Americans feared that the end of World War II would bring
a. heightened racial tensions.
b. a return of the Great Depression.
c. moral and religious decline.
d. continued fascist resistance in Germany.
e. a new war with the Soviet Union.
The Taft-Hartley Act delivered a major blow to labor by
a. outlawing strikes by public employees.
b. creating a serious inflationary spiral.
c. banning labor's political action committees.
d. outlawing "closed" (all-union) shops.
e. forbidding union organizers to enter workplaces.
The passage of the Servicemen's Readjustment Act (GI Bill of Rights)
was partly motivated by
a. fear of postwar veterans' protests.
b. memories of the mistreatment of the veterans' Bonus Army in the 1930s.
c. fear that the labor markets could not absorb millions of discharged veterans.
d. a desire to expand the social diversity of American colleges and universities.
e. the need of American business for a more highly educated workforce.
The Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 was passed to check the growing power
a. the presidency.
c. labor unions.
d. the federal bureaucracy.
e. leftists and communists.
The growth of organized labor in the post-WWII era was slowed by all
of the following except
a. the Taft-Hartley Act.
b. the rapidly growing number of service-sector workers.
c. the failure of Operation Dixie.
d. the reduced number of women in the work force.
e. the growing number of part-time workers.
In an effort to forestall an economic downturn, the Truman
administration did all of the following except
a. create the President's Council of Economic Advisers.
b. sell war factories and other government installations to private businesses at very low prices.
c. pass the Employment Act, which made it government policy to promote maximum employment, production, and purchasing power.
d. pass the Servicemen's Readjustment Act, known as the GI Bill of Rights.
e. continue wartime wage and price controls.
The post-World War II prosperity in the United States was most
a. African Americans.
b. labor unions.
One striking consequence of the postwar economic boom was
a. the continued exclusion of most women from the workplace.
b. the growing split between urban and rural America.
c. the growing concentration of wealth at the top of society.
d. a vast expansion of the home owning middle class.
e. the growth of blue-collar employment.
The long economic boom from World War II to the 1970s was fueled
a. low energy costs.
b. reduced military expenditures.
c. low inflation.
d. low taxes.
e. high labor efficiency.
Much of the prosperity of the 1950s and 1960s rested on the
a. foreign aid.
b. a rising stock market.
c. foreign trade.
d. a thriving automobile industry.
e. colossal military budgets.
One sign of the stress that the widespread post-World War II
geographic mobility placed on American families was the
a. redistribution of income.
b. popularity of advice books on child-rearing.
c. increasing reliance on television as a "baby sitter."
d. increased number of long-distance telephone calls.
e. dramatic rise in divorces.
The dramatically reduced number of American farms and farmers in the
postwar era was accompanied by
a. growing poverty in rural America.
b. increasing shortages of American-grown food and fiber.
c. radical protests by farmers and farm laborers.
d. a romantic "back to the land" movement among city dwellers.
e. spectacular gains in American agricultural productivity and food growing.
Since 1945, population in the United States has grown most rapidly in
e. Pacific Northwest.
Much of the Sunbelt's new prosperity was based on its
a. tremendous influx of money from the federal government.
b. policy of high state taxes.
c. regulated economic growth.
d. cooperative effort rather than unbridled individualism.
e. attention to environmental issues.
All of the following encouraged many Americans to move to the suburbs
a. development of fuel-efficient automobiles.
b. home-loan guarantees from the Federal Housing Authority and the Veterans' Administration.
c. government-built highways.
d. tax deductions for interest payments on home mortgages.
e. "white flight" from racial change.
Which of the following did not contribute to the rapid rise of
suburbia in post-WWII America?
a. the baby boom.
b. government mortgage guarantees.
c. new highways.
d. "white flight."
e. the environment crisis.
By 1960, the proportion of Americans who lived in areas classified as
metropolitan suburbs was approximately
a. three out of four (75%).
b. one out of four (25%).
c. half (50%).
d. one out of ten (1 0%).
e. four out of ten (40%).
The continued growth of the suburbs led to
a. increased school integration.
b. better entertainment opportunities in the cities.
c. an increase in urban poverty.
d. a decrease in urban crime.
e. more efficient transportation.
Population distribution after World War II followed a pattern
a. movement into the Northeast and out of the South.
b. mass migration of blacks from the West to the Midwest.
c. movement from the Southwest to Appalachia.
d. movement out of the cities and into small towns.
e. an urban-suburban segregation of blacks and whites in major metropolitan areas.
The refusal of the Federal Housing Authority to grant home loans to
blacks contributed to
a. the growth of savings and loan institutions exclusively for blacks.
b. driving many blacks into public housing.
c. the development of exclusively black suburbs.
d. a decline in black migration to the cities.
e. all of the above.
The huge postwar "baby boom" reached its peak in
a. late 1940s
b. early 1950s
c. late 1950s
e. early 1970s
Before he was elected Vice President of the United States in
1944,Harry S Truman had served as all of the following except
a. a haberdashery store owner.
b. secretary of the navy.
c. a World War l artillery officer.
d. a Missouri judge.
e. a United States Senator.
Harry Truman possessed all of the following personal characteristics
a. willingness to admit mistakes.
b. few pretensions.
c. willingness to accept responsibility.
In early 1945, the United States was eager to have the Soviet Union
participate in the projected invasion of Japan because
a. the communists would be so busy in Asia that they could commit no mischief in Europe.
b. without Soviet help, the Japanese could not be defeated.
c. Soviet help could reduce the number of American casualties.
d. Roosevelt believed that Stalin could help to control the communists in China.
e. the Soviets could help control the Chinese communists.
The origins of the Cold War lay in a fundamental disagreement between
the United States and the Soviet Union over postwar arrangements
a. North Africa.
b. East Asia.
c. the Middle East.
d. the Third World.
e. Eastern Europe.
The United States and the Soviet Union resembled one another in that
a. had long experience as great powers in Europe.
b. accepted the idea of balance of power and spheres of influence.
c. believed that control of the Middle East was essential to maintaining their national security.
d. had been largely isolated from world affairs and practiced an ideological "missionary" foreign policy.
e. both believed that Britain and France must be destroyed as major powers.
Unlike the failed League of Nations, the new United Nations
a. denied the power of veto to any party in an international dispute.
b. established no forum for the smaller nations besides the great powers.
c. assumed that there would eventually be conflict among the great powers.
d. was unable to achieve approval by the United States Senate.
e. was established in a spirit of cooperation before the war's actual end.
The earliest and most serious failure of the United Nations involved
its inability to
a. preserve peace in places such as Iran.
b. command widespread support in the United States.
c. control atomic energy, especially the manufacture of weapons.
d. prevent the Soviet Union from exercising its veto power in the Security Council.
e. establish a Jewish homeland in Israel.
The victorious World War II Allies quickly agreed that
a. Germany should pay economically crippling war reparations.
b. Nazism should be destroyed in Germany and high-ranking Nazis should be tried and punished for war crimes.
c. occupied Germany should be reunited as soon as possible.
d. Germany should receive massive economic aid.
e. Germany should be divided into East and West Germany.
When the Soviet Union denied the United States, Britain, and France
access to Berlin in 1948, President Truman responded by
a. asking the United Nations to intervene.
b. denying the Soviets access to West Germany.
c. declaring that an "iron curtain" had descended across Central Europe.
d. organizing a gigantic airlift of supplies to Berlin.
e. sending an armed convoy to Berlin.
Soviet specialist George F. Kennan framed a coherent approach for
America in the Cold War by advising a policy of
d. limited war.
America's postwar containment policy was based on the assumption that
the Soviet Union was fundamentally
a. weak but dangerous.
b. irrational but fearful.
c. revolutionary arid warmongering.
d. ripe for a democratic revolution.
e. expansionist but cautious.
The immediate crisis that prompted the announcement of the Truman
Doctrine was related to the threat of a communist takeover in
b. Greece and Turkey.
c. Communist China.
Under the Truman Doctrine, the United States pledged to
a. refrain from polarizing the world into pro-Soviet and pro-American camps.
b. maintain prosperity in America after World War II.
c. give very limited assistance to nations fighting communism.
d. support those who were resisting subjugation by communists.
e. work to liberate the "captive nations" of Eastern Europe.
Match each postwar American program below with its primary
A. Point Four 1. assist communist threatened Greece and Turkey
B. NATO 2. promote economic recovery of Europe
C. Truman Doctrine 3. aid underdeveloped nations of Latin America, Asia, and Africa
D. Marshall Plan 4. resist Soviet military threat
a. A-4, B-1, C-3, D-2
b. A-2, B-3, C-1, D-4
c. A-1, B-2, C-4, D-3
d. A-3, B-4, C-1, D-2
e. A-4, B-3, C-2, D-l
A leading American theologian who urged a vigorous American foreign
policy and a return to Christian foundations was
a. Paul Tillich.
b. Billy Graham.
c. Benjamin Spock.
d. Pope Pius XII.
e. Norman Vincent Peale.
President Truman's Marshall Plan called for
a. military supplies for Britain and France.
b. substantial financial assistance to rebuild Western Europe.
c. economic aid for Japan.
d. foreign aid for Third World countries to resist communism.
e. an alliance to contain the Soviet Union.
The Marshall Plan succeeded in reviving Europe's economy and
thwarting the large internal Communist parties threatening to take
a. Italy and France.
b. West Germany and East Germany.
c. Britain and Ireland.
d. Spain and Italy.
e. Greece and Turkey.
President Truman risked American access to Middle Eastern oil
supplies when he
a. sent U.S. military forces into Lebanon.
b. refused to recognize the authoritarian Saudi Arabian monarchy.
c. supported British control of the Suez Canal.
d. tried to force the Soviet Union out of the Middle East.
e. recognized the new Jewish state of Israel.
American membership in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization did all
of the following for the country except
a. strengthen the containment of the Soviet Union.
b. help reintegrate Germany into the European family.
c. reduce our defense expenditures, since we would get help from other countries.
d. reassure Europeans that the U.S. would not abandon them.
e. strike a major blow to American isolationists.
The United States' participation in NATO
a. reaffirmed our long-standing commitment to the defense of Europe.
b. marked a dramatic departure from traditional American isolationism.
c. reduced the need for increased military spending.
d. helped to resolve the problem of Germany.
e. all of the above.
a. was, like Germany, divided into Allied occupation zones.
b. was destabilized by a civil war between nationalist and communist elements.
c. resisted the imposition of American-style democracy.
d. was governed from the island of Formosa (Taiwan) until 1949.
e. had its military leaders tried for war crimes, as had occurred in Germany.
Which of the following was not true of the new Japanese government
installed by General Douglas MacArthur in 1946?
a. it joined an American military alliance to prevent the spread of communism in East Asia.
b. it pledged itself to providing for women's equality.
c. it introduced a Western-style democratic constitution.
d. it paved the way for a spectacular economic recovery.
e. it renounced militarism.
Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalist government lost the Chinese civil
war to the communists and Mao Ze-dong mainly because
a. Jiang lost the support and confidence of the Chinese people.
b. the United States failed to give Jiang enough aid.
c. Mao received much assistance from the Soviet Union.
d. communists within the Truman administration undermined Jiang's efforts.
e. the communists were closer to traditional Chinese culture.
In an effort to detect communists within the federal government,
President Harry Truman established the
a. Committee on Un-American Activities.
b. Central Intelligence Agency.
c. Smith Act.
d. McCarran Internal Security Act.
e. Loyalty Review Board.
In 1948, many southern Democrats split from their party to support
Governor J. Strom Thurmond because
a. China had fallen to the communists.
b. they opposed American membership in the United Nations.
c. President Truman took a strong stand in favor of civil rights.
d. they found the Republican candidate, Thomas E. Dewey, more sympathetic to their conservative ideology.
e. Truman appointed an ambassador to the Catholic Vatican City
Match each 1948 presidential candidate below with his political
A. J. Strom Thurmond 1. Progressive
B. Henry Wallace 2. Democratic
C. Harry S Truman 3. States' Rights
D. Thomas E. Dewey 4. Republican
a. A- 1, B-3, C-2, D-4
b. A-4, B-2, C-1, D-3
c. A-3, B-1, C-2, D-4
d. A- 1, B-4, C-3, D-2
e. A-2, B-3, C-4, D-1
President Truman's domestic legislative plan was dubbed the
a. Square Deal.
b. New Deal.
c. Fair Deal.
e. New Frontier.
President Truman's action upon hearing of the invasion of South Korea
illustrated his commitment to a foreign policy of
NSC-68 called for
a. the invasion of North Korea by United Nations troops.
b. a blockade of the China coast and bombing of Manchuria.
c. a program of spying on the Soviet Union.
d. the reorganization of the Defense Department.
e. a massive increase in military spending.
The NSC-68 document reflected the American belief
a. in the limitless capabilities of the American economy and society.
b. that we needed help to fight the spread of communism.
c. that huge sacrifices would be needed by Americans to fight the Cold War.
d. in the futility of containment.
e. that military spending would help the economy.
President Harry Truman relieved General Douglas MacArthur from
command of United Nations troops in Korea when
a. MacArthur continued to lose crucial battles.
b. MacArthur crossed the 38th parallel and entered North Korea.
c. the Chinese entered the Korean War after MacArthur said they would not.
d. MacArthur began to take issue publicly with presidential policies.
e. MacArthur began to mock Truman for being only a captain in the army.
The imperious and insubordinate commander in Korea who was fired by
President Truman was General
a. Dwight Eisenhower.
b. George Patton.
c. "Bull" Halsey.
d. Matthew Ridgeway.
e. Douglas MacArthur
Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) Berlin
airlift, (B) Korean War, (C) fall of China.
a. A, C, B
b. B, C, A
c. A, B, C
d. C, A, B
e. C, B, A
Arrange the following in chronological order of their appearance: (A)
Marshall Plan, (B) Truman Doctrine, (C) NATO.
a. A, C, B
b. B, A, C
c. C, B, A
d. B, C, A
e. A, B, C