chapter 14 pre let Flashcards


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1

This activity asks you to identify Koch’s postulates for determining the etiology of infectious diseases.

Which statements accurately describe Koch’s postulates?

The pathogen must be isolated from the inoculated animal and must be shown to be the original organism.

The pathogen from the pure culture must cause the disease when it is inoculated into a healthy, susceptible laboratory animal.

.The pathogen must be isolated from the diseased host and grown in pure culture.

The same pathogen must be present in every case of the disease.

2

This activity asks you to sort statements that describe the benefits and limitations of using Koch’s postulates to determine the etiology of infectious diseases.

card image

3

Cryptosporidiosis is caused by _________ .

the protozoan Cryptosporidium, spread via the fecal oral route

4

Which mode of transmission best describes the spread of Cryptosporidium from reservoir to host?

Vehicle transmission via water.

5

Which of the following examples would best fall under the science of epidemiology?

Determining what water source in the county is contaminated with Cryptosporidium oocytes.

6

If your county reported 89 cases of cryptosporidiosis last year and there were 769,000 people living in your county, what was the annual incidence rate of cryptosporidiosis in your county?

11.6

7

Expected prevalence of a disease is

the expected occurrence of a disease based on past observations.Submit

8

In the sixth segment of the animation, why is the disease epidemic in North America?

The disease occurs at a higher rate than what would normally be expected in this region.

9

In the last segment of the animation, how many regions of the world experience the pandemic during April of year four?

Five

10

In the last segment of the animation, when does the first epidemic occur?

January of year three

11

If a disease occurs at a fairly stable rate, it is said to be

endemic

12

Epidemiology is defined as the study of

where and when a disease occurs, and how it is transmitted.

13

What is the role of epidemiology?

To learn how to treat and prevent various diseases.Submit

14

Which of the following would be considered a fomite?

An infected toy

15

Which of the following would be considered a vector?

Water containing bacteria from fecal matter

Saliva that is transmitted between individuals during kissing

A fly carrying disease from fecal matter to foodSubmit

16

When aerosols containing pathogens spread disease from a distance of less than one meter, it is considered

contact transmission.

waterborne transmission.

vector transmission.Submit

17

Which of the following is considered a major category of transmission of disease?

Contact, vehicle, and vector transmission

18

Which is an example of vehicle disease transmission?

The presence of Listeria on undercooked chicken served for dinner

19

What type of nosocomial infection is likely to arise from intravenous catheterizations?

Bacteremia

20

How might a patient who is not being treated with an antibiotic still be exposed to an antibiotic?

Antibiotics can be used in aerosols, thereby entering the environment.Submit

21

Why are invasive procedures likely to increase the risk of nosocomial infections?

These procedures allow microbes from the skin to enter the bloodstream of the patient.Submit

22

How can health care workers reduce the occurrence of nosocomial infections?

Practice more stringent aseptic techniques

23

The health of the patient

should be the primary concern of the healthcare worker.

24

How can surgeons help to limit nosocomial infections?

They should perform surgeries and invasive procedures only when absolutely necessary.

25

If a patient notices a healthcare worker not following suggested precautions,

they should immediately bring it to the attention of the healthcare worker.

26

Which of the following characteristics of a catheter should be considered, to help minimize the spread of nosocomial infections?

Single-useSubmit

27

Which of the following statements is true regarding hand washing?

Frequent and proper hand washing should be routinely done by patients and by healthcare workers, both prior to and after interaction.

28

Which of the following statements concerning pathology, infection, and disease is true?

Pathology refers to the study of structural and functional changes that occur in the body as a result of a disease.Submit

29

Which of the following is an example of the symbiotic relationship known as mutualism?

E. coli within the large intestine

30

Koch's postulates established criteria for proving that a specific organism causes a specific disease. Which of the following is NOT one of the criteria given by Koch's postulates?

The pathogen must be isolated from inoculated animals and must be different from the original organism.

31

Which of the following is classified as a latent disease?

shingles

32

Malaria is an infectious disease caused by infection with a protozoan. In certain tropical regions, malaria is constantly present. We would say that malaria is a(n) __________ disease in these regions.

endemic

33

Which of the following statements about the development of infectious diseases is correct?

The period of convalescence is the time during which the person regains health and fully recovers (back to the pre-disease state).

34

Which of the following is a protozoan zoonosis that can be transmitted by direct contact?

Toxoplasmosis

35

Which of the following would be an example of disease transmission via indirect contact?

A student sneezes on her test booklet. The instructor grades it and catches her cold.Submit

36

As a health care worker, you are keenly aware of how important it is to avoid harming patients. You worry about inadvertently transmitting an infectious disease to an already compromised individual. According to the CDC, what is the most important thing you can do to avoid this?

wash my hands before and after interacting with any patient

37

The following choices list several types of diseases, along with factors that may contribute to their emergence. Which disease and associated factor do NOT match?

emergence of avian influenza A (H5N1); use of antibiotics