in the mucus of the cervix.

c. Of the several hundred million sperm in an ejaculation, only about 100 to 200 reach the fallopian tube.

17

The acrosome reaction is triggered by

a. deposition of sperm into the female reproductive tract.

b. capacitation of sperm.

c. estrogen.

d. binding of the heads of sperm to the zona pellucida.

e. the first meiotic reduction division of the ovum.

d. binding of the heads of sperm to the zona pellucida.

18

The placenta is

a. a site where maternal blood enters the fetal circulation.

b. a site formed by the proliferation of the maternal endometrium and myometrium.

c. a site where fetal blood can enter the maternal circulation.

d. a site of diffusion and transport of wastes, oxygen, and nutrients between fetal and maternal blood.

e. formed from maternal circulatory stem cells, and serves as an exchange organ between mother and fetus.

d. a site of diffusion and transport of wastes, oxygen, and nutrients between fetal and maternal blood.

19

Which of the following is NOT a function of estrogen during pregnancy?

a. Stimulation of myometrial growth

b. Maintenance of the endometrium

c. Stimulation of prolactin secretion

d. Stimulation of breast development

e. Controlling milk ejection

e. Controlling milk ejection

20

Which is TRUE about hormonal control during pregnancy?

a. The corpus luteum must remain functional for 38 weeks because it is the main source of estrogen and progesterone.

b. The placenta responds to estrogen and progesterone from the corpus luteum, but does not secrete them.

c. The placenta produces estrogen without any contribution from the fetal adrenal cortex.

d. The placenta is provided with androgens by the maternal ovaries and adrenal glands, and by the fetal adrenal glands.

e. The placenta secretes only steroid hormones, while fetal and maternal pituitary glands secrete pregnancy-specific protein hormones.

d. The placenta is provided with androgens by the maternal ovaries and adrenal glands, and by the fetal adrenal glands.

21

Which of the following is inhibited by progesterone during pregnancy?

a. The sensitivity of the myometrium to stimuli that promote contraction

b. Plugging of the uterus by thickened cervical mucus

c. Growth of the mammary glands

d. Secretion of estrogen

e. Regression of the corpus luteum

a. The sensitivity of the myometrium to stimuli that promote contraction

22

Which of the following statements regarding endocrine regulation of breast function in females is FALSE?

a. During puberty, ductal growth is stimulated by increasing estrogen levels in plasma.

b. During puberty, progesterone stimulates the growth of breast alveoli.

c. During pregnancy, the main source of plasma prolactin is secretion from the maternal anterior pituitary gland.

d. Prolactin is the main hormone mediating the milk ejection reflex.

e. Breast development fluctuates with changing blood concentrations of estrogen and progesterone during each menstrual cycle.

d. Prolactin is the main hormone mediating the milk ejection reflex.

23

Which of these bests describes colostrum?

a. It is composed of dark-colored solid waste ejected from a fetus's bowels shortly after it is born.

b. It is a hormone secreted by the hypothalamus that inhibits prolactin secretion.

c. It is the watery remnant of breast milk that continues to be expelled from the breasts after a baby is weaned.

d. It is a watery, protein-rich fluid secreted from maternal breasts after delivery of a baby.

e. It is an estrogen-rich fluid that fills the antrum of a mature ovarian follicle.

d. It is a watery, protein-rich fluid secreted from maternal breasts after delivery of a baby.

24

Which of the following hormones is NOT secreted by the placenta during pregnancy?

a. Human placental lactogen

b. Androgens

c. Estradiol

d. Progesterone

e. Inhibin

b. Androgens

25

The time span over which sexual intercourse is most likely to result in conception is from __________ day(s) before ovulation to __________ day(s) after ovulation.

a. 0; 3

b. 1; 1

c. 2; 4

d. 1; 5

e. 5; 1

e. 5; 1

26

Which of the following are actions of estrogen?

Check All That Apply

a. Stimulation of fat deposition under the skin in the breasts and hips

b. Thickening of the cervical mucus

c. Increased expression of oxytocin receptors in the myometrium

d. Stimulation of bone growth and strength

e. Stimulation of growth of pubic hair

a. Stimulation of fat deposition under the skin in the breasts and hips

c. Increased expression of oxytocin receptors in the myometrium

d. Stimulation of bone growth and strength

27

Which of the following normally produces androgens?

Check All That Apply

a. Leydig cells

b. Theca cells

c. Adrenal cortex cells

d. Sertoli cells

e. Endometrial cells

a. Leydig cells

b. Theca cells

c. Adrenal cortex cells

28

Which of these is/are correct descriptions of the human placenta?

Check All That Apply

a. An endocrine gland

b. Fetal tissue

c. Richly vascularized

d. A storage location for nutrients

e. Richly innervated

a. An endocrine gland

b. Fetal tissue

c. Richly vascularized

29

Which is a TRUE statement about events occurring in the menstrual cycle?

Multiple Choice

a. Each peak in estrogen concentration is accompanied by an even greater peak in progesterone concentration.

b. FSH reaches its highest concentration 3 days before menstruation begins.

c. Progesterone is low during the first half of the cycle, and rises to a peak during the second half.

d. Ovulation occurs exactly in the middle of the follicular phase of the cycle.

e. The corpus luteum normally degenerates on day 14 of the cycle.

c. Progesterone is low during the first half of the cycle, and rises to a peak during the second half.

30

The follicular phase of the ovarian cycle coincides with which phase or phases of the uterine cycle?

a. Both the menstrual phase and the secretory phase

b. The secretory phase

c. Both the follicular phase and the secretory phase

d. Both the proliferative phase and the secretory phase

e. Both the menstrual phase and the proliferative phase

e. Both the menstrual phase and the proliferative phase

31

Which of the following statements about estrogen in females is FALSE?

Multiple Choice

a. In low plasma concentration, estrogen inhibits pituitary secretion of LH and FSH.

b. In high plasma concentration, estrogen stimulates pituitary sensitivity to GnRH.

c. In the presence of high plasma concentration of progesterone, estrogen stimulates increased secretion of GnRH.

d. Estrogen secretion is required for the LH surge.

e. Estrogen stimulates follicular growth

c. In the presence of high plasma concentration of progesterone, estrogen stimulates increased secretion of GnRH.

32

On day 1 of the menstrual cycle, FSH levels will be __________. The follicle that will become dominant is in the __________ stage of maturation. Progesterone levels in blood are __________.

Multiple Choice

a. rising; primordial; low

b. rising; preantral to antral; low

c. rising; preantral to antral; high

d. falling; expanding; low

e. falling; atretic; high

b. rising; preantral to antral; low

33

On day 14 of a typical 28-day menstrual cycle, LH concentration in the blood will be __________. The endometrium will be __________. Estrogen concentration in the blood is __________.

a. level; sloughing off; low

b. at or near a peak; near the end of the proliferative phase; relatively high

c. low but rising; in the secretory phase; high

d. at or near a peak; in the secretory phase; low

e. level; starting the proliferative phase; level but high

b. at or near a peak; near the end of the proliferative phase; relatively high

34

Which is TRUE during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle?

Multiple Choice

a. Both estrogen and progesterone concentrations are kept low by negative feedback.

b. Estrogen concentration remains low, while progesterone concentration rises to a peak.

c. Progesterone concentration remains low, while estrogen concentration rises to a peak.

d. Progesterone concentration in the plasma is high, but estrogen concentration rises even higher.

e. Estrogen concentration in the plasma is high, but progesterone concentration rises even higher.

e. Estrogen concentration in the plasma is high, but progesterone concentration rises even higher.

35

The transition between the __________ and the __________ phases of the uterine cycle coincides with __________.

Multiple Choice

a. follicular; luteal; a rise in basal body temperature

b. proliferative; secretory; ovulation

c. menstrual; proliferative; ovulation

d. secretory; proliferative; selection of the dominant follicle

e. proliferative; secretory; menstruation

b. proliferative; secretory; ovulation

36

The blastocyst implants in the uterus on about the __________ day of the 28-day menstrual cycle. At this time, the endometrium is __________ and progesterone levels are __________.

Multiple Choice

a. 21st; thick and secretory; high

b. 28th; thick and secretory; low

c. 14th; thick and secretory; low

d. 28th; thin and proliferating; high

e. 21st; thin and proliferating; low

a. 21st; thick and secretory; high

37

The corpus luteum persists in pregnancy because the implanting blastocyst secretes:

Multiple Choice

a. large quantities of FSH and LH.

b. GnRH, which stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete FSH and LH.

c. human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).

d. progesterone and estrogen.

e. cortisol.

c. human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).

38

Which of the following statements regarding the control of parturition is FALSE?

Multiple Choice

a. Oxytocin secretion is stimulated by cervical dilation.

b. Coordinated uterine contractions cause the cervix to dilate.

c. Oxytocin decreases the expression of myometrial estrogen receptors.

d. Prostaglandins stimulate myometrial contractions.

e. Stretching of the myometrium is one signal that begins uterine contractions.

c. Oxytocin decreases the expression of myometrial estrogen receptors.

39

A class of drugs that inhibit vasodilation would have what effect on male reproduction?

Multiple Choice

a. Orgasm would occur more readily

b. Erection may be inhibited

c. Increased rate of sperm production may occur

d. Increased volume of semen may be produced

e. None of these effects would occur

b. Erection may be inhibited

40

Jim has just been diagnosed with testicular cancer. The tumor is composed of Sertoli cells and they have begun to produce excessive amounts of inhibin. Which of the following would be TRUE?

Multiple Choice

a. FSH secretion would be selectively inhibited, but LH secretion would be normal.

b. Spermatogenesis would be increased but testosterone secretion would be normal.

c. Spermatogenesis would be increased because testosterone production would be above normal.

d. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone levels and spermatogenesis would increase above normal.

e. Both FSH and LH secretion would rise above normal levels.

a. FSH secretion would be selectively inhibited, but LH secretion would be normal.

41

Sydney had an infection 10 years ago that left scarring in her fallopian tubes. Due to this scarring, the diameter of the fallopian tubes has been reduced by 75%. What effects may Sydney experience?

Multiple Choice

a. Oocytes may not reach the uterus.

b. Endometrium may not mature as needed for implantation.

c. During pregnancy the fetus may not mature to full size.

d. The cervix may not dilate during birth.

e. None of these would occur.

a. Oocytes may not reach the uterus.

42

If the amount of progesterone in the blood remained at the level seen in the middle of the luteal phase for 6 straight months, what would the effect be on menstruation?

Multiple Choice

a. Menstruation would not occur.

b. Menstruation would occur consistently for the entire 6 months.

c. Menstruation would occur at the typical intervals, but would be heavier than before.

d. Menstruation would occur at the typical intervals, but would be lighter than before.

e. There would be no effect on menstruation.

a. Menstruation would not occur.

43

In an effort to prolong the years of female reproduction a drug company produces a drug that prevents more than one follicle from maturing each menstrual cycle. Which of the following might be a side-effect of this drug?

Multiple Choice

a. Lower circulating estrogen levels in the follicular phase

b. Lower circulating progesterone levels in the follicular phase

c. Lower circulating progesterone levels in the luteal phase

d. Higher circulating estrogen levels in the luteal phase

e. Lower libido

a. Lower circulating estrogen levels in the follicular phase

44

Many forms of birth control prevent ovulation, although follicular maturation continues to occur. Which of the following would NOT occur in a woman on one of these forms of birth control?

Multiple Choice

a. Completion of the first meiotic division of the oocyte

b. The second meiotic division of the oocyte

c. Expulsion of the thecal cells onto the ovarian surface

d. All of these will still occur

e. Expulsion of the corpus luteum from the ovary

a. Completion of the first meiotic division of the oocyte

45

Julie is 8 weeks pregnant. She takes a drug that is an antagonist to the progesterone receptor. What will happen?

Multiple Choice

a. Ovulation will be disrupted.

b. The endometrium and conceptus will be shed.

c. Ovulation will occur.

d. Follicles will begin to mature.

e. Non-dominant follicles undergo atresia.

b. The endometrium and conceptus will be shed.

46

During a routine check in the second trimester Erica’s doctor tells her that the placenta is half the size typically seen at this stage of pregnancy. Which of the following is a concern?

Check All That Apply

a. Inadequate exchange of nutrients and waste, thereby limiting fetal growth

b. Inadequate levels of the hormones of pregnancy

c. The fetus may become overly large due to extra space in the uterus

d. Less maternal blood than is typical will be able to flow into fetal circulation

e. None of these will be a concern

a. Inadequate exchange of nutrients and waste, thereby limiting fetal growth

b. Inadequate levels of the hormones of pregnancy

47

Julia is a new mother who plans to continue lactation for at least a year after her baby is born. At a post-parturition doctor's visit, the doctor says her blood test indicates declining levels of estrogen and progesterone. Will this interfere with her plans to lactate?

Multiple Choice

a. Yes, high levels of estrogen and progesterone are required for milk production.

b. Yes, high levels of estrogen and progesterone are required for milk ejection.

c. No, because the secretion of oxytocin and prolactin are more important for lactation.

d. No, because even in the absence of hormones, suckling at the breast is sufficient stimulus for milk production.

c. No, because the secretion of oxytocin and prolactin are more important for lactation.

48

What would be the effect of giving an agonist to the oxytocin receptor to a woman late in pregnancy?

Multiple Choice

a. Onset of uterine contractions

b. Inhibition of breast milk production

c. Declining levels of estrogen

d. Increase in maternal blood pressure

e. Inhibition of cervical dilation

a. Onset of uterine contractions

49

Kathryn is pregnant and very eager to breast-feed after the baby is born. Her friend gives her a supplement to encourage prolactin secretion and Kathryn starts to take it during pregnancy. The supplement works and Kathryn’s blood level of prolactin increases. She does not begin lactating during pregnancy because

Multiple Choice

a. the breast ducts do not develop until after parturition.

b. the high levels of estrogen and progesterone in maternal plasma inhibit the effects of prolactin.

c. maternal plasma levels of prolactin are low during pregnancy.

d. high levels of androgens inhibit milk synthesis by the breasts.

e. the low levels of circulating estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy inhibit milk synthesis by the breasts.

b. the high levels of estrogen and progesterone in maternal plasma inhibit the effects of prolactin.

50

A drug company creates a drug that acts as an antagonist to the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) receptor. The effect of this drug, if given in early pregnancy would be

Multiple Choice

a. secretion of large quantities of FSH and LH.

b. secretion of large quantities of GnRH.

c. degeneration of the corpus luteum and declining levels of progesterone and estrogen.

d. secretion of large quantities of progesterone and estrogen.

e. secretion of cortisol.

c. degeneration of the corpus luteum and declining levels of progesterone and estrogen.