Central Science: Chapter 13

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1

The dissolution of water in octane (C8H18) is principally prevented by ________.
A) London dispersion forces between octane molecules
B) hydrogen bonding between water molecules
C) dipole-dipole attraction between octane molecules
D) ion-dipole attraction between water and octane molecules
E) repulsion between like-charged water and octane molecules

B

2

When argon is placed in a container of neon, the argon spontaneously disperses throughout the neon because ________.
A) of the large attractive forces between argon and neon atoms
B) of hydrogen bonding
C) a decrease in energy occurs when the two mix
D) the dispersion of argon atoms produces an increase in disorder
E) of solvent-solute interactions

D

3

Hydration is a specific example of the phenomenon known generally as ________.
A) salutation
B) disordering
C) solvation
D) condensation
E) dilution

C

4

The phrase "like dissolves like" refers to the fact that ________.
A) gases can only dissolve other gases
B) polar solvents dissolve polar solutes and nonpolar solvents dissolve nonpolar solutes
C) solvents can only dissolve solutes of similar molar mass
D) condensed phases can only dissolve other condensed phases
E) polar solvents dissolve nonpolar solutes and vice versa

B

5

When solutions of strong electrolytes in water are formed, the ions are surrounded by water molecules. These interactions are described as a case of ________.
A) hydration
B) supersaturation
C) crystallization
D) dehydration
E) saturation

A

6

In a saturated solution of a salt in water, ________.
A) the rate of crystallization > the rate of dissolution
B) the rate of dissolution > the rate of crystallization
C) seed crystal addition may cause massive crystallization
D) the rate of crystallization = the rate of dissolution
E) addition of more water causes massive crystallization

D

7

Compounds composed of a salt and water combined in definite proportions are known as ________.
A) clathrates
B) homogenates
C) ionic solids
D) molecular solids
E) hydrates

E

8

An unsaturated solution is one that ________.
A) has no double bonds
B) contains the maximum concentration of solute possible, and is in equilibrium with undissolved solute
C) has a concentration lower than the solubility limit
D) contains more dissolved solute than the solubility allows
E) contains no solute

C

9

A solution with a concentration higher than the solubility allows is ________.
A) not possible
B) unsaturated
C) supercritical
D) saturated
E) supersaturated

E

10

A supersaturated solution ________.
A) is one with more than one solute
B) is one that has been heated
C) is one with a higher concentration than the solubility limit
D) must be in contact with undissolved solid
E) exists only in theory and cannot actually be prepared

C

11

The principal reason for the extremely low solubility of NaCl in benzene (C6H6) is the ________.
A) strong solvent-solvent interactions
B) hydrogen bonding in C6H6
C) strength of the covalent bond in NaCl
D) weak solvation of Na+ and Cl- by C6H6
E) increased disorder due to mixing of solute and solvent

D

12

Which one of the following vitamins is water soluble?
A) A
B) B
C) K
D) D
E) E

B

13

Which of the following substances is more likely to dissolve in water?
A) HOCH2CH2OH
B) CHCl3
C)
O

CH3(CH2)9CH
D) CH3(CH2)8CH3
E) CCl4

A

14

Which of the following substances is least likely to dissolve in water?
A) HOCH2CH2OH
B) CHCl3
C)
O

CH3(CH2)9CH
D) CH3(CH2)8CH2OH
E) CCl4

E

15

Which of the following substances is more likely to dissolve in CH3OH?
A) CCl4
B) Kr
C) N2
D) CH3CH2OH
E) H2

D

16

Which one of the following substances is more likely to dissolve in CCl4?
A) CBr4
B) HBr
C) HCl
D) CH3CH2OH
E) NaCl

A

17

Which one of the following substances is more likely to dissolve in benzene (C6H6)?
A) CH3CH2OH
B) NH3
C) NaCl
D) CCl4
E) HBr

D

18

Which one of the following is most soluble in water?
A) CH3OH
B) CH3CH2CH2OH
C) CH3CH2OH
D) CH3CH2CH2CH2OH
E) CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2OH

A

19

Which one of the following is least soluble in water?
A) CH3OH
B) CH3CH2CH2OH
C) CH3CH2OH
D) CH3CH2CH2CH2OH
E) CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2OH

E

20

Which one of the following is most soluble in hexane (C6H14)?
A) CH3OH
B) CH3CH2CH2OH
C) CH3CH2OH
D) CH3CH2CH2CH2OH
E) CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2OH

E

21

The solubility of nitrogen gas at 25 °C and 1 atm is 6.8 × 10-4 mol/L. If the partial pressure of nitrogen gas in air is 0.76 atm, what is the concentration (molarity) of dissolved nitrogen?
A) 6.8 × 10-4 M
B) 5.2 × 10-4 M
C) 4.9 × 10-4 M
D) 3.8 × 10-4 M
E) 1.1 × 10-5 M

B

22

The concentration of CO2 in a soft drink bottled with a partial pressure of CO2 of 4.0 atm over the liquid at 25 °C is 1.2 × 10-1 M. The Henry's law constant for CO2 at this temperature is ________.
A) 3.0 × 10-2 mol/L-atm
B) 4.5 × 10-3 mol/L-atm
C) 5.6 × 10-3 mol/L-atm
D) 2.3 × 10-2 mol/L-atm
E) More information is needed to solve the problem.

A

23

The concentration of CO2 in a soft drink bottled with a partial pressure of CO2 of 6.5 atm over the liquid at 29 °C is 2.2 × 10-1 M. The Henry's law constant for CO2 at this temperature is ________.
A) 2.2 × 10-1 mol/L-atm
B) 7.6 × 10-3 mol/L-atm
C) 5.6 × 10-3 mol/L-atm
D) 3.4 × 10-2 mol/L-atm
E) More information is needed to solve the problem.D

D

24

Pressure has an appreciable effect on the solubility of ________ in liquids.
A) gases
B) solids
C) liquids
D) salts
E) solids and liquids

A

25

Which of the following statements is false?
A) Nonpolar liquids tend to be insoluble in polar liquids.
B) The weaker the attraction between the solute and solvent molecules, the greater the solubility.
C) Substances with similar intermolecular attractive forces tend to be soluble in one another.
D) The solubility of a gas increases in direct proportion to its partial pressure above the solution.
E) The solubility of gases in water decreases with increasing temperature.

B

26

Which of the following choices has the compounds correctly arranged in order of increasing solubility in water? (least soluble to most soluble)
A) CCl4 < CHCl3 < NaNO3
B) CH3OH < CH4 < LiF
C) CH4 < NaNO3 < CHCl3
D) LiF < NaNO3 < CHCl3
E) CH3OH < Cl4 < CHCl3

A

27

Which component of air is the primary problem in a condition known as "the bends"?
A) O2
B) CO2
C) He
D) N2
E) CO

D

28

If the partial pressure of oxygen in the air a diver breathes is too great, ________.
A) respiratory tissue is damaged by oxidation
B) hyperventilation results
C) the urge to breathe is increased and excessive CO2 is removed from the body
D) the urge to breathe is reduced and not enough CO2 is removed from the body
E) No problems result from this situation.

D

29

Calculate the molarity of a 10.0% (by mass) aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid.
A) 0.274 m
B) 2.74 m
C) 3.04 m
D) 4.33 m
E) The density of the solution is needed to solve the problem.

E

30

Calculate the molarity of a 17.5% (by mass) aqueous solution of nitric acid.
A) 0.274 m
B) 2.74 m
C) 3.04 m
D) 4.33 m
E) The density of the solution is needed to solve the problem.

E

31

What is the concentration in ppm of a solution which is prepared by dissolving 15 mg of NaCl in 200 mL water?
A) 1.5 × 10-5
B) 75
C) 0.075
D) 15
E) 7.5 × 10-5

B

32

Molality is defined as the ________.
A) moles solute/moles solvent
B) moles solute/liters solution
C) moles solute/kg solution
D) moles solute/kg solvent
E) none (dimensionless)

D

33

Which one of the following concentration units varies with temperature?
A) molarity
B) mass percent
C) mole fraction
D) molality
E) all of the above

A

34

Of the concentration units below, only ________ uses kg of solvent in its calculation.
A) mass %
B) ppm
C) ppb
D) molarity
E) molality

E

35

A solution contains 11% by mass of sodium chloride. This means that ________.
A) there are 11 g of sodium chloride in in 1.0 mL of this solution
B) 100 g of the solution contains 11 g of sodium chloride
C) 100 mL of the solution contains 11 g of sodium chloride
D) the density of the solution is 11 g/mL
E) the molality of the solution is 11

B

36

A solution contains 15 ppm of benzene. The density of the solution is 1.00 g/mL. This means that ________.
A) there are 15 mg of benzene in 1.0 g of this solution
B) 100 g of the solution contains 15 g of benzene
C) 1.0 g of the solution contains 15 × 10-6 g of benzene
D) 1.0 L of the solution contains 15 g of benzene
E) the solution is 15% by mass of benzene

C

37

A 0.200 m solution of which one of the following solutes will have the lowest vapor pressure?
A) LiCl
B) AlCl3
C) CaCl2
D) glucose
E) KCl

B

38

A 0.100 m solution of which one of the following solutes will have the highest vapor pressure?
A) KClO4
B) Ca(ClO4)2
C) Al(ClO4)3
D) sucrose
E) NaCl

D

39

The magnitudes of Kf and of Kb depend on the identity of the ________.
A) solute
B) solvent
C) solution
D) solvent and on temperature
E) solute and solvent

B

40

As the concentration of a solute in a solution increases, the freezing point of the solution ________ and the vapor pressure of the solution ________.
A) increases, increases
B) increases, decreases
C) decreases, increases
D) decreases, decreases
E) decreases, is unaffected

D

41

Which of the following liquids will have the lowest freezing point?
A) pure H2O
B) aqueous glucose (0.60 m)
C) aqueous sucrose (0.60 m)
D) aqueous FeI3 (0.24 m)
E) aqueous KF (0.50 m)

E

42

Which of the following liquids will have the highest freezing point?
A) pure H2O
B) aqueous glucose (0.60 m)
C) aqueous sucrose (0.60 m)
D) aqueous FeI3 (0.24 m)
E) aqueous KF (0.50 m)

A

43

Which of the following liquids will have the lowest freezing point?
A) pure H2O
B) aqueous glucose (0.050 m)
C) aqueous CoI2 (0.030 m)
D) aqueous FeI3 (0.030 m)
E) aqueous NaI (0.030 m)

D

44

Which of the following liquids will have the highest freezing point?
A) pure H2O
B) aqueous glucose (0.050 m)
C) aqueous CoI2 (0.030 m)
D) aqueous FeI3 (0.030 m)
E) aqueous NaI (0.030 m)

A

45

A 2.05 m aqueous solution of some unknown had a boiling point of 102.1 °C. Which one of the following could be the unknown compound? The boiling point elevation constant for water is 0.52 °C/m.
A) NaCl
B) CH3OH
C) C6H12O6
D) Na2CO3
E) CaBr2

A

46

Of the following, a 0.1 M aqueous solution of ________ will have the lowest freezing point.
A) NaCl
B) Al(NO3)3
C) K2CrO4
D) Na2SO4
E) sucrose

B

47

Of the following, a 0.1 M aqueous solution of ________ will have the highest freezing point.
A) NaCl
B) Al(NO3)3
C) K2CrO4
D) Na2SO4
E) sucrose

E

48

Which of the following aqueous solutions will have the highest boiling point?
A) 0.10 m Na2SO4
B) 0.20 m glucose
C) 0.25 m sucrose
D) 0.10 m NaCl
E) 0.10 m SrSO4

A

49

The most likely van't Hoff factor for an 0.01 m CaI2 solution is ________.
A) 1.00
B) 3.00
C) 1.27
D) 2.69
E) 3.29

D

50

Which one of the following solutes has a limiting van't Hoff factor (i) of 3 when dissolved in water?
A) KNO3
B) CH3OH
C) CCl4
D) Na2SO4
E) sucrose

D

51

The ratio of the actual value of a colligative property to the value calculated, assuming the substance to be a nonelectrolyte, is referred to as ________.
A) Henry's law
B) vapor pressure lowering
C) the van't Hoff factor
D) freezing point depression
E) osmotic pressure

C

52

Colligative properties of solutions include all of the following except ________.
A) depression of vapor pressure upon addition of a solute to a solvent
B) elevation of the boiling point of a solution upon addition of a solute to a solvent
C) depression of the freezing point of a solution upon addition of a solute to a solvent
D) an increase in the osmotic pressure of a solution upon the addition of more solute
E) the increase of reaction rates with increase in temperature

E

53

Calculate the vapor pressure of a solution made by dissolving 109 grams of glucose (molar mass = 180.2 g/mol) in 920.0 ml of water at 25 °C. The vapor pressure of pure water at is . Assume the density of the solution is 1.00 g/ml.
A) 0.278 mm Hg
B) 0.605 mm Hg
C) 22.98 mm Hg
D) 23.48 mm Hg
E) 23.76 mm Hg

D

54

The process of a substance sticking to the surface of another is called ________.
A) absorption
B) diffusion
C) effusion
D) adsorption
E) coagulation

D

55

All of the following are considered to be colloids except ________.
A) an emulsion
B) a homogeneous mixture
C) an aerosol
D) a foam
E) All of the above are colloids.

B

56

Hydrophobic colloids ________.
A) are those that contain water
B) can be stabilized by adsorption of ions
C) are those that do not contain water
D) can be stabilized by coagulation
E) will separate into two phases if they are stabilized

B

57

The process of solute particles being surrounded by solvent particles is known as ________.
A) salutation
B) agglomeration
C) solvation
D) agglutination
E) dehydration

C

58

Pairs of liquids that will mix in all proportions are called ________ liquids.
A) miscible
B) unsaturated
C) polar liquids
D) saturated
E) supersaturated

A

59

The solubility of Ar in water at 25 °C is 1.6 × 10-3 M when the pressure of the Ar above the solution is 1.0 atm. The solubility of Ar at a pressure of 2.5 atm is ________ M.
A) 1.6 × 103
B) 6.4 × 10-4
C) 4.0 × 10-3
D) 7.5 × 10-2
E) 1.6 × 10-3

C

60

A 81.5 g sample of calcium chloride is dissolved in 102 g of water at 45 °C. The solution is cooled to 20.0 °C and no precipitate is observed. This solution is ________.
A) hydrated
B) placated
C) saturated
D) unsaturated
E) supersaturated

E

61

A 17.2 g sample of potassium chlorate is dissolved in 250 g of water at 65 °C. The solution is cooled to 30.0 °C and no precipitate is observed. This solution is ________.
A) hydrated
B) miscible
C) saturated
D) unsaturated
E) supersaturated

D

62

A 30.0 g sample of potassium nitrate is dissolved in 100 g of water at 60 °C. The solution is cooled to 20.0 °C and a small amount of precipitate is observed. This solution is ________.
A) hydrated
B) placated
C) saturated
D) unsaturated
E) supersaturated

C

63

A solution at 20 °C that is 3.75 M in MnSO4 monohydrate is considered a(n) ________ solution. The solubility of MnSO4 monohydrate in water at 20 °C is 70.0 g per 100.0 mL of water.
A) hydrated
B) solvated
C) saturated
D) unsaturated
E) supersaturated

D

64

The solubility of MnSO4 monohydrate in water at 20 °C is 70.0 g per 100.0 mL of water. A solution at 20 °C that is 0.401 M in MnSO4 monohydrate is best described as a(n) ________ solution. The formula weight of MnSO4 monohydrate is 168.97 g/mol.
A) hydrated
B) solvated
C) saturated
D) unsaturated
E) supersaturated

D

65

A solution is prepared by dissolving 15.0 g of NH3 in 250.0 g of water. The density of the resulting solution is 0.974 g/mL. The molarity of NH3 in the solution is ________ M.
A) 0.00353
B) 0.882
C) 60.0
D) 3.24
E) 3.53

D

66

A solution is prepared by dissolving 25.0 g of NaCl in 500.0 g of water. What is the molality (m) of NaCl in the solution? The density of the solution is 1.0 g/mL.
A) 0.000856
B) 0.0500
C) 50.0
D) 8.56
E) 0.856

E

67

A solution is prepared by dissolving 23.7 g of CaCl2 in 375 g of water. The density of the resulting solution is . The concentration of Cl- in this solution is ________ M.
A) 0.214
B) 0.562
C) 1.12
D) 1.20
E) 6.64 × 10-2

C

68

A solution is prepared by dissolving 15.8 g of MgCl2 in 255 g of water. What is the mole fraction of Cl- in this solution?
A) 0.977
B) 0.0116
C) 0.0232
D) 0.988
E) 0.00583

C

69

A solution is prepared by dissolving 23.7 g of CaCl2 in 375 g of water. The density of the resulting solution is The concentration of CaCl2 in this solution is ________ molal.
A) 0.214
B) 0.569
C) 5.70
D) 63.2
E) 1.76

B

70

A solution is prepared by dissolving 24.7 g of KBr in 375 g water at 20.0 °C. What is the molarity (M) of KBr in this solution? Density of the solution at 20.0 °C is 0.998 g/mL.
A) 0.552
B) 0.0659
C) 0.000552
D) 552
E) 65.9

A

71

What is the concentration (M) of HCl in a solution that is prepared by dissolving 25.5 g of HCl in 2.0 L of water? (Assume volume does not change after adding HCl.)
A) 1.28
B) 0.0350
C) 35.0
D) 3.50 × 10-5
E) 14.0

B

72

The concentration (M) of HCl in a solution prepared by dissolving 5.5 g of HCl in 200 g of C2H6O is ________ M. The density of the solution is 0.79 g/mL.
A) 21
B) 0.93
C) 0.58
D) 6.0 × 10-4
E) 1.72

C

73

What is the mole fraction of HCl in a solution that is prepared by dissolving 25.5 g of HCl in 800 g of water? The density of the solution is 1.0 g/mL.
A) 0.0155
B) 0.0319
C) 0.984
D) 0.874
E) 32.0

A

74

The mole fraction of urea (MW = 60.0 g/mol) in a solution prepared by dissolving 16 g of urea in 39 g of H2O is ________.
A) 0.58
B) 0.37
C) 0.13
D) 0.11
E) 9.1

D

75

The concentration of urea (MW = 60.0 g/mol) in a solution prepared by dissolving 16 g of urea in 39 g of H2O is ________ molal.
A) 96
B) 6.8
C) 0.68
D) 6.3
E) 0.11

B

76

The molarity of urea (MW = 60.0 g/mol) in a solution prepared by dissolving 11 g of urea in 35 mL of H2O is ________ M. Assume the volume of the solution does not change when dissolving the urea.
A) 0.314
B) 5.24
C) 314
D) 0.00524
E) 0.00642

B

77

What is the molarity of sodium chloride in solution that is 13.0% by mass sodium chloride and that has a density of 1.10 g/mL?
A) 143
B) 2.45
C) 2.56
D) 2.23
E) 1.43 × 10-2

B

78

What is the molality of LiCl in solution that is 9.0% by mass LiCl and has a density of 1.00 g/mL?
A) 9.00
B) 2.12
C) 2.33
D) 90.0
E) 0.0900

C

79

What is the mole fraction of LiCl in solution that is 9.0% by mass LiCl and has a density of 1.00 g/mL?
A) 0.960
B) 2.33
C) 0.0403
D) 2.12
E) 9.00

C

80

The vapor pressure of pure ethanol at 60 °C is 0.459 atm. Raoult's Law predicts that a solution prepared by dissolving 10.0 mmol naphthalene (nonvolatile) in 90.0 mmol ethanol will have a vapor pressure of ________ atm.
A) 0.498
B) 0.413
C) 0.790
D) 0.367
E) 0.0918

B

81

The vapor pressure of pure water at 25 °C is 23.8 torr. What is the vapor pressure (torr) of water above a solution prepared by dissolving 18.0 g of glucose (a nonelectrolyte, MW = 180.0 g/mol) in 95.0 g of water?
A) 24.3
B) 23.4
C) 0.451
D) 0.443
E) 23.8

B

82

What is the freezing point (°C) of a solution prepared by dissolving 11.3 g of Ca(NO3)2 (formula weight = 164 g/mol) in 115 g of water? The molal freezing point depression constant for water is 1.86 °C/m. (Assume 100% ionization of Ca(NO3)2.)
A) -3.34
B) -1.11
C) 3.34
D) 1.11
E) 0.00

A

83

A solution containing 10.0 g of an unknown liquid and 90.0 g water has a freezing point of -3.33 °C. Given Kf = 1.86 °C/m for water, the molar mass of the unknown liquid is ________ g/mol.
A) 69.0
B) 333
C) 619
D) 161
E) 62.1

E

84

A mixture containing 33.0 g of an unknown liquid and 230.0 g of water has a freezing point of -1.12 °C. Given Kf = 1.86 °C/m for water, what is the molar mass (g/mol) of the unknown liquid?
A) 54.8
B) 0.602
C) 143
D) 238
E) 138

D

85

A solution is prepared by dissolving 0.60 g of nicotine (a nonelectrolyte) in water to make 12 mL of solution. The osmotic pressure of the solution is 7.55 ATM at 25 °C. The molecular weight of nicotine is ________ g/mol.
A) 28
B) 43
C) 50
D) 160
E) 0.60

D

86

A mixture containing 41.0 g of an unknown nonelectrolyte and 160.0 g of water has a freezing point of -1.34 °C. Given Kf = 1.86 °C/m for water, what is the molecular weight (g/mol) of the unknown solute?
A) 57.0
B) 356
C) 0.720
D) 4.74
E) 0.355

B

87

An aqueous solution of a soluble compound (a nonelectrolyte) is prepared by dissolving 33.2g of the compound in sufficient water to form 250mL of solution. The solution has an osmotic pressure of 1.2 atm at 25°C. What is the molar mass (g/mole) of the compound?
A) 1.0 × 103
B) 2.7 × 103
C) 2.3 × 102
D) 6.8 × 102
E) 28

B

88

Determine the freezing point (°C) of a 0.015 molal aqueous solution of MgSO4. Assume i = 2.0 for MgSO4. The molal freezing-point-depression constant of water is 1.86°C/m.
A) -0.056
B) -0.028
C) -0.17
D) -0.084
E) 0.000

A

89

A solution is prepared by dissolving 2.60 g of a strong electrolyte (formula weight = 101 g/mol) in enough water to make 1.00 L of solution. The osmotic pressure of the solution is 1.25 atm at 25.0 °C. What is the van't Hoff factor (i) for the unknown solute?
A) 0
B) 0.99
C) 1.98
D) 2.98
E) 0.630

C

90

George is making spaghetti for dinner. He places 4.01 kg of water in a pan and brings it to a boil. Before adding the pasta, he adds 58 g of table salt (NaCl) to the water and again brings it to a boil. The temperature of the salty, boiling water is ________°C. (Assume 100% ionization of NaCl.)

Assume a pressure of 1.00 atm and negligible evaporation of water. Kb for water is 0.52°C/m.
A) 99.87
B) 100.26
C) 100.13
D) 99.74
E) 100.00

B

91

A saturated solution ________.
A) contains dissolved solute in equilibrium with undissolved solute
B) has the capacity to dissolve more solute
C) contains no double bonds
D) will rapidly precipitate if a seed crystal is added
E) cannot be attained

A

92

Which one of the following substances would be the most soluble in CcL4?
A) C4H10
B) Li2O
C) NH3
D) HCl
E) CH3CH2CH2OH

A

93

Which of the following would be least soluble in a nonpolar solvent?
A) NaNO3
B) C5H12
C) NH3
D) HF
E) CH3CH2OH

A

94

The Henry's law constant for helium gas in water at 30 °C is 3.70 × 10-4 M/atm. When the partial pressure of helium above a sample of water is 0.400 atm, the concentration of helium in the water is ________ M.
A) 9.25 × 10-4
B) 1.08 × 103
C) 0.800
D) 1.48 × 10-4
E) 3.70 × 10-4

D

95

The solubility of oxygen gas in water at 25 °C and 1.0 atm pressure of oxygen is 0.041 g/L. The solubility of oxygen in water at 4.0 atm and 25 °C is ________ g/L.
A) 0.041
B) 0.014
C) 0.31
D) 0.16
E) 4.0

D

96

What is the solubility concentration (M) of nitrogen gas in 25 °C water and at a nitrogen pressure of 3.5 atm? The solubility of nitrogen gas in water at 25 °C and a nitrogen pressure of 1.0 atm is 6.9 X 10-4 M.
A) 0.00086
B) 120
C) 0.0037
D) 3.5
E) 0.0024

E

97

On a clear day at sea level, with a temperature of 25 °C, the partial pressure of N2 in air is 0.78 atm and the concentration of nitrogen in water is 5.3 X 10-4 M. When the partial pressure of is ________ atm, the concentration in water is 2.0 X 10-3 M.
A) 0.63
B) 0.68
C) 1.0
D) 3.0
E) 2.9

E

98

A solution is prepared by dissolving 27.7 g of CaCl2 in 375 g of water. The density of the resulting solution is 1.05 g/mL. The concentration of CaCl2 is ________% by mass.
A) 6.88
B) 7.22
C) 0.0722
D) 0.0688
E) 6.24

A

99

The concentration of urea in a solution prepared by dissolving 16 g of urea in 25g of H20 is ________% by mass. The molar mass of urea is 60.0 g/mol.
A) 39
B) 64
C) 0.39
D) 0.64
E) 0.48

A

100

A solution contains 39% phosphoric acid by mass. This means that ________.
A) 100 g of this solution contains 39 g of phosphoric acid
B) 1 mL of this solution contains 39 g of phosphoric acid
C) 1 L of this solution has a mass of 39 g
D) 1 L of this solution contains 39 mL of phosphoric acid
E) the density of this solution is 3.9 g/mL

A

101

What is the molality of a 24.4% (by mass) aqueous solution of phosphoric acid?
A) 323 m
B) 6.59 m
C) 3.29 m
D) 1.65 m
E) The density of the solution is needed to solve the problem.

C

102

What is the molarity of phosphoric acid in a 31.5% (by mass) aqueous solution?
A) 0.0846 m
B) 0.156 m
C) 0.0390 m
D) 0.0780 m
E) The density of the solution is needed to solve the problem.

E

103

Calculate the mole fraction of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) in a 38.5% (by mass) aqueous solution.
A) 0.103
B) 0.115
C) 0.206
D) 0.0516
E) The density of the solution is needed to solve the problem.

A

104

What is the molality of a 10.0% (by mass) aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid?
A) 111 m
B) 1.01 m
C) 3.05 m
D) 1.52 m
E) The density of the solution is needed to solve the problem.

C

105

What is the mole fraction of hydrochloric acid in a 17.4% (by mass) hydrochloric acid aqueous solution?
A) 0.104
B) 0.189
C) 0.0471
D) 0.0943
E) The density of the solution is needed to solve the problem.

D

106

Calculate the molality of a 27.0% (by mass) aqueous solution of nitric acid.
A) 5.87
B) 222
C) 0.906
D) 1.37
E) The density of the solution is needed to solve the problem.

A

107

What is the mole fraction of nitric acid in a(n) 8.46% (by mass) aqueous solution of nitric acid?
A) 0.0433
B) 0.0830
C) 0.0257
D) 0.0208
E) The density of the solution is needed to solve the problem.

C

108

A solution contains 30 ppm of some heavy metal and the density of the solution is This means that ________.
A) 100 g of the solution contains 30 g of heavy metal
B) 100 g of the solution contains 30 mg of heavy metal
C) the solution is 30% by mass of heavy metal
D) there are 30 mg of the heavy metal in 1.0 L of this solution
E) the molarity of the solution is 30 M

D

109

What is the chloride ion concentration (M) in a solution that contains 0.100 M aluminum chloride?
A) 0.100
B) 0.300
C) 0.050
D) 0.033
E) 0.200

B

110

What is the molal concentration of potassium bromide in a solution prepared by dissolving 2.27 g of potassium bromide in 897 g of water?
A) 2.46
B) 0.0213
C) 0.0167
D) 0.0000207
E) 0.0186

B

111

The concentration of lead nitrate (Pb(N ) in a 0.926 M solution is ________ molal. The density of the solution is 1.202 g/mL.
A) 0.770
B) 2.13
C) 1.03
D) 0.819
E) 0.650

C

112

What is the molal concentration of a benzene (C6H6) solution prepared by mixing 13.0 g benzene with 38.0 g of carbon tetrachloride?
A) 2.40
B) 622
C) 4.38
D) 0.342
E) 0.508

C

113

What is the mole fraction of N in a solution prepared by dissolving 16.0 g of N in 250.0 g of water? The density of the resulting solution is 0.974 g/mL.
A) 0.0640
B) 0.940
C) 0.0635
D) 0.922
E) 16.8

C

114

What is the molal concentration of KCl in a solution prepared by adding 2.11 mol of KCl to 889 g of water?
A) 2.37
B) 2.37 × 10-3
C) 421
D) 0.421
E) 1.88 × 103

A

115

13.3 g of benzene (C6H6) is dissolved in 282 g of carbon tetrachloride. What is the molal concentration of benzene in this solution?
A) 6.04 ×10-4
B) 0.0851
C) 0.0450
D) 4.50
E) 0.604

E

116

What is the molarity of a 7.00% by mass ammonium chloride aqueous solution at 20 °C? Density of the solution is 1.0190 g/mL.
A) 1.33
B) 1.41
C) 0.133
D) 0.146
E) 6.86

A

117

What is the molality of ammonium chloride in a 3.95 M ammonium chloride aqueous solution at 20 °C? Density of the solution is 1.0567 g/mL.
A) 0.0780
B) 3.95
C) 0.268
D) 20.00
E) 4.67

E

118

What is the mass % of ammonium chloride in a 1.73 M ammonium chloride aqueous solution at 20 °C? Density of the solution is 1.0257 g/mL.
A) 1.85
B) 3.31
C) 1.68
D) 0.594
E) 9.00

E

119

The mole fraction of He in a gaseous solution prepared from 1.0 g of He, 6.5 g of Ar, and 10.0 g of Ne is ________.
A) 0.28
B) 0.25
C) 0.20
D) 0.66
E) 0.86

A

120

What is the % by mass of sodium chloride in an aqueous solution that is 2.39 M and has a density of 1.01 g/mL?
A) 2.36
B) 13.8
C) 7.83
D) 140.
E) 19.6

B

121

An acetic acid aqueous solution contains 22% by mass acetic acid? Which of the following statements is correct?
A) 1 mL of this solution contains 22 g of acetic acid
B) 1 L of this solution has a mass of 22 g
C) 100 g of this solution contains 22 g of acetic acid
D) 1 L of this solution contains 22 mL of acetic acid
E) the density of this solution is 2.2 g/mL

C

122

What is the molality of a 36.1% (by mass) aqueous solution of phosphoric acid?
A) 565 m
B) 11.5 m
C) 5.76 m
D) 2.88 m
E) The density of the solution is needed to solve the problem.

C

123

What is the molarity of phosphoric acid in a 22.1% (by mass) aqueous solution?
A) 0.0522 m
B) 0.0248 m
C) 0.0992 m
D) 0.0496 m
E) The density of the solution is needed to solve the problem.

E

124

What is the mole fraction of phosphoric acid in a 20.5% (by mass) aqueous solution?
A) 0.0474
B) 0.0905
C) 0.0453
D) 0.0226
E) The density of the solution is needed to solve the problem.

C

125

What is the molality of a 10.0% (by mass) aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid?
A) 160 m
B) 1.45 m
C) 3.05 m
D) 2.20 m
E) The density of the solution is needed to solve the problem.

C

126

What is the mole fraction of hydrochloric acid in a 7.20% (by mass) aqueous solution?
A) 0.0383
B) 0.0739
C) 0.0185
D) 0.0369
E) The density of the solution is needed to solve the problem.

D

127

What is the molality of a 35.0% (by mass) aqueous solution of nitric acid?
A) 348
B) 1.42
C) 8.55
D) 2.15
E) The density of the solution is needed to solve the problem.

C

128

What is the mole fraction of nitric acid of a 16.2% (by mass) aqueous solution of nitric acid?
A) 0.0374
B) 0.0721
C) 0.0180
D) 0.0523
E) The density of the solution is needed to solve the problem.

D

129

A water sample tested positive for lead with a concentration of 35 ppm. The density of the solution is 1.00 g/mL. Which of the following statements is correct?
A) 100 g of the solution contains 35 g of lead
B) there are 35 mg of lead in 1.0 L of this solution
C) 100 g of the solution contains 35 mg of lead
D) the solution is 35% by mass of lead
E) the molarity of the solution is 35 M

B

130

How much sodium nitrate (g) is in a 205.5 g sample of solution that is 27.1% by mass?
A) 5570
B) 13.2
C) 0.00132
D) 758
E) 55.7

E

131

How many grams of solution are present if there is 276.7 g of dissolved solute which is 15.6% by mass?
A) 43.2
B) 0.177
C) 1770
D) 5.64
E) 0.0564

C

132

How many grams of solution are present if a solute is dissolved in 63.0 g of water and the concentration is 12.7% by mass?
A) 55.0
B) 0.00722
C) 72.2
D) 20.2
E) 1.39

C

133

What is the molality (m) of a solution containing 5.16 g of C6H12O6 in 183 mL of water? The density of water is 1.00 g/mL.
A) 0.313
B) 0.156
C) 0.0782
D) 28.2
E) 0.00524

B

134

Which produces the greatest number of ions when one mole dissolves in water?
A) Na3PO4
B) KBr
C) NaMnO4
D) NH4Cl
E) glucose

A

135

The ideal value of i (van't Hoff factor) for Na3PO4 is:
A) 4
B) 3
C) 2
D) 1
E) 5

A

136

Of the following, a 0.2 M aqueous solution of ________ will have the highest freezing point.
A) RbBr
B) K2SO4
C) Sr(NO3)2
D) (NH4)2SO4
E) Fe(NO3)2

A

137

Which of the following will have an ideal van't Hoff factor (i) value of 1?
A) sucrose
B) NaF
C) LiNO3
D) NH4NO3
E) Li2PO4

A

138

Which produces the greatest number of ions when one mole dissolves in water?
A) K2SO4
B) NaF
C) LiMnO4
D) NH4Br
E) sucrose

A

139

A solution is prepared by dissolving 2.00 g of glycerin ( C3H8O3) in 201 g of ethanol (C2H5OH). The freezing point of the solution is ________°C. The freezing point of pure ethanol is -114.6°C at 1 atm. The molal-freezing-point-depression constant ( Kf) for ethanol is 1.99°C/m. The molar masses of glycerin and of ethanol are 92.1 g/mol and 46.1 g/mol, respectively.
A) -116.6
B) 0.215
C) -112.6
D) -114.4
E) -114.8

E

140

What is the vapor pressure (mm Hg) of water at 25°C above a solution prepared by dissolving 25 g of urea, CO(NH2)2, in 75 g of water? The vapor pressure of pure water at 25 °C is 23.8 mm Hg.
A) 22
B) 2.9
C) 0.42
D) 27
E) 0.91

A

141

The freezing point of ethanol (C2H5OH) is -114.6 °C. The molal freezing point depression constant for ethanol is 2.00 °C/m. What is the freezing point (°C) of a solution prepared by dissolving 50.0 g of glycerin (C3H8O3, a nonelectrolyte) in 200.0 g of ethanol?
A) -115.0
B) -5.43
C) -132.3
D) -120.0
E) -114.6

D

142

Calculate the freezing point of a 0.09500 m aqueous solution of glucose. The molal freezing-point-depression constant of water is 1.86°C/m.
A) 0.0475
B) 0.106
C) -0.0562
D) -0.177
E) -0.354

D

143

Calculate the freezing point of a 0.05500 m aqueous solution of NaN . The molal freezing-point-depression constant of water is 1.86°C/m. (Assume 100% ionization of NaNO3.)
A) 0.0286
B) -0.106
C) 0.106
D) -0.0562
E) -0.205

E

144

Calculate the freezing point of a solution containing 20 grams of KCl and 2200.0 grams of water. The molal-freezing-point-depression constant ( ) for water is 1.86°C/m. (Assume 100% ionization of KCl.)
A) -0.45 °C
B) +0.45 °C
C) -0.23 °C
D) +0.23 °C
E) 1.23 °C

A

145

The osmotic pressure of a solution formed by dissolving 45.0 mg of aspirin (C9H8O4) in 0.250 L of water at 25 °C is ________ atm.
A) 24.5
B) 2.05 ×10-3
C) 0.0245
D) 4.41
E) 2.48

C

146

A solution is prepared by adding 40.00 g of lactose (milk sugar) to 110.0 g of water at 55°C. The partial pressure of water above the solution is ________ torr. The vapor pressure of pure water at 55 °C is 118.0 torr. The MW of lactose is 342.3 g/mol.
A) 2.216
B) 125.5
C) 225.9
D) 115.8
E) 86.5

D

147

What is the formula weight of iron(III) chloride hexahydrate?

270.294

148

Water (H2O) and the alcohol methanol (CH3OH) are infinitely soluble in each other. The primary intermolecular force responsible for this is ________.

hydrogen bonding

149

An aqueous solution with a concentration of 18 ppm indicates that there is ________ per liter of solution.

18 mg

150

An aqueous solution with a concentration of 12.5 ppb indicates that there is ________ per liter of solution.

12.5 ug

151

What is the osmotic pressure (in atm) of a 0.0255 M NaCl solution at 25.0 °C?

1.25

152

What is the osmotic pressure (in atm) of a 0.015 M calcium chloride solution at 28 °C?

1.1

153

291.5 grams of calcium chloride is dissolved in 1974.3 grams of water. Calculate the vapor pressure lowering (in mm Hg) of the solution at 25.0 °C. (Note: The vapor pressure of pure water at 25.0 °C is 23.76 mm Hg.)

0.556

154

The mole fraction of NaCl in water is 0.0195. Calculate the vapor pressure lowering (in mm Hg) of the solution at 25.0 °C. (Note: The vapor pressure of pure water at 25.0 °C is 23.76 mm Hg.)

0.463

155

The ________ is a phenomenon used to differentiate colloids and true solutions.

Tyndall effect

156

A solution with a solute concentration greater than the solubility is called a supercritical solution.

false

157

Adding a nonvolatile solute to a solution decreases the vapor pressure of the solution.

true

158

After swimming in the ocean for several hours, swimmers noticed that their fingers appeared to be very wrinkled. This is an indication that seawater is supertonic relative to the fluid in cells.

false

159

The value of the boiling-point-elevation constant (Kb) depends on the identity of the solvent.

true

160

Emulsifying agents typically have a hydrophobic end and a hydrophilic end.

true