One reason for the end of the postwar economic boom in the 1970s
a. the entry of large numbers of women in the work force.
b. the Arab oil embargo.
c. a decline in technological innovation.
d. a lack of government safety and health regulations.
e. a drastic decline in worker productivity.
Lyndon Johnson's insistence on fighting the Vietnam War and finding
the Great Society with a tax increase to pay for them led to
a. a drastic inflation of prices in the 1970s.
b. a decline in the competitive advantage of American business.
c. severe cutbacks in the size of the federal government.
d. a taxpayer revolt.
e. a growing reliance on overseas trade to sustain the American economy.
The poor economic performance of the 1970s brought an abrupt end
a. American reliance on Middle Eastern oil.
b. the Social Security and Medicare programs for the elderly.
c. the increases in military spending of the 1960s.
d. the liberal dream that affluent American could spend its way to social justice.
e. reliance on the dollar as a stable international currency.
The Nixon Doctrine proclaimed that the United States would
a. honor its existing defense commitment, but that in the future its allies would have to fight their own wars without large numbers of American troops.
b. supply only economic aid to its allies.
c. seek detente with the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China.
d. intervene to help its allies fight communism only if the United States was allowed to send American troops.
e. maintain naval and air bases in East Asia but not put troops on the Asian mainland.
Perhaps Richard Nixon's most valuable asset as he began his
presidency in 1969 was his
a. naturally conciliatory manner.
b. inclination to try to work openly with antiwar liberals to halt the Vietnam War.
c. close connection with former President Eisenhower.
d. clear mandate from the public as a result of his 1968 election victory.
e. expertise in foreign affairs.
President Nixon's policy of "Vietnamization" of the war in
Vietnam called for
a. a gradual handover of the ground war to the South Vietnamese.
b. a full-scale conventional invasion of North Vietnam.
c. reorganization of the American army in Vietnam into anti-guerrilla units.
d. an end to all American military and economic aid to South Vietnam.
e. a de-emphasis on military assaults in favor of Vietnamese social reform.
Richard Nixon's Vietnam policy included all of the following
b. extension of the war to Cambodia.
c. massive bombing campaigns in Vietnam.
d. increased American troop commitments.
e. creating a draft lottery and reducing draft calls.
The American armed forces in Vietnam were composed largely of
b. African Americans.
c. soldiers in their middle and late twenties.
d. the least privileged young Americans.
e. professional career soldiers.
The __________ Amendment __________ the voting age to
a. Twenty-sixth; raised; twenty-one
b. Twenty-fourth; lowered; eighteen
c. Twenty-fifth; raised; nineteen
d. Twenty-sixth; lowered; eighteen
e. Twenty-sixth; lowered; sixteen
The top secret "Pentagon Papers," leaked and published in
a. revealed President Nixon's role in the Watergate scandal.
b. documented the North Vietnamese attack in the Gulf of Tonkin.
c. exposed President Nixon's secret bombing war of Cambodia.
d. was the first the American public knew of the Nixon Doctrine.
e. exposed the deception that had led the United States into the Vietnam War.
To control creeping inflation in the early 1970s, President Richard
a. imposed a ninety-day wage and price freeze.
b. put the United States back on the gold standard.
c. sought a system of international currency stabilization.
d. lowered Social Security payments.
e. pressured the Federal Reserve Board to raise interest rates.
All of the following were created during Richard Nixon's presidency
a. the Environmental Protection Agency.
b. Supplemental Security Income for the blind, disabled, and indigent aged.
c. the Endangered Species Act.
d. the Occupational Health and Safety Administration.
e. the Medicare program.
The difference between Lyndon Johnson's affirmative action programs
and those of Richard Nixon was
a. very small.
b. that Johnson intended his to help groups and Nixon intended his to help individuals.
c. that Nixon's actions applied only to educational opportunities and did nothing for employment, while Johnson's helped both.
d. that Johnson intended to help individuals, but Nixon conferred privileges on groups.
e. that Johnson established quotas and Nixon ended them.
Richard Nixon's Philadelphia Plan
a. was a direct attack on affirmative action.
b. aimed at giving direct economic assistance to business.
c. attempted to counter the Supreme Court's opposition to affirmative action.
d. required construction trade unions to establish timetables and goals for hiring black apprentices.
e. aimed to renovate inner cities like those in Philadelphia.
When it came to welfare programs, Richard Nixon
a. sought to exclude African Americans.
b. tried to repeal only food stamps and Medicaid.
c. did little to reduce the poverty rate.
d. did his best to do away with Lyndon Johnson's Great Society programs.
e. supported significant expansion in many areas.
The Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren outraged religious
conservatives in 1962-63 when it
a. declared a woman's right to an abortion.
b. ruled that prayer and Bible reading in public schools violated the First Amendment.
c. prohibited the display of religious symbols in government buildings.
d. ruled that parochial students could not ride on public school buses.
e. declared that the practice of having Congressional chaplains was unconstitutional.
In Griswold v. Connecticut, the Supreme Court upheld a married
couple's right to use contraceptives based on
a. the "necessary and proper" clause of the Constitution.
b. the First Amendment.
c. a "right to privacy."
d. Roe v. Wade.
e. the Fifth Amendment.
The Nixon administration still reflected a staunch anticommunist
policy when it worked to undermine and overthrow the leftist
Richard Nixon's policy of détente
a. was designed to improve relations between the Soviet Union and China.
b. was aimed at ending the division of Germany and Korea.
c. was a failure.
d. found support in the Democratic party but not the Republican party.
e. ushered in an era of relaxed tensions between the United States and the two leading communist powers, China and the Soviet Union.
President Nixon's chief foreign-policy adviser was
a. Henry Kissinger.
b. John Dean III.
c. Spiro Agnew.
d. Cyrus Vance.
e. Donald Rumsfeld.
The Supreme Court case of Roe v. Wade declared state laws prohibiting
abortion were unconstitutional because they
a. violated the First Amendment by using a religious definition of "person."
b. violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment by placing a particular burden on women not placed on men.
c. wrote into law a particular philosophical and scientific view of human life that imposed unfair treatment on those who disagreed.
d. violated the Fifth Amendment by interfering with doctors' professional medical practices.
e. violated a woman's constitutional right to privacy in her own person.
The proposed Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), passed by Congress in 1972
and eventually ratified by 35 states, stated the following:
a. "Congress shall pass no law restricting the equal right of privacy in marital relations or reproduction."
b. "The equal rights of unborn citizens of the United States under the Fourteenth Amendment shall not be abridged."
c. "Equal access to the courts of the United States and any state shall not be abridged on account of race, gender, or physical handicap."
d. "Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on the basis of sex."
e. "Nothing in this Constitution shall be construed by the courts or any state to prohibit the guarantee of equal pay for equal work to women."
Title IX was passed by Congress in 1972 to
a. prohibit sex discrimination in any federally funded education program or activity.
b. guarantee women equal pay for equal work.
c. prohibit any form of sexual harassment or sexual innuendoes on the job.
d. establish quotas for women in sports, business, and government positions.
e. protect women's access to birth control and abortion.
While many of the social movements born in the 1960s declined or
disappeared, the one that remained strong and even gathered momentum
in the 1970s was
a. the counterculture movement.
b. the peace movement.
c. the feminist movement.
d. the civil rights movement.
e. the antipoverty movement.
When the North Vietnamese launched their full invasion of South
Vietnam in 1975
a. the United States provided even more military aid to South Vietnam.
b. the Chinese intervened to seek a neutral settlement.
c. the United States renewed bombing against North Vietnam.
d. all the South Vietnamese who supported the U.S. were trapped inside the country.
e. the South Vietnamese government quickly collapsed.
The people of the United States had provided just about everything
for South Vietnam except
a. the most sophisticated aircraft.
b. hundreds of thousands of U.S. troops.
c. enough time to win.
d. enough money to build its own military.
e. the will to win the war.
The Helsinki accords, signed by Gerald Ford and leaders of
thirty-four other nations,
a. pledged signatories to guarantee certain basic human rights.
b. rejected the Soviet-directed boundary of Poland.
c. proved to many Americans that détente was still a two-way street.
d. was condemned by West Germany as meaningless.
e. accepted Soviet control of Eastern Europe.
The most controversial action of Gerald Ford's presidency was
a. signing the Helsinki accords with the Soviet Union.
b. frantically evacuating the last Americans and Vietnamese by helicopter during the fall of South Vietnam to the Communists.
c. arranging the deal whereby Nixon resigned the president.
d. pardoning Nixon for any known or unknown crimes he had committed while president.
e. pardoning Vietnam War draft resisters and evaders.
Richard Nixon tried to resist giving his taped conversations to the
special prosecutor and the Congress by claiming that
a. portions of the tape were erased.
b. they were his private property.
c. he had executive privilege (confidentiality).
d. they were inaudible.
e. it would violate his right to privacy.
The list of Nixon illegal administration activities uncovered in the
Watergate scandal included all of the following except
a. breaking into the Democratic party headquarters in order to "bug" them.
b. paying Supreme Court justices to write favorable opinions.
c. using the internal Revenue Service to harass its "enemies."
d. forging documents to discredit Democrats.
e. using the FBI and CIA to cover up previous crimes.
As a result of U.S. support for Israel in 1973 when it was attacked
by Egypt and Syria,
a. Israel took control of Syria.
b. America had to reduce its aid to other nations.
c. Arab nations placed an embargo on oil to America.
d. the Soviet Union started sending arms to Syria.
e. Israel was able to seize the Suez Canal.
As a result of Richard Nixon's aerial bombing of neutral Cambodia in
a. Congress revoked the War Powers Act.
b. he was impeached.
c. the Cambodian economy was ruined and its politics revolutionized.
d. strong congressional reaction forced Nixon to withdraw all remaining American combat troops.
e. the Cambodians and North Vietnamese were forced to seek peace.
The 1973 War Powers Act
a. gave the president the power to commit troops without declaring war.
b. compelled President Nixon to end the secret bombing war in Cambodia.
c. required the president to report to Congress any commitment of American troops.
d. ended the military draft and created an all-volunteer army.
e. required Congress to approve funds for military operations.
In response to Congress's attempt to stop him from continuing the
bombing of Cambodia, President Nixon
a. began using secret agents to intimidate members of Congress.
b. gradually reduced the number of bombing raids.
c. shifted the bombing campaign to Laos.
d. declared that he was stopping the bombing but continued the campaign secretly.
e. repeatedly vetoed Congress's bills to halt the attacks.
In 1973 the American public was shocked to learn that
a. some American soldiers had committed massacres in Vietnam.
b. the Vietnamese peace agreement would not last.
c. the U.S. Air Force had been secretly bombing Cambodia since 1973.
d. President Nixon had prepared plans to invade North Vietnam.
e. the United States was threatening to use nuclear weapons in Vietnam and Cambodia.
As part of the cease-fire agreement in Vietnam in 1973,
a. the United States ended the bombing of Cambodia.
b. the United States stopped all economic and military aid to South Vietnam.
c. North Vietnam withdrew all its troops from South Vietnam.
d. the Viet Cong joined a coalition government in South Vietnam.
e. the United States withdrew all its troops from Vietnam.
The shaky agreement that brought an end to American fighting in
Vietnam in January 1973 represented
a. a thinly disguised American retreat.
b. an end to warfare in Vietnam.
c. the establishment of a unified, neutral Vietnam.
d. the achievement of the essential American goals in the war.
e. a vote of confidence in the South Vietnamese government's ability to defeat the communists.
As a presidential candidate, South Dakota Senator George McGovern
appealed most strongly to the
a. antiwar movement.
b. working class.
d. religious conservatives.
George McGovern, the Democratic nominee for the presidency in 1972,
alienated the traditional working-class backbone of the Democratic
a. by advocating a cut in Social Security.
b. when he advocated an end to the Vietnam War.
c. when it was discovered that he had undergone psychiatric care.
d. by appealing to racial minorities, feminists, and youth.
e. by opposing the power of labor unions.
Richard Nixon's "southern strategy" included the policy
a. completely overhauling the welfare system.
b. ending the Vietnam War.
c. moving nearly all military bases to the southern states.
d. appointing only southerners to the Supreme Court.
e. soft-pedaling civil rights and opposing school busing to achieve racial balance.
The guiding principle of President Carter's foreign policy
e. human rights.
James Earl (Jimmy) Carter enjoyed considerable popularity when he won
the presidency because
a. his emphasis on honesty contrasted with the corruptions of Watergate.
b. he was widely known as skilled in dealing with Congress and Washington.
c. he brought in a team of highly respected and experienced cabinet members and advisers.
d. he was a born-again Southern Baptist.
e. he had a clear plan to solve the energy crisis.
The opposing major party candidates in the bicentennial presidential
campaign of 1976 were
a. Nelson Rockefeller and Edward Kennedy.
b. Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter.
c. Ronald Reagan and Jimmy Carter.
d. Gerald Ford and Eugene McCarthy.
e. Richard Nixon and George McGovern.
On which of the following issues did nearly all "second
wave" feminists agree?
b. how much to expect from the government, capitalism, and men
d. abortion rights
e. maternity leaves and special protections for women in the workplace
The "first wave" of feminism grew out of the __________
movement, and the "second wave" of feminism grew out of the
a. abolitionist; civil rights
b. prohibition; black power.
c. peace; environmental
d. progressive; antiwar.
e. evangelical revival; gay.
American Indian activists brought attention to their cause in the
1970s by seizing
a. the Little Big Horn battleground and Mount Rushmore in the sacred Black Hills.
b. Alcatraz Island and Wounded Knee, South Dakota.
c. the major tribal headquarters throughout Oklahoma.
d. salmon fishing grounds in Washington and trout streams in Wisconsin and Minnesota.
e. the Tippecanoe battlefield and Mesa Verde National Park.
The supreme Court in the Bakke case held that
a. all forms of affirmative action in college admissions were unconstitutional.
b. "reverse discrimination" was just as wrong as antiblack discrimination.
c. public universities could impose racial quotas but private universities did not have to do so.
d. it was acceptable for universities to establish minority-based programs and housing arrangements.
e. racial quotas were unconstitutional but race could be taken into account as one factor in college admissions.
The effect of the Supreme Court ruling in Milliken v. Bradley, which
held that integration did not have to take place across school
district lines, was to
a. encourage voluntary busing programs.
b. cause Congress to pass laws equalizing school funding in different districts.
c. turn public attention to eliminating segregated housing patterns.
d. reinforce the division between poorer, minority inner city schools and nearly all white suburbs.
e. end school busing programs in favor of the neighborhood school.
The most explosive domestic controversy of the 1970s centered around
c. the environment.
The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) failed to be ratified by the needed
38 states largely because
a. the Catholic Church opposed it.
b. many Americans realized that its goals had already been achieved without amending the Constitution.
c. an antifeminist backlash led by Phyllis Schlafly stirred sufficient opposition to stop it.
d. many suspected that it would require such things as rigid quotas and unisex bathrooms.
e. many Americans believed that equal gender treatment was a matter of changing attitudes, not creating laws.
Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) Arab oil
embargo, (B) Iranian hostage crisis, (C) fall of Saigon, (D) invasion
a. B, A, C, D
b. A, C, B, D
c. D, B, A, C
d. C, B, D, A
e. D, A, C, B
The most humiliating failure during the Iran hostage crisis came
a. the Ayatollah Khomeini overthrew the Shah.
b. America's allies approved the hostage takeover.
c. President Carter's attempted rescue mission ended in disaster.
d. some of the hostages took the side of their Iranian captors.
e. the Iranians demonstrated their control of American oil supplies.
The SALT II Treaty between the Soviet Union and the United States
died in the Senate when the Soviets
a. refused to sign the Helsinki accords.
b. cracked down on Soviet dissidents.
c. halted the immigration of Soviet Jews to Israel.
d. helped Muslim fundamentalists to overthrow the shah of Iran.
e. invaded Afghanistan.
The "oil shocks" of the 1970s brought home to Americans the
stunning fact that
a. the private automobile was not sustainable as the major mode of transportation.
b. they would have to invest in new forms of energy.
c. the United States had run completely out of oil
d. the United States would have to become militarily engaged in the Middle East conflicts.
e. their economy was increasingly dependent on foreign trade and the global economy.
The first major trouble to afflict President Carter's foreign policy
a. the Panamanian seizure of the Panama Canal.
b. the collapse of the Camp David accords between Israel and Egypt.
c. the ominous reheating of the Cold War with the Soviet Union.
d. the taking of American hostages in Lebanon.
e. the threatened Chinese invasion of Taiwan.
President Carter believed that the fundamental problem of the
American economy in the late 1970s was
a. the absence of price controls on domestic oil production.
b. U.S. dependence on foreign oil.
c. the high import fees on foreign oil.
d. the exhaustion of domestic oil supplies.
e. the loss of a manufacturing base.
President Jimmy Carter's most spectacular foreign-policy achievement
a. Panama Canal Treaty.
b. Helsinki accords.
c. Camp David agreement between Israel and Egypt.
d. SALT II Treaty.
e. Iran hostage release.