Exercise 47: Acid-Base balance: Computer Simulation

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created 9 years ago by jncanf
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Pex- 167 - PEx 168
updated 9 years ago by jncanf
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1

ACTIVITY 1: NORMAL BREATHING

WHAT WAS THE pH LEVEL DURING NORMAL BREATHING?

BETWEEN 7.38 AND 7.42

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ACTIVITY 1: NORMAL BREATHING

WAS THIS pH WITHIN THE NORMAL pH RANGE?

YES, THE pH (7.38 - 7.42) WAS WITHIN THE NORMAL pH RANGE OF 7.35 AND 7.45

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ACTIVITY 2: HYPERVENTILATION

IN RUN 1, WHAT WAS THE MAXIMUM pH RECORDED WITH HYPERVENTILATION?

40

4

ACTIVITY 2: HYPERVENTILATION

WHAT ACID-BASE IMBALANCE OCCURRED WITH HYPERVENTILATION?

THE pH VALUE BEGAN TO EXCEED THE NORMAL RANGE BETWEEN 10 AND 20 SECONDS - AS SOON AS IT ROSE ABOVE 7.45, THIS INDICATED THE CONDITION OF ALKALOSIS.

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ACTIVITY 2: HYPERVENTILATION

WHAT HAPPENED TO THE TIDAL VOLUME DURING HYPERVENTILATION?

IT WAS LARGER DURING HYPERVENTILATION

6

ACTIVITY 2: HYPERVENTILATION

DESCRIBE THE TRACE WHEN HYPERVENTILATION STOPPED IN RUN 2.

THE TRACE FLAT-LINED, INDICATING THE BREATHING WAS SUSPENDED. BREATHING DID NOT RETURN TO NORMAL, IMMEDIATELY THE BODY TEMPORARILY STOPPED BREATHING IN ORDER TO RESTORE PCO2 LEVELS TO NORMAL VALUES.

7

ACTIVITY 3: REBREATHING

WHAT WAS THE EFFECT ON pH OVER TIME WITH REBREATHING?

pH LEVELS OF BLOOD DECREASED OVER TIME WITH REBREATHING, AND pH LEVERS WEREN'T ALWAYS WITHIN NORMAL RANGE.

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ACTIVITY 3: REBREATHING

DID REBREATHING RESULT IN ACIDOSIS OT ALKALOSIS? WHY? HINT: SPECIFICALLY RELATE THIS TO THE LEVEL OF CO2.

REBREATHING RESULTED IN ACIDOSIS BECAUSE THE pH VALUE BEGAN TO DIP BELOW THE NORMAL RANGE BETWEEN 20 AND 30 SECONDS - SOON AS IT WENT BELOW 7.35. ACIDOSIS IS THE RESULT OF IMPAIRED RESPIRATION (HYPOVENTILATION) THAT LEADS TO THE ACCUMULATION OF TOO MUCH CARBON DIOXIDE IN THE BLOOD.

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ACTIVITY 3: REBREATHING

LOST SOME POTENTIAL CAUSES THAT WOULD MIMIC THE PATTERNS OF pH AND CO2 LEVERS SEEN IN THIS REBREATHING SIMULATION.

LUNG DISEASE, AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION, DEPRESSING OF RESPIRATORY CENTER IN BRAIN STEM, AND DRUG OVERDOSE.

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ACTIVITY 4: RENAL RESPONSE TO NORMAL ACID-BASE BALANCE

DESCRIBE HOW THE pH OF THE BLOOD CHANGES WITH AN INCREASE IN THE LEVEL OF CO2.

AS CO2 INCREASES, pH VALUE DECREASED.

11

ACTIVITY 4: RENAL RESPONSE TO NORMAL ACID-BASE BALANCE

WHY DOES THIS CHANCE OCCUR?

BECAUSE CO2 LEVELS DIRECTLY AFFECT BLOOD pH LEVELS.

12

ACTIVITY 5: RENAL RESPONSE TO RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS

WHAT HAPPENED TO THE LEVEL OF H+ IN THE URINE AS THE LEVEL OF CO2 DECREASED?

A DECREASED LEVEL OF H+ WAS PRESENT IN THE URINE

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ACTIVITY 5: RENAL RESPONSE TO RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS

EXPLAIN HOW THE RENAL SYSTEM COMPENSATES FOR RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS.

RENAL SYSTEM COMPENSATED FOR RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS BY INCREASING PCO2 LEVELS AND DECREASING pH LEVELS.

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ACTIVITY 5: RENAL RESPONSE TO RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS

WHICH TYPE OF BREATHING RESULTS IN RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS?

HYPERVENTILATION

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ACTIVITY 6: RENAL RESPONSE TO RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS

EXPLAIN HOW THE RENAL SYSTEM COMPENSATED FOR RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS.

PENAL SYSTEM COMPENSATES FOR RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS BY DECREASING PCO2 LEVELS AND INCREASING pH LEVELS.

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ACTIVITY 6: RENAL RESPONSE TO RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS

WHICH TYPE OF BREATHING RESULTS IN RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS?

REBREATHING

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ACTIVITY 8: RESPIRATORY RESPONSE TO INCREASED METABOLISM

WHAT WASTE PRODUCT IS INCREASED WITH AN INCREASED RATE OF METABOLISM?

METABOLIC WASTE PRODUCT

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ACTIVITY 8: RESPIRATORY RESPONSE TO INCREASED METABOLISM

WHICH METABOLIC RATES RESULTS IN METABOLIC ACIDOSIS?

METABOLIC RATES OF 70 AND 80

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ACTIVITY 8: RESPIRATORY RESPONSE TO INCREASED METABOLISM

LIST SOME OTHER POTENTIAL CAUSES OF METABOLIC ACIDOSIS.

KETO ACIDOSIS, SALIVYLATE POISONING, INGESTING TOO MUCH ALCOHOL, DIARRHEA, AND STRENUOUS EXERCISE.

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ACTIVITY 9: RESPIRATORY RESPONSE TO DECREASED METABOLISM

WHICH METABOLISM RATES RESULTED IN METABOLIC ALKALOSIS?

METABOLIC RATES OF 30 AND 20

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ACTIVITY 9: RESPIRATORY RESPONSE TO DECREASED METABOLISM

LIST SOME OTHER POTENTIAL CAUSES OF METABOLIC ALKALOSIS.

ALKALI INGESTING (ANTACIDS OR BICARBONATE), VOMITING, AND CONSTIPATION.