Chapter 9: Plants and Fungi Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 3 years ago by anon234
254 views
updated 3 years ago by anon234
Subjects:
biology
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:

1

Which of the following statements correctly describes a portion of the pine life cycle?

a. female gametophytes use mitosis to produce eggs.

b. seeds are produced in pollen-producing cones.

c. pollen grains contain female gametophytes.

d. a pollen tube slowly digests its way through the triploid endosperm.

A

2

A researcher has developed two stains for use with seed plants. One stains sporophyte tissue blue; the other stains gametophyte tissue red. if the researcher exposes pollen grains to both stains and then rinse away the excess stain, what will occur?

a. The pollen grains will be pure red.

b. the pollen grains will be pure blue.

c. the pollen grains will have red interiors and blue exteriors.

d. the pollen grains will have blue interiors and red exteriors

C

3

When a mycelium infiltrates an unexploited source of dead organic matter, what are most likely to appear within the food source soon thereafter?

a. chitin

b. fungal enzymes

c. increased oxygen levels

d. target bacterial populations

B

4

The cycads, a mostly tropical phylum of gymnosperms, evolved about 300 million years ago and were dominant forms during the age of the dinosaurs. Though their sperm are flagellated, their ovules are pollinated by beetles. these beetles get nutrition (they eat pollen) and shelter from microsporophylls (leaflike structures that contain microsporangia). upon visiting megasporophylls (leaflike structures where megaspores are formed), the beetles transfer pollen to the exposed ovules. inside cats, pollen cones and Seed cones are borne on different plants. Cycads synthesize neurotoxins, especially in the seeds, that are effective against most animals, including humans.

If the beetles survive by consuming cycad pollen, then whether the beetles should be considered mutualists with, or parasites of, the cycads depends upon

a. the extent to which their overall activities affect cycad reproduction.

b. the extent to which the beetles are affected by neurotoxins.

c. the extent to which the beetles damage the cycad flowers

d. the distance the beetles must travel between cycad microsporophylls and cycad megasporophylls.

A

5

What adaptations should one expect of the seed coats of angiosperm species whose seeds are dispersed by frugivorous (fruit-eating) animals, as opposed to angiosperm species whose seeds are dispersed by other means?

1. The exterior of the seed coat should have barbs or hooks.
2. The seed coat should contain secondary compounds that irritate the lining of the animal's mouth.
3. The seed coat should be able to withstand low pH's.
4. The seed coat, upon its complete digestion, should provide vitamins or nutrients to animals.
5. The seed coat should be resistant to the animals' digestive enzymes.

a. 1 and 2 only

b. 2 and 3 only

c. 3 and 5 only

d. 4 only

e. 3, 4, and 5 only

C

6

Suppose that the cells of seed plants, like the skin cells of humans, produce a pigment upon increased exposure to UV radiation. Rank the following cells, from greatest to least, in terms of the likelihood of producing this pigment.

1. cells of sporangium
2. cells in the interior of a subterranean root
3. epidermal cells of sporophyte megaphylls
4. cells of a gametophyte

--------

a. 3,2,1,4

b. 3,1,2,4

c. 3,4,2,1

d. 3,4,1,2

e. 3,1,4,2

E

7
card image

The following question refers to the generalized life cycle for land plants shown in the figure. Each number within a circle [box] represents a specific plant or plant part, and each number in a box refers to a biological process.

In the figure, which structure produces haploid spores by meiosis?

a. 4

b. 1

c. 3

d. 2

C

8

Arrange the following structures, which can be found on male pine trees, from the largest structure to the smallest structure (or from most inclusive to least inclusive).

1. sporophyte
2. microspores
3. microsporangia
4. pollen cone
5. pollen nuclei

----------

a. 4,3,2,5,1

b. 1,4,2,3,5

c. 4,1,2,3,5

d. 1,2,3,5,4

e. 1,4,3,2,5

E

9

In addition to seeds, which of the following characteristics are unique to the seed-producing plants?
A) sporopollenin
B) lignin present in cell walls
C) pollen
D) use of air currents as a dispersal agent
E) megaphylls

C

10

Within a gymnosperm megasporangium, what is the correct sequence in which the following should appear during development, assuming that fertilization occurs?

1. sporophyte embryo
2. female gametophyte
3. egg cell
4. megaspore

---------

A) 4 → 3 → 2 → 1
B) 4 → 2 → 3 → 1
C) 4 → 1 → 2 → 3
D) 1 → 4 → 3 → 2
E) 1 → 4 → 2 → 3

B

11

Challenges for survival of the first land plants include

I. Sources of water

II. Sperm transfer

III. Desiccation

IV. Animal predation

----------

A. I, II, and III only.

B. II, III, and IV only.

C. I only.

D. II only.

A

12

Which of the following are structures of angiosperm gametophytes?

A. sepals

B. ovaries

C. immature ovules

D. pollen tubes

E. stamens

D

13

Which of the following sex and generation combinations most directly produces the megasporangium of pine ovules?
A) male gametophyte
B) female gametophyte
C) male sporophyte
D) female sporophyte

D

14

The functional role of sporopollenin is primarily to

a. reduce dehydration.

b. repel toxic chemicals.

c. provide nutrients to spores.

d. make spores less dense and able to disperse more readily.

e. comprise spore surface structures that catch the wind and assist in spore dispersal.

A

15
card image

The following question refers to the generalized life cycle for land plants shown in the figure. Each number within a circle [box] represents a specific plant or plant part, and each number in a box refers to a biological process.

In the figure, what are the processes for numbers 4, 5 and 6, respectively?

a. mitosis, meiosis, binary fission.

b. fertilization, mitosis, meiosis.

c. nuclear fission, meiosis, binary fission.

d. mitosis, meiosis, fertilization.

D

16

The Brazil nut tree, Bertholletia excels (n = 17), is native to tropical rain forests of South America. It is a hardwood tree that can grow to over 50 meters, is a source of high-quality lumber, and is a favorite nesting site for harpy eagles. As the rainy season ends, tough-walled fruits, each containing 8-25 seeds (Brazil nuts), fall to the forest floor. About $50 million worth of nuts are harvested each year. Scientists have discovered that the pale yellow, self-incompatible flowers of Brazil nut trees admit only female orchid bees as pollinators. The agouti (Dasyprocta spp.), a cat-sized rodent, is the only animal with teeth strong enough to crack the hard wall of Brazil nut fruits. It typically eats some of the seeds, buries others, and leaves still others behind inside the fruit, which moisture can now enter. The uneaten seeds may subsequently germinate.

The agouti is most directly involved with the Brazil nut tree's dispersal of

a. male gametophytes

b. female gametophytes

c. sporophyte embryos

d. sporophyte megaspores

e. female gametes

C

17

The fruit of the mistletoe, a parasitic angiosperm, is a one-seeded berry. In members of the genus Viscum, the outside of the seed is viscous (sticky), which permits the seed to adhere to surfaces, such as the branches of host plants or the beaks of birds. What should be expected of the fruit if the viscosity of Viscum seeds is primarily an adaptation for dispersal rather than an adaptation for infecting host plant tissues?

a. it should be colored to provide it with camouflage.

b. it should be drab in color.

c. it should secrete enzymes that can digest bark.

d. it should be nutritious.

D

18

Evidence indicates that plants increase the number of stomata in their leaves as atmospheric CO2 levels decline. Increasing the number of stomata per unit surface area should have the effect of doing which of the following?

  1. increasing dehydration of leaf tissues
  2. decreasing dehydration of leaf tissues
  3. countering the effect of declining CO2on photosynthesis
  4. reinforcing the effect of declining CO2on photosynthesis
  5. decreasing the O2content of air next to the leaves lower than it would otherwise be
  6. increasing the O2content of air next to the leaves higher than it would otherwise be

---------------

a. 1, 3, and 5 only.

b. 2, 3, and 6 only.

c. 2, 4, and 5 only.

d. 1, 3, and 6 only.

e. 1, 4, and 5 only.

D

19

The Brazil nut tree, Bertholletia excels (n = 17), is native to tropical rain forests of South America. It is a hardwood tree that can grow to over 50 meters, is a source of high-quality lumber, and is a favorite nesting site for harpy eagles. As the rainy season ends, tough-walled fruits, each containing 8-25 seeds (Brazil nuts), fall to the forest floor. About $50 million worth of nuts are harvested each year. Scientists have discovered that the pale yellow, self-incompatible flowers of Brazil nut trees admit only female orchid bees as pollinators. The agouti (Dasyprocta spp.), a cat-sized rodent, is the only animal with teeth strong enough to crack the hard wall of Brazil nut fruits. It typically eats some of the seeds, buries others, and leaves still others behind inside the fruit, which moisture can now enter. The uneaten seeds may subsequently germinate.

People who attempted to plant Brazil nuts in hopes of establishing plantations of Brazil nut trees played roles most similar to those of

_____________

a. agoutis.

b. orchid bees.

c. pollen tubes.

d. harpy eagles.

A

20

A biology student hiking in a forest happens upon an erect, 15-cm-tall plant that bears microphylls and a strobilus at its tallest point. When disturbed, the cone emits a dense cloud of brownish dust. A pocket magnifying glass reveals the dust to be composed of tiny spheres with a high oil content.

This student has probably found a(n)

__________

a. immature pine tree

b. bryophyte sporophyte

c. fern sporophyte

d. horsetail gametophyte

e. lycophyte sporophyte

E

21

For several decades now, amphibian species worldwide have been in decline. A significant proportion of the decline seems to be due to the spread of the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Chytrid sporangia reside within the epidermal cells of infected animals, animals that consequently show areas of sloughed skin. They can also be lethargic, which is expressed through failure to hide and failure to flee. The infection cycle typically takes four to five days, at the end of which zoospores are released from sporangia into the environment. In some amphibian species, mortality rates approach 100%; other species seem able to survive the infection.

When adult amphibian skin harbors populations of the bacterium, Janthinobacterium lividum (Jl), chytrid infection seems to be inhibited. Which of the following represents the best experimental design for conclusively determining whether this inhibition is real?

____________________

A) Inoculate uninfected amphibians with Jl, and determine whether the amphibians continue to remain uninfected by chytrids.
B) Inoculate infected amphibians with Jl, and determine whether the amphibians recover from infection by chytrids.
C) Take infected amphibians and assign them to two populations. Leave one population alone; inoculate the other with Jl. Measure the rate at which infection proceeds in both populations.
D) Take infected amphibians and assign them to two populations. Inoculate one population with a high dose of Jl; inoculate the other with a low dose of Jl. Measure the survival frequency in both populations.

C

22

Which group is noted for the independence of gametophyte and sporophyte generations from each other?

A) ferns
B) mosses, hornworts, and liverworts
C) charophytes
D) angiosperms
E) gymnosperms

A

23

Which taxon is essentially equivalent to the "embryophytes"?

A) Viridiplantae

B) Plantae

C) Pterophyta

D) Bryophyta

B

24

What is true of stamens, sepals, petals, carpels, and pinecone scales?
A) They are female reproductive parts.
B) None are capable of photosynthesis.
C) They are modified leaves.
D) They are found on flowers.
E) They are found on angiosperms.

C

25

Which of the following sex and generation combinations most directly produces the pollen tube?
A) male gametophyte
B) female gametophyte
C) male sporophyte
D) female sporophyte

A

26
card image

Which tree depicts all of the currently recognized major groups of fungi?

A) I

B) II

C) III

D) IV

C

27

When pathogenic fungi are found growing on the roots of grape vines, grape farmers sometimes respond by covering the ground around their vines with plastic sheeting and pumping a gaseous fungicide into the soil.

The most important concern of grape farmers who engage in this practice should be that the

A) fungicide might also kill the native yeasts residing on the surfaces of the grapes.
B) lichens growing on the vines' branches are not harmed.
C) fungicide might also kill mycorrhizae.
D) sheeting is transparent so that photosynthesis can continue.

C

28

Which of the following flower parts develops into the pulp of a fleshy fruit?

A) stigma

B) style

C) ovule

D) ovary

E) micropyle

D

29

Which of the following characteristics helped seedless plants better adapt to life on land?

A) a dominant gametophyte

B) the presence of photosystem II

C) a chitinous cuticle

D) a well-developed vascular system

E) an unbranched sporophyte

D

30
card image

The following question refers to the generalized life cycle for land plants shown in the figure. Each number within a circle [box] represents a specific plant or plant part, and each number in a box refers to a biological process.

Meiosis is most likely to be represented by which number?

A. 2

B. 6

C. 5

D. 4

C

31

Angiosperms are the most successful terrestrial plants. Which of the following features is unique to them and helps account four their success?

A) fruit enclosing seeds

B) wind pollination

C) embryos enclosed within seeds

D) sperm cells without flagella

E) dominant gametophytes

A

32

How have fruits contributes to the success of angiosperms?

A) by facilitating dispersal of seeds

B) by producing sperm and eggs inside a protective coat

C) by attracting insects to the pollen inside

D) by nourishing the plants that make them

A

33

Which of the following statements is true of the pine life cycle?

A) conifer pollen grains contain male gametophytes

B) cones are homologous to the capsules of moss plants

C) the pine tree is a gametophyte

D) male and female gametophytes are in close proximity during gamete synthesis

A

34

Sporophylls can be found in which of the following?

A) liverworts

B) charophytes

C) hornworts

D) mosses

E) gymnosperms

E

35

Which of the following statements are true of monocots?

I. over 25% of extant angiosperms are monocots

II. monocots include both crop plants and ornamental plants

III. monocots are most closely related to eudicots

IV. monocots possess multiple cotyledons

---------------

a. II and IV

b. I, II, and III

c. I, III, and IV

d. I and II

B

36

The seed coat's most important function is to provide

a.) a nutrient supply for the embryo

b.) protection for the embryo

c.) a means for dispersal

d.) dormancy

e.) a nonstressful environment for the megasporangium

B

37

Some green algae exhibit alternation of generations. All land plants exhibit alteration of generations. No charophytes exhibit alternation of generations. Keeping in mind the recent evidence from molecular systematics, the correct interpretation of these observations is that

A) scientists have no evidence to indicate whether or not land plants evolved from any kind of green alga

B) alternation of generations cannot be beneficial to charophytes

C) plants evolved alternation of generations independently of green algae

D) land plants evolved directly from the green algae that perform alternation of generations

E) charophytes are not related to either green algae of land plants

C

38

Arrange the following in the correct sequence, from earliest to most recent, in which these plant traits originated

1. sporophyte dominance, gametophyte independence

2. sporophyte dominance, gametophyte dependence

3. gametophyte dominance, sporophyte dependence

------------------

a.) 1 --> 2 --> 3

b.) 3 --> 2 --> 1

c.) 2 --> 3 --> 1

d.) 2 --> 1 --> 3

e.) 3 --> 1 --> 2

E

39

Which of the following cellular structures is functionally important in cells of the gametophytes of both angiosperms and gymnosperms?

a.) anthers

b.) apical meristem

c.) sporangium

d.) cell walls

D

40

A botanist discovers a new species of plant in a tropical rain forest. After observing its anatomy and life cycle, he notes the following characteristics: flagellated sperm, xylem with tracheids, separate gametophyte and sporophyte generations with the sporophyte dominant, and no seeds. This plant is probably most closely related to

a.) mosses

b.) charophytes

c.) ferns

d.) gymnosperms

e.) flowering plants

C

41

Which of the following should have had gene sequences most similar to the charophyte that was the common ancestor of the land plants?

a.) early angiosperms

b.) early bryophytes

c.) early gymnosperms

d.) early lycophytes

B

42
card image

The following question refer to the following phylogenetic trees. Which tree depicts the closest relationship between zygomycetes and chytrids?

a.) I

b.) II

c.) III

d.) IV

C

43

Considering that the mature sporophytes of true mosses get their nutrition from the gametophytes on which they grow, and considering these generations as individual plants, what is true of the relationship between true moss sporophytes and gametophytes?

A) Sporophytes are endosymbionts of gametophytes.

B) Sporophytes are mutualists of gametophytes.

C) Sporophytes are commensalists of gametophytes.

D) Sporophytes are parasites of gametophytes.

D

44

A botanist discovers a new species of land plant with a dominant sporophyte, chlorophylls a and b, and cell walls made of cellulose. In assigning this plant to a phylum, which of the following, if present, would be least useful?

A) endosperm

B) seeds

C) sperm that lack flagella

D) flowers

E) spores

E

45

The Brazil nut tree, Bertholletia excels (n = 17), is native to tropical rain forests of South America. It is a hardwood tree that can grow to over 50 meters, is a source of high-quality lumber, and is a favorite nesting site for harpy eagles. As the rainy season ends, tough-walled fruits, each containing 8-25 seeds (Brazil nuts), fall to the forest floor. About $50 million worth of nuts are harvested each year. Scientists have discovered that the pale yellow, self-incompatible flowers of Brazil nut trees admit only female orchid bees as pollinators.

The same bees that pollinate the flowers of the Brazil nut trees pollinate orchids, which are epiphytes (plants that grow on other plants); however, orchids cannot grow on Brazil nut trees. These observations explain

A) the coevolution of Brazil nut trees and orchids.
B) why Brazil nut trees do not set fruit in plantations.
C) why male orchid bees do not pollinate Brazil nut tree flowers.
D) why male orchid bees are smaller than female orchid bees.
E) the importance of orchid and Brazil nut tree flowers for the production of orchid bee honey.

B

46

Which process occurs in fungi and has the opposite effect on a cell's chromosome number than does meiosis?

a.) binary fission

b.) mitosis

c.) crossing over

d.) plasmogamy

e.) karyogamy

E

47

What is thought to be the correct sequence of the following events during the Carboniferous period?

  1. Vascular plants become more prevalent.
  2. Megaphylls with large surface areas become more prevalent.
  3. Atmospheric CO2 levels decline dramatically.
  4. Global cooling occurs, leading to widespread glaciations.

a.) 2,1,4,3

b.) 2,1,3,4

c.) 3,4,1,2

d.) 1,2,4,3

e.) 1,2,3,4

D

48

The cycads, a mostly tropical phylum of gymnosperms, evolved about 300 million years ago and were dominant forms during the age of the dinosaurs. Though their sperm are flagellated, their ovules are pollinated by beetles. these beetles get nutrition (they eat pollen) and shelter from microsporophylls (leaflike structures that contain microsporangia). upon visiting megasporophylls (leaflike structures where megaspores are formed), the beetles transfer pollen to the exposed ovules. inside cats, pollen cones and Seed cones are borne on different plants. Cycads synthesize neurotoxins, especially in the seeds, that are effective against most animals, including humans.

Which feature of cycads distinguishes them from other gymnosperms?

  1. They have exposed ovules
  2. They have flagellated sperm
  3. They are pollinated

-----------------------

A) 1 only
B) 2 only
C) 3 only
D) 2 and 3
E) 1, 2, and 3

D

49
card image

What is true of the phylogenetic tree in the figure?

  1. It depicts uncertainty about whether the bryophytes or the vascular plants evolved first.
  2. It is hypothetical.
  3. It shows that ferns are the closest living relatives to the seed plants.
  4. It indicates that seeds are a shared ancestral character of all vascular plants.

A) 1 only

B) 2 only

C) 3 and 4 only

D) 1 and 3 only

B

50

The cycads, a mostly tropical phylum of gymnosperms, evolved about 300 million years ago and were dominant forms during the age of the dinosaurs. Though their sperm are flagellated, their ovules are pollinated by beetles. these beetles get nutrition (they eat pollen) and shelter from microsporophylls (leaflike structures that contain microsporangia). upon visiting megasporophylls (leaflike structures where megaspores are formed), the beetles transfer pollen to the exposed ovules. inside cats, pollen cones and Seed cones are borne on different plants. Cycads synthesize neurotoxins, especially in the seeds, that are effective against most animals, including humans.

Which feature of cycads makes them like many angiosperms?

  1. They have exposed ovules
  2. They have flagellated sperm
  3. They are pollinated

------------------

A) 1 only
B) 2 only
C) 3 only
D) 2 and 3
E) 1, 2, and 3

C

51

Which of the following is most important in making the typical seed more resistant to adverse conditions than the typical spore?

A) a different type of sporopollenin
B) an internal reservoir of liquid water
C) integument(s)
D) ability to be dispersed
E) waxy cuticle

C

52

Which of the following characteristics of plants is absent in their closest relatives, the charophyte algae?

a.) alternation of generations

b.) multicellularity

c.) chlorophyll b

d.) cellulose in cell walls

A

53

The adaptive advantage associated with the filamentous nature of fungal mycelia is primarily related to

a.) the potential to inhibit almost all terrestrial habitats

b.) avoiding sexual reproduction until the environment changes

c.) an extensive surface area well suited for invasive growth and absorptive nutrition

d.) the ability to form haustoria and parasitize other organisms

C

54

Commonalities to both charophytes and vascular land plants include

  1. sporopollenin
  2. lignin
  3. chlorophyll a
  4. cellulose
  5. chlorophyll b

a.) I, III, IV, V only

b.) II and IV only

c.) III and IV only

d.) I, II, III, V only

A

55

Which of the following sex and generation combinations most directly produces the fruit?
A) male gametophyte
B) female gametophyte
C) male sporophyte
D) female sporophyte

D

56

The leaflike appendages of moss gametophytes may be one to two cell layers thick. Consequently, which of the following is least likely to be found associated with such appendages?

a.) cuticle

b.) rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes

c.) stomata

d.) tracheids

C

57

Immediately after karyogamy occurs, which term applies?

a.) diploid

b.) plasmogamy

c.) haploid

d.) heterokaryotic

A

58

which of the following characteristic of hyphate fungi (fungi featuring hyphae)?

a.) they reproduce asexually by a process known as budding

b.) they have symbiotic relationships with nucleariids

c.) they are adapted for rapid directional growth to new food sources

d.) they acquire their nutrients by phagocytosis

e.) their body plan is a unicellular sphere

C

59

Which of the following is a true statement about plant reproduction?

A) Embryophytes are small because they are in an early developmental stage.

B) In bryophytes, the dominant generation consists of haploid gametophytes.

C) Rhizoids protect gametes from excess water.

D) Eggs and sperm of bryophytes swim toward one another.

E) Bryophytes are limited to asexual reproduction.

B

60

Arrange the following structures from largest to smallest, assuming that they belong to two generations of the same angiosperm.

1. ovary
2. ovule
3. egg
4. carpel

A) 4, 2, 1, 3
B) 4, 2, 1, 3
C) 4, 3, 1, 2
D) 1, 4, 2, 3
E) 4, 1, 2, 3

E

61

Please use the following information to answer the question below.

Diploid nuclei of the ascomycete Neurospora crassa contain 14 chromosomes. A single diploid cell in an ascus will undergo one round of meiosis, followed in each of the daughter cells by one round of mitosis, producing a total of eight ascospores.

What is the ploidy of a single mature ascospore?

a.) haploid

b.) diploid

c.) triploid (three homologous sets of chromosomes)

d.) tetraploid (four homologous sets of chromosomes)

A

62

The structural integrity of bacteria is to peptidoglycan as the structural integrity of plant spores is to

a.) cellulose

b.) sporopollenin

c.) lignin

d.) secondary compounds

B

63

Arrange the following terms from most inclusive to least inclusive

  1. embryophytes
  2. green plants
  3. seedless vascular plants
  4. ferns

a.) 3,2,1,4

b.) 2,1,3,4

c.) 1,2,3,4

d.) 1,4,2,3

e.) 2,1,4,3

B

64

In which of the following plant groups does the mature sporophyte depend completely on the gametophyte for nutrition?

A) bryophytes

B) monilophytes

C) gymnosperms

D) angiosperms

A

65

The microsporidian Brachiola gambiae parasitizes the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Adult female mosquitoes must take blood meals in order for their eggs to develop, and it is while they take blood that they transmit malarial parasites to humans. Male mosquitoes drink flower nectar. If humans are to safely and effectively use Brachiola gambiae as a biological control to reduce human deaths from malaria, then how many of the following statements should be true?

  1. Brachiola should kill the mosquitoes before the malarial parasite they carry reaches maturity.
  2. Brachiola must be harmful to male mosquitoes, but not to female mosquitoes.
  3. Microsporidians should infect mosquito larvae, rather than mosquito adults.
  4. The subsequent decline in Anopheles gambiae should not significantly disrupt human food resources or other food webs.

A) 3 and 4 only

B) 1 and 3 only

C) 1 and 4 only

D) 2 and 4 only

C

66

Assuming that they all belong to the same plant, arrange the following structures from largest to smallest (or from most inclusive to least inclusive)

  1. spores
  2. sporophytes
  3. sporangia

a.) 2,3,1

b.) 1,2,3

c.) 3,1,2

d.) 2,1,3

e.) 3,2,1

A