Physio chp 12 Quiz Cardio Flashcards


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1

Which of the following is NOT primarily a function of blood plasma?

a. Transport of hormones

b. Being in osmotic balance with red blood cells

c. Having plasma proteins that exert an osmotic pressure favoring fluid absorption into the capillaries

d. Providing clotting factors that are ready to be activated

e. Transport of oxygen

e. Transport of oxygen

2

What is the term that describes the production of red blood cells?

a. Hemaglutination

b. Erythrocytosis

c. Erythropoiesis

d. Erythroblastosis

e. Hemostasis

c. Erythropoiesis

3

Which is TRUE about the condition anemia?

a. It can be caused by too little iron in the diet.

b. It can be caused by kidney failure.

c. It can be caused by abnormal hemoglobin.

d. It results in reduced oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.

e. All of the answers are true.

e. All of the answers are true.

4

You have a patient who has pernicious anemia. Which of the following supplements should she take to improve her symptoms?

a. Iron

b. Vitamin B12

c. Vitamin E

d. Vitamin D

e. Bilirubin

b. Vitamin B12

5

Action potentials in the heart spread from cell to cell through

a. desmosomes.

b. gap junctions.

c. interneurons.

d. valves.

e. coronary vessels.

b. gap junctions.

6

Which is correct about the contraction sequence of the heart?

a. The contraction and relaxation of all four chambers happen at the same time.

b. The right atrium and ventricle contract at the same time, and as they are relaxing, the left atrium and left ventricle begin to contract.

c. Contraction begins in the order: right atrium, then right ventricle, then left atrium, then left ventricle.

d. The two atria contract at the same time, and as they are relaxing, the two ventricles contract together.

e. The atria and ventricles begin their contractions at the exact same time, but the atrial contraction only lasts half as long as the ventricle contraction.

d. The two atria contract at the same time, and as they are relaxing, the two ventricles contract together.

7

Which of the following statements concerning the differences between action potentials in skeletal muscle cells and in ventricular cardiac muscle cells is TRUE?

a. Like skeletal muscle cells, ventricular cardiac muscle cells have a resting membrane potential closer to the sodium equilibrium potential than to the potassium equilibrium potential.

b. Unlike skeletal muscle cells, the initial depolarization of ventricular cells is mainly due to calcium influx, not sodium influx.

c. After sodium influx through voltage-gated channels occurs in ventricular cells, prolonged influx of calcium from the extracellular fluid occurs. No such calcium influx occurs in skeletal muscle cells.

d. Action potentials in skeletal muscle cells are longer in duration than action potentials in cardiac muscle cells.

e. The efflux of K+ repolarizes skeletal muscle cells after an action potential, while repolarization in cardiac muscle cells is due to the efflux of Ca2+.

c. After sodium influx through voltage-gated channels occurs in ventricular cells, prolonged influx of calcium from the extracellular fluid occurs. No such calcium influx occurs in skeletal muscle cells.

8

Which is TRUE about the comparison of excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscle with that in skeletal muscle?

a. Extracellular Ca2+ plays a major role in cardiac but not skeletal muscle.

b. The mechanism for Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum is the same in both types of muscle.

c. Troponin sites are completely saturated immediately after Ca2+ release in both types of muscle.

d. There is no net change in total intracellular Ca2+ concentration in either muscle.

e. Intracellular Ca2+ stores are necessary for contraction in skeletal muscle, but not in cardiac muscle.

a. Extracellular Ca2+ plays a major role in cardiac but not skeletal muscle.

9

Which best defines cardiac output?

a. The end-diastolic volume minus the end-systolic volume

b. The output of the aortic arch baroreceptors

c. The volume of blood in the arterial tree at any moment in time

d. The stroke volume divided by the heart rate

e. The product of the heart rate and the volume ejected from the ventricle during a cardiac cycle

e. The product of the heart rate and the volume ejected from the ventricle during a cardiac cycle

10

What is described by the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart?

a. The relationship between end-diastolic volume and heart rate

b. The relationship between end-systolic volume and stroke volume

c. The relationship between length and tension in cardiac muscle cells

d. The relationship between sympathetic stimulation and stroke volume

e. The relationship between arterial blood pressure and stroke volume

c. The relationship between length and tension in cardiac muscle cells

11

According to the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart

a. the left ventricle ejects a larger volume of blood with each systole than the right ventricle.

b. the intrinsic rate of the heart's pacemaker is 100 beats/min.

c. cardiac output increases with increased heart rate.

d. stroke volume increases with increased venous return.

e. both ventricles contract simultaneously.

d. stroke volume increases with increased venous return.

12

In the systemic circuit, which of these best describes active hyperemia?

a. Increased metabolic activity that results in vasoconstriction

b. Increased metabolic activity that results in vasodilation

c. Decreased blood flow to tissues that results in vasoconstriction

d. Decreased blood flow to tissues that results in vasodilation

e. Increased blood pressure that drives blood more rapidly through tissues

b. Increased metabolic activity that results in vasodilation

13

Blood flow through most organs in the systemic circuit is regulated primarily by increasing or decreasing the __________ activity to arteriolar smooth muscles in the organ. Another form of regulation, called __________, depends upon the metabolic activity of the organ. Increased activity leads to increased interstitial fluid metabolites, which cause __________ of the arterioles. The former is a type of __________ regulation of blood flow; the latter is an example of __________ regulation.

a. sympathetic; active hyperemia; dilation; extrinsic; intrinsic

b. sympathetic; reactive hyperemia; dilation; intrinsic; extrinsic

c. parasympathetic; active hyperemia; constriction; extrinsic; intrinsic

d. sympathetic; flow autoregulation; constriction; intrinsic; extrinsic

e. parasympathetic; reactive hyperemia; dilation; extrinsic; intrinsic

a. sympathetic; active hyperemia; dilation; extrinsic; intrinsic

14

Normally, the hydrostatic pressure difference between capillary fluid and interstitial fluid favors movement of fluid __________ a tissue capillary. The protein osmotic pressure difference between capillary fluid and interstitial fluid normally favors movement of fluid __________ a tissue capillary.

a. into; into

b. into; out of

c. out of; out of

d. out of; into

d. out of; into

15

What determines the movement of blood in systemic veins?

a. The blood pressure difference between systemic capillaries and the right atrium

b. The contraction and relaxation of skeletal muscles

c. The decrease of thoracic pressure and increase of abdominal pressure due to diaphragm movement

d. Valves in the veins

e. All of the these

e. All of the these

16

Following hemorrhage, reflexes are triggered that attempt to compensate for the blood loss. As a result of the blood loss and the reflex mechanisms, which of the following will be TRUE, compared to pre-hemorrhage values?

a. Both cardiac output and total peripheral resistance will be increased.

b. Both cardiac output and total peripheral resistance will be decreased.

c. Cardiac output will be increased and total peripheral resistance will be decreased.

d. Cardiac output will be decreased and total peripheral resistance will be increased.

e. Hematocrit will be increased.

d. Cardiac output will be decreased and total peripheral resistance will be increased.

17

How would a hemorrhage immediately affect the activity of the baroreceptors?

a. The baroreceptors would increase their rate of firing to all medullary cardiovascular center cell types.

b. The baroreceptors would increase their rate of firing to cells in the medulla oblongata that activate sympathetic pathways and decrease their rate of firing to cells in the medulla oblongata that activate parasympathetic pathways.

c. The baroreceptors would decrease their rate of firing to all medullary cardiovascular center cell types.

d. The baroreceptors would decrease their rate of firing to cells in the medulla oblongata that activate sympathetic pathways and increase their rate of firing to cells in the medulla oblongata that activate parasympathetic pathways.

e. A hemorrhage would not affect the activity of the baroreceptors.

c. The baroreceptors would decrease their rate of firing to all medullary cardiovascular center cell types.

18

Which is the most likely effect of physical endurance training on a person's cardiac performance?

a. A decrease in cardiac output

b. An increase in maximal stroke volume

c. An increase in maximal heart rated.

d. An increase in resting heart rate

e. An increase in cardiac output when the person is at rest

b. An increase in maximal stroke volume

19

Which of the following does NOT describe hypertension? Hypertension

a. refers to a chronic state of elevated blood pressure.

b. is usually defined as a systolic pressure greater than 140 mmHg and a diastolic pressure greater than 90 mmHg.

c. is usually a result of chronically elevated cardiac output.

d. may be caused by kidney disease.

e. can sometimes be treated with drugs that increase excretion of water in the urine.

c. is usually a result of chronically elevated cardiac output.

20

Which of the following drugs might be prescribed to alleviate hypertension?

a. Alpha-adrenergic receptor agonists

b. Beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists

c. Cholinergic antagonist

d. A drug that increases L-type Ca2+ channel currents

e. A drug that increases T-type Ca2+ channel currents

b. Beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists

21

Atherosclerosis is

a. the major cause of heart attacks.

b. a thinning in the walls of arteries.

c. associated with low blood levels of cholesterol and heavy exercise.

d. a disease in which the walls of arteries become more compliant.

e. more common in younger people than in older people.

a. the major cause of heart attacks.

22

What is hemostasis?

a. The maintenance of relatively stable conditions in the internal environment

b. The prevention or stoppage of blood loss

c. A disease in which blood clot formation is impaired

d. A protein inside red blood cells that binds oxygen with high affinity

e. The set point for normal arterial blood pressure

b. The prevention or stoppage of blood loss

23

Which of the following occurs first in hemostasis?

a. Activation of the fibrinolytic system

b. Platelet aggregation

c. A clotting cascade that leads to the conversion of fibrinogen to stable fibrin

d. Conversion of prothrombin to thrombin

e. Conversion of plasminogen to plasmin

b. Platelet aggregation

24

Which of the following statements about blood clotting is FALSE?

a. It is the formation of a thrombus.

b. It occurs after formation of a platelet plug in a damaged vessel.

c. It requires the presence of erythrocytes.

d. It is a result of a cascade of enzyme activation.

e. It involves positive feedback by thrombin.

c. It requires the presence of erythrocytes.

25

Which of the following statements regarding the dissolving of blood clots is FALSE?

a. Activation of the reactions that lead to blood clotting ultimately lead to blood clot dissolution.

b. Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) is secreted by endothelial cells.

c. Blood clots are digested by plasmin.

d. Plasminogen is an inactive precursor of the enzyme plasmin.

e. It involves aggregation of soluble fibrin fragments into fibrin.

e. It involves aggregation of soluble fibrin fragments into fibrin.

26

Which of the following is NOT an anticoagulant or stimulator of blood clot dissolution?

a. Vitamin K

b. Aspirin

c. Thrombin

d. Heparin

e. Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA)

a. Vitamin K

27

Which correctly describes functions of protein C?

a. It activates platelets and converts prothrombin to thrombin.

b. It activates clotting factor XII and platelets.

c. It binds to tissue factor and activates clotting factor VII.

d. It inactivates thrombin and converts fibrinogen to fibrin.

e. It inhibits clot formation and inactivates factors Va and VIIIa.

e. It inhibits clot formation and inactivates factors Va and VIIIa.

28

Which of the following statements about membrane potentials in different types of cardiac cells is TRUE?

a. Myocardial cells have a resting membrane potential of about -90 mV; pacemaker cells do not have a true resting membrane potential.

b. Once threshold depolarization is reached in both myocardial and pacemaker cells, the rapid upswing of the action potential is caused by the opening of voltage-gated Na+ channels

c. Voltage-gated transient (T-type) Ca2+ channels are present in all of the different types of cells of the heart.

d. There are no L-type Ca2+ channels in cardiac muscle cells.

e. The upstroke of the action potential is steeper in SA node cells than it is in Purkinje cells.

a. Myocardial cells have a resting membrane potential of about -90 mV; pacemaker cells do not have a true resting membrane potential.

29

Which of the following would be most likely to be determined with a patient's ECG recording?

a. A heart murmur

b. Stroke volume

c. Cardiac output

d. Blockage of conduction of electrical signals between the atria and the ventricles

e. A leaky atrioventricular valve

d. Blockage of conduction of electrical signals between the atria and the ventricles

30

Which of the following statements about the refractory period of neuronal or muscle membranes is TRUE?

a. In nerve cells, the absolute refractory period coincides with the period of increased K+ permeability.

b. In skeletal muscle cells, the absolute refractory period lasts about as long as the twitch.

c. In ventricular cells, the absolute refractory period coincides with the period of increased Na+ and Ca2+ permeability.

d. The relative refractory period in neuronal membranes lasts about the same length of time as the absolute refractory period in cardiac muscle cell membranes.

e. The refractory period in an alpha-motor neuron membrane is much briefer than the refractory period in a skeletal muscle cell membrane.

c. In ventricular cells, the absolute refractory period coincides with the period of increased Na+ and Ca2+ permeability.

31

Sinoatrial node cells

a. reach threshold only when action potentials generated by the AV node arrive through gap junctions.

b. exhibit spontaneous depolarization that is speeded by activation of their cholinergic receptors.

c. exhibit spontaneous depolarization that is speeded by activation of their beta-adrenergic receptors.

d. exhibit a steep upstroke due to the presence of the same type of Na+ channels found in neuronal membranes.

e. are between atrial muscle cells and cells of the bundle of His.

c. exhibit spontaneous depolarization that is speeded by activation of their beta-adrenergic receptors.

32

Which of the following statements concerning regulation of blood flow is TRUE?

a. In the systemic circuit, increased levels of metabolic waste products and decreased oxygen concentration in tissues promote hyperemia through the tissues.

b. If blood flow to a tissue is blocked for a period of time and then the block is removed, the result is a reactive hyperemia in which blood flow through the affected tissue remains low.

c. According to flow autoregulation, if blood pressure to an arteriole is decreased, blood flow will not return toward its original level until the original blood pressure is restored.

d. In the systemic circuit, high levels of CO2 and metabolites tend to cause contraction in the smooth muscle of arteriole walls.

e. The resistance to blood flow in brain and heart vascular beds does not vary in response to changes in local gas or metabolite concentrations.

a. In the systemic circuit, increased levels of metabolic waste products and decreased oxygen concentration in tissues promote hyperemia through the tissues.

33

Which of the following statements concerning control of blood flow through arterioles is TRUE?

a. Beta-adrenergic receptors are more abundant on most arteriolar smooth muscle than are alpha-adrenergic receptors.

b. Binding of epinephrine to alpha-adrenergic receptors causes vasodilation.

c. Increased stimulation of vascular smooth muscle by the parasympathetic nervous system causes increased vasoconstriction.

d. If the arterial blood pressure to an organ suddenly decreases, arterioles in the organ will dilate in response.

e. Body-wide constriction of arterioles results in a decrease in the total peripheral resistance (TPR).

d. If the arterial blood pressure to an organ suddenly decreases, arterioles in the organ will dilate in response.

34

Which of the following statements concerning the capillaries is FALSE?

a. Increasing capillary hydrostatic pressure decreases the likelihood that filtration will occur.

b. Velocity of blood flow is slower in the capillaries than in the arteries.

c. It is possible for a capillary to filter fluid at its arterial end and absorb fluid at its venous end.

d. Large capillary pores are more likely to be found in liver capillaries than in brain capillaries.

e. Large proteins that escape capillaries and enter the interstitial fluid are returned to the circulation via the lymphatic system.

a. Increasing capillary hydrostatic pressure decreases the likelihood that filtration will occur.

35

Which of the following is a result of increased sympathetic stimulation of vascular smooth muscle?

a. Filtration of fluid from capillaries to interstitial fluid increases.

b. Total peripheral resistance (TPR) decreases.

c. The percentage of blood volume in the veins increases.

d. Blood flow to the brain decreases.

e. Venous return of blood to the heart increases.

e. Venous return of blood to the heart increases.

36

Which of the following factors would NOT tend to increase systemic arterial blood pressure?

a. Increased sympathetic stimulation

b. Increased blood volume

c. Increased venous return

d. Increased parasympathetic stimulation

e. Increased activity of the skeletal muscle pump

d. Increased parasympathetic stimulation

37

Which of these correctly states differences between a trained athlete and a sedentary individual at rest?

a. The athlete would have a lower heart rate and larger stroke volume.

b. The athlete would have a higher heart rate and larger stroke volume.

c. The athlete would have a lower heart rate and smaller stroke volume.

d. The athlete would have a higher heart rate and smaller stroke volume.

e. There would be no differences when the individuals were at rest.

a. The athlete would have a lower heart rate and larger stroke volume.

38

Which of the drug treatments listed below is INCORRECTLY matched to a mode of action in treating hypertension?

a. Alpha-adrenergic receptor blockers—reduce TPR by decreased stimulation of arteriolar smooth muscle

b. Beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists—reduce cardiac output by slowing heart rate and reducing contractility

c. Antagonists of parasympathetic receptors—reduce TPR by decreased stimulation of arteriolar smooth muscle

d. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors—reduce TPR by reducing angiotensin II concentrations

e. Diuretics—reduce blood volume by increasing excretion of sodium and water in urine

f. Calcium channel blockers—reduce speed and force of contraction in vascular smooth muscle

g. ACE inhibitors—lowers peripheral resistance by promoting vasodilation

c. Antagonists of parasympathetic receptors—reduce TPR by decreased stimulation of arteriolar smooth muscle

39

Which of the following statements regarding blood clotting is TRUE?

a. Blood clotting requires activation of thrombin.

b. Blood clotting is enhanced by prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) and nitric oxide.

c. A blood clot is a network of interlacing strands of fibrinogen.

d. Blood clotting occurs too rapidly in individuals with the disease hemophilia.

e. Injecting tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) into a patient who is bleeding will aid blood clotting.

a. Blood clotting requires activation of thrombin.

40

Platelets participate in hemostasis by

a. aggregating to form a plug and manufacturing fibrinogen.

b. secreting nitric oxide and releasing chemicals that promote vasoconstriction.

c. secreting prostacyclin, which prevents platelet aggregation on blood vessel endothelium.

d. aggregating to form a plug and releasing chemicals that promote vasoconstriction.

e. secreting tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) whenever they come into contact with collagen.

d. aggregating to form a plug and releasing chemicals that promote vasoconstriction.