A response that is uniquely directed against pathogenic Bordetella pertussis would involve what component?
First line defenses have what aspect in common with each other?
They are physical barriers against invading pathogens.Submit
Both the innate and adaptive defenses of the immune system work to prevent
the penetration and colonization by pathogens, and the diseases they cause.Submit
If a new bacterial pathogen entered a human body through an accidental needle stick, the first cell that would try to kill the pathogen would likely be
Mucous membranes are a part of
According to the animation, B cells interact directly with
helper T cells.
Which of the following defense systems would be involved in eliminating virally-infected cells?
According to the animation, antibodies directly interact with which innate defenses?
Phagocytosis and the complement system
Which cells directly attack abnormal cells in the body?
Cytotoxic T cellsSubmit
An inflammatory response would result from which of the following?
If a person turns their ankle, how would one determine if damage to the tissue in the ankle has occurred?
The ankle is red, swollen, and warm to the touch.
What is the function of inflammation in response to a burn from a hot iron?
To repair the damaged tissueSubmit
Which of the following statements about innate immunity is true?
Which of the following statements about innate immunity is true?
is nonspecific and present at birth.
The function of the "ciliary escalator" is to
trap microorganisms in mucus in the upper respiratory tract.
remove microorganisms from the upper respiratory tract.
Normal microbiota provide protection from infection in each of the following ways EXCEPT
they produce lysozyme.
Microorganisms that are members of the normal microbiota are also known to cause disease.
Normal microbiota provide resistance to disease in all of the following ways except __________________.
serving as prebiotics
Which of the following is an effect of opsonization?
increased adherence of phagocytes to microorganisms
Phagocytes utilize all of the following to optimize interaction with (getting to and getting hold of) microorganisms EXCEPT
Lysozyme and the antibiotic penicillin have similar mechanisms of action in that they both cause damage to the bacterial
If one is examining a blood smear from a patient with a parasitic worm infection, which of the following leukocytes would be found in increased numbers?
Which of the following statements about beta interferons is true?
It acts as a signal that induces uninfected cells to produce antiviral proteins.
Which of the following are best described as short chains of amino acids that are very stable and can have a variety of different antimicrobial activities, such as forming pores in bacterial plasma membranes and inhibiting cell wall synthesis?
Each of the following is an effect of complement activation EXCEPT
interference with viral replication.
A chill is a sign that
body temperature is rising.
Which of the following statements concerning phagocytosis is true?
Bacteria are digested when the phagosome fuses with a lysosome.Submit
Part completeMost phagocytes are types of white blood cells, but not all white blood cells participate in this process.Select the cell types that are actively phagocytic.
This activity asks that you place the steps of phagocytosis in the correct order.Drag the steps below into the boxes provided to indicate the order in which they occur.
What might interfere specifically with chemotaxis of a phagocyte? Think about the process of chemotaxis and what might compromise this process.
defective microfilament function
absence of cytokine and complement receptors on phagocyte surfaces
Think through the steps of phagocytosis, and select strategies from the list provided that might enable a microbe to avoid or escape phagocytosis or phagocytic killing.Select each of the items from the list that would enable a microbe to evade phagocytosis or avoid phagocytic killing.
defective microtubule function
defective oxidative burst
What does the plasma membrane of a phagocyte attach to on a microorganism?
The process by which a phagocyte moves toward a chemical signal at the site of an infection is called
Which of the following phagocytic processes occurs last in the sequence?
What is the role of opsonins?
They create "handles" that make it easier for the pseudopods of phagocytes to attach to the microbe invader.Submit
What is a phagolysosome?
The structure that results from the fusion of a phagosome and a lysosome.Submit
How is Streptococcus pneumoniaeable to avoid destruction by a phagocyte?
Their capsules make them "slippery" to phagocytes.
Which microorganism requires the low pH inside a phagolysosome in order to reproduce?
Which of the following microorganisms use M protein to avoid destruction of a phagocyte?
Phagocytosis is defined as
the ingestion of solid material by a eukaryotic cell.
How is phagocytosis in the immune system different from protozoan phagocytosis?
Protozoan phagocytosis is used for feeding; phagocytosis by immune cells is used to fight infection.
What direct effect do histamines and leukotrienes have on capillaries?
They allow capillary walls to open and become leaky.
the migration of phagocytes through blood vessels to the site of tissue damage.
Why is vasodilation important to tissue repair?
It allows for an increased delivery of oxygen, nutrients, and phagocytes to the site of damage.
Pus is comprised of
Which of the following can release histamines?
Cells from damaged tissues and the complement pathway
Julie is preparing vegetables for dinner and accidentally cuts her finger. She washes it with soap and water before covering it with a bandage. A short while later, Julie notices that her finger is red, swollen, warm to the touch, and very painful. Which of the following describes the process going on in Julie’s finger?
Inflammation is part of the second line of defense that is activated when the first line of defense is breached. Julie’s first-line defenses were damaged when her injury occurred. Which of the following represents the first line of defense?
skin and mucous membranes
As mentioned previously, the second line of defense is activated when the first line of defense fails. In Part A, you identified one of these defenses as inflammation, which occurs when the body responds to a foreign antigen and increases fluid accumulation in a specific area. An added benefit of this excess fluid is that it also brings immune cells to the area to aid clearance of foreign antigens. In Julie’s situation, that added fluid would bring immune cells to prevent any microbial infections that could be caused if microbes were introduced when she cut her finger. Which of the following cell types is NOT part of the second line of defense?
The adaptive immune response, or third line of defense, is activated when the first and second lines of defense do not succeed in containing an infection. It is adaptive because the cells in this part of the immune system are capable of responding to specific pathogens. Another important feature of the third line is the ability of these cells to create memory cells. Why are memory cells an important product of an immune response?
Memory cells allow subsequent immune responses against the same antigen to occur more strongly and more quickly.
As you can see from this activity, the immune system is very complex and is made of many components. In this section, place each immune component in the appropriate bin.
Unbroken skin poses a substantial barrier to microbes. All of the following contribute to this barrier except _____________.
complement proteins found in perspiration
Macrophages arise from which of the following?