The fundamental strategic decision of World War II made by President
Roosevelt and the British at the very beginning was
a. to plan for a "second front" in western Europe as soon as possible.
b. to force Italy out of the war first by attacking the "soft underbelly" of Europe.
c. to arouse the American people to an idealistic crusade of the same sort that Woodrow Wilson had so effectively used in World War I.
d. to concentrate first on the war in Europe and to place the Pacific war against Japan on the back burner.
e. to fight an equally vigorous naval war against Japan and a land war against Germany and Italy.
Overall, most ethnic groups in the United States during World War II
a. were further assimilated into American society.
b. were not allowed to serve in the military.
c. had their patriotism questioned as in World War I.
d. cast their vote for Republican candidates opposed to the war.
e. served in ethnically distinct military units.
Japanese Americans were placed in concentration camps during World
a. due to numerous acts of sabotage.
b. in retaliation for the placement of Americans in concentration camps by the Japanese.
c. as a result of anti-Japanese prejudice and fear.
d. because many were loyal to Japan.
e. all of the above.
The minority group most adversely affected by Washington's wartime
a. German Americans.
c. Japanese Americans.
d. American communists.
e. Italian Americans.
The general American attitude toward World War II was
a. resentment at having to disrupt civilian life.
b. gratitude that the Great Depression was finally over.
c. a fervent ideological belief in democracy and hatred of fascism.
d. less idealistic and ideological and more practical than the outlook in World War I.
e. that it was necessary to defend white American society against racial assaults.
In the period from 1885 to 1924, Japanese immigrants to the United
a. poorly educated.
b. primarily from the island of Hokkaido.
c. some of the poorest people to enter the county.
d. almost exclusively males.
e. a select group who was better educated than most European immigrants.
When the United States entered World War II in December 1941,
a. it took nearly two years for the county to unite.
b. the conflict soon became an idealistic crusade for democracy.
c. the government repudiated the Atlantic Charter.
d. a majority of Americans had no clear idea of what the war was about.
e. the idea of allying with the Communist Soviet Union was repugnant.
During World War II, the United States government commissioned the
production of synthetic __________ in order to offset the loss of
access to prewar supplies in East Asia.
Match each of the wartime agencies below with its correct function:
A. War Production Board
B. Office of Price
C. War Labor Board
D. Fair Employment
1. assigned priorities with respect to the use of raw materials and transportation facilities
2. controlled inflation by Administration rationing essential goods
3. imposed ceilings on wage increases
4. saw to it that no hiring Practices Commission discrimination practices were used against blacks seeking employment in war industries
a. A-2, B-3, C-4, D-1
b. A-1, B-2, C-3, D-4
c. A-2, B-4, C-3, D-1
d. A-3, B-2, C-1, D-4
e. A-4, B-1, C-2, D-3
While most American workers were strongly committed to the war
effort, wartime production was disrupted by strikes led by the
b. Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters.
c. Longshoremen's International Union
d. United Mine Workers.
e. Industrial Workers of the World.
Once at war, America's first great challenge was to
a. pass a conscription law.
b. raise an army and navy.
c. extend aid to the Soviet Union.
d. develop atomic weapons.
e. retool its industry for all-out war production.
During World War II,
a. there were no strikes by any unions.
b. unions actively combated racial discrimination.
c. farm production declined.
d. for security reasons, the bracero program with Mexico was temporarily halted.
e. labor unions substantially increased their membership.
The employment of more than six million women in American industry
during World War II led to
a. equal pay for men and women.
b. a greater percentage of American women in war industries than anywhere else in the world.
c. the establishment of day-care centers by the government.
d. a reduction in employment for black males.
e. a strong desire of most women to work for wages.
The main reason the majority of women war workers left the labor
force at the end of WW II was
a. union demands.
b. employer demands that they quit.
c. male discrimination on the job.
d. government requirements to hire veterans.
e. family obligations.
African Americans did all of the following during World War II except
a. fight in integrated combat units.
b. rally behind the slogan "Double V" (victory over dictators abroad and racism at home).
c. move north and west in large numbers.
d. form a militant organization called the Congress of Racial Equality.
e. serve in the Army Air Corps.
Which one of the following is least related to the other four?
a. Smith-Connally Act
b. A. Philip Randolph
c. Fair Employment Practices Commission
d. racial discrimination in wartime industry
e. proposed "Negro March on Washington."
During World War II , most Americans economically experienced
a. serious hardships due to rationing of essential goods.
b. prosperity and a doubling of personal income.
c. a continuing struggle to find employment.
d. growing class conflict between the wealthy and the working class.
e. prosperity in the cities but disastrous conditions on farms and in small towns.
The northward migration of African Americans accelerated after World
War II because
a. the southern system of sharecropping was declared illegal.
b. Latinos had replaced blacks in the work force.
c. mechanical cotton pickers came into use.
d. northern cities repealed segregation laws.
e. the South made it clear that they were not wanted.
During World War II, American Indians
a. demanded that President Roosevelt end discrimination in defense industries.
b. rarely enlisted in the armed forces.
c. moved south to replace African American laborers.
d. moved off reservations in large numbers.
e. promoted recovery of tribal languages.
By the end of World War II, the heart of the United States'
African-American community had shifted to
a. Florida and the Carolinas.
b. southern cities.
c. the Pacific Northwest.
d. Midwestern small towns.
e. northern cities.
The national debt increased most during
a. Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal.
b. Herbert Hoover's administration.
c. World War II.
d. World War I.
e. the 1920s.
Most of the money raised to finance World War II came through
a. tariff collections.
b. excise taxes on luxury goods.
c. raising income taxes.
d. voluntary contributions.
The first naval battle in history in which all the fighting was done
by carrier-based aircraft was the Battle of
a. Leyte Gulf.
b. the Java Sea.
c. the Coral Sea.
e. Iwo Jima.
The tide of Japanese conquest in the Pacific was turned following the
a. Leyte Gulf.
b. Bataan and Corregidor.
c. the Coral Sea.
The Japanese made a crucial mistake in 1942 in their attempt to
control much of the Pacific when they
a. failed to take the Philippines.
b. unsuccessfully attacked the oil-rich Dutch East Indies.
c. overextended themselves instead of digging in and consolidating their gains.
d. sent their submarine force on a suicide mission at the Battle of Midway.
e. attacked Alaska and Australia.
In waging war against Japan, the United States relied mainly on a
a. heavy bombing from Chinese air bases.
b. invading Japanese strongholds in Southeast Asia.
c. fortifying China by transporting supplies from India over the Himalayan "hump."
d. "island hopping" across the South Pacific while bypassing Japanese strongholds.
e. turning the Japanese flanks in New Guinea and Alaska.
The conquest of in 1944 was especially critical, because from there
Americans could conduct round-trip bombing raids on the Japanese home islands.
b. Wake Island
c. New Guinea
Until spring 1943, perhaps Hitler's greatest opportunities of
defeating Britain and winning the war was
a. the possibility of a successful invasion across the English Channel.
b. that German U-boat would destroy Allied shipping.
c. the defeatism of pro-Fascist elements within upper-class British society would.
d. that General Rommel would conquer Egypt and the Suez Canal.
e. that the American-British-Soviet alliance would collapse.
Hitler's advance in the European theater of war crested in late 1942
at the Battle of __________, after which his fortunes gradually declined.
a. the Bulge
c. Monte Cassino
e. El Alamein
The Allies postponed opening a second front in Europe until 1944 because
a. they hoped that Germany and the Soviet Union would cripple each other.
b. men and material were needed more urgently in the Pacific.
c. the Soviet Union requested a delay until it could join the campaign.
d. they believed that North Africa was more strategically vital.
e. of British reluctance and lack of adequate resources.
Roosevelt's and Churchill's insistence on the absolute and
"unconditional surrender" of Germany
a. eventually complicated the problems of postwar reconstruction.
b. clearly shortened the war.
c. was largely unacceptable to the Soviets, who hoped to encourage a Communist revolution inside Germany.
d. may have prevented a "separate peace" between Hitler and Stalin.
e. encouraged anti-Hitler resisters in Germany to try to overthrow the Nazis.
President Roosevelt's promise to the Soviets to open a second front
in western Europe by the end of 1942
a. was fulfilled by the invasion of North Africa.
b. was made to deceive Stalin and encourage him to slow his army's movement into Eastern Europe.
c. strongly supported by Churchill and British military leaders.
d. utterly impossible to keep.
e. the key goal to which all American military efforts were directed
Arrange these wartime conferences in chronological order:
a. A, B, C
b. C, B, A
c. B, C, A
d. B, A, C
e. A, C, B
Arrange these events in chronological order:
(A) V-J Day
(B) V-E Day
(C) D Day
(D) Invasion of Italy
a. D, C, B, A
b. A, C, B, D
c. B, D, A, C
d. C, A, D, B
e. A, D, B, C
The major consequence of the Allied conquest of Sicily in August 1943 was
a. a modification of the demand for unconditional surrender of Italy.
b. the overthrow of Mussolini and Italy's unconditional surrender
c. the swift Allied conquest of the Italian peninsula.
d. a conflict between Churchill and General Eisenhower over the invasion of the Italian mainland.
e. the threat of a Communist takeover of the Italian government.
After the Italian surrender in August 1943,
a. the Allies found it easy to conquer Rome and the rest of Italy.
b. the Soviets accepted the wisdom of delaying the invasion of France and pursuing the second front in Italy.
c. the British demanded the restoration of the monarchy in Italy.
d. the Americans withdrew from Italy to prepare for D-Day.
e. the German army poured into Italy and stalled the Allied advance.
The real impact of the Italian front on World War II may have been
a. delayed the D-Day invasion and allowed the Soviet Union to advance further into Eastern Europe.
b. prevented the rise of fascism or communism in Italy after the war.
c. enabled the Americans to appease both British and Soviet strategic demands.
d. enabled the United States to prevent Austria and Greece from falling into Soviet hands.
e. destroyed the monastery of Monte Cassino and other Italian artistic treasures.
The cross-channel invasion of Normandy to open a second front
Europe was commanded by General
a. George Patton.
b. Dwight Eisenhower.
c. Douglas MacArthur.
d. Bernard Montgomery.
e. Omar Bradley.
In a sense, Franklin Roosevelt was the "forgotten man" at
the Democratic Convention in 1944 because
a. so much attention was focused on who would gain the vice presidency.
b. he remained in Washington, D.C., to conduct the war.
c. poor health prevented him from taking an active role.
d. the issue of a fourth term was prominent.
e. Vice President Henry Wallace controlled the convention.
Franklin Roosevelt won the election in 1944 primarily because
a. Republican Thomas E. Dewey favored an international organization for world peace.
b. labor unions turned out for Roosevelt.
c. Harry Truman was his running mate.
d. questions arose regarding Thomas E. Dewey's honesty.
e. the war was going well.
Hitler's last-ditch attempt to achieve a victory against the
Americans and British came in
a. the Battle of the Bulge.
b. the Battle of the Rhineland.
c. the attempt to assassinate Churchill and Roosevelt.
d. an attempt to arrange a negotiated peace with Stalin.
e. the final U-boat campaign against the American navy.
As a result of the Battle of Leyte Gulf,
a. Japan stalled an Allied victory.
b. Admiral William F. "Bull" Halsey lost his first naval engagement.
c. Japan was nearly able to take Australia.
d. the United States could bomb Japan from land bases.
e. Japan was finished as a naval power.
The Potsdam conference
a. determined the fate of Eastern Europe.
b. brought France and China in as part of the "Big Five."
c. concluded that the Soviet Union would enter the war in the Pacific.
d. was Franklin Roosevelt's last meeting with Churchill and Stalin.
e. issued an ultimatum to Japan to surrender or be destroyed.
The spending of enormous sums on the original atomic bomb project was
spurred by the belief that
a. a nuclear weapon was the only way to win the war.
b. the Germans might acquire such a weapon first.
c. the Japanese were at work on an atomic bomb project of their own.
d. scientists like Albert Einstein might be lost to the war effort.
e. the American public would not tolerate the casualties that would result from a land invasion of Japan.
The "unconditional surrender" policy toward Japan was
finally modified by
a. assuring the Japanese that there would be no "war crimes" trials.
b. guaranteeing that defeated Japan would be treated decently by American occupiers.
c. agreeing not to drop more than two atomic bombs on Japan.
d. agreeing to let the Japanese keep Emperor Hirohito on the throne.
e. permitting the Japanese to retain a strong army but no real navy.
Which of the following was not among the qualities of the American
participation in World War II?
a. a group of highly effective military and political leaders
b. an enormously effective effort in producing weapons and supplies
c. a higher percentage of military casualties than any other Allied nation
d. the preservation of the American homeland against invasion or destruction from the air
e. the maintenance and re-affirmation of the strength of American democracy
At the wartime Teheran Conference,
a. the Soviet Union agreed to declare war on Japan within three months.
b. the Big Three allies agreed to divide postwar Germany into separate occupied zones.
c. the Soviet Union agreed to allow free elections in Eastern European nations that its armies occupied at the end of the war.
d. plans were made for the opening of a second front in Europe.
e. it was agreed that five Big Powers would have veto power in the United Nations.