Central Science: Chapter 7 Flashcards


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1

In which set of elements would all members be expected to have very similar chemical properties?
A) O, S, Se
B) N, O, F
C) Na, Mg, K
D) S, Se, Si
E) Ne, Na, Mg

A

2

In which set of elements would all members be expected to have very similar chemical properties?
A) P, Se, I
B) Cl, Br, Na
C) Si, As, Te
D) Ne, Na, Mg
E) Br, I, At

E

3

Electrons in the 1s subshell are much closer to the nucleus in Ar than in He due to the larger ________ in Ar.
A) nuclear charge
B) paramagnetism
C) diamagnetism
D) Hund's rule
E) azimuthal quantum number

A

4

Screening of the nuclear charge by core electrons in atoms is ________.
A) less efficient than that by valence electrons
B) more efficient than that by valence electrons
C) essentially identical to that by valence electrons
D) responsible for a general decrease in atomic radius going down a group
E) both essentially identical to that by valence electrons and responsible for a general decrease in atomic radius going down a group

B

5

The effective nuclear charge of an atom is primarily affected by ________.
A) inner electrons
B) outer electrons
C) nuclear charge
D) electron distribution
E) orbital radial probability

A

6

The atomic radius of main-group elements generally increases down a group because ________.
A) effective nuclear charge increases down a group
B) effective nuclear charge decreases down a group
C) effective nuclear charge zigzags down a group
D) the principal quantum number of the valence orbitals increases
E) both effective nuclear charge increases down a group and the principal quantum number of the valence orbitals increases

D

7

Atomic radius generally increases as we move ________.
A) down a group and from right to left across a period
B) up a group and from left to right across a period
C) down a group and from left to right across a period
D) up a group and from right to left across a period
E) down a group; the period position has no effect

A

8

Atomic radius generally decreases as we move ________.
A) down a group and from right to left across a period
B) up a group and from left to right across a period
C) down a group and from left to right across a period
D) up a group and from right to left across a period
E) down a group; the period position has no effect

B

9

Of the following, which gives the correct order for atomic radius for Mg, Na, P, Si and Ar?
A) Mg > Na > P > Si > Ar
B) Ar > Si > P > Na > Mg
C) Si > P > Ar > Na > Mg
D) Na > Mg > Si > P > Ar
E) Ar > P > Si > Mg > Na

D

10

Of the following, which gives the correct order for atomic radius for Ca, K, As, Ge and Kr?
A) Ca > K > As > Ge > Kr
B) Kr > Ge > As > K > Ca
C) Ge > As > Kr > K > Ca
D) K > Ca > Ge > As > Kr
E) Kr > As > Ge > Ca > K

D

11

Which compound has the smallest ionic separation?
A) NaCl
B) NaBr
C) NaI
D) NaF
E) KF

D

12

Which of the following is an isoelectronic series?
A) B5-, Si4-, As3-, Te2-
B) F-, Cl-, Br-, I-
C) S, Cl, Ar, K
D) Si2-, P2-, S2-, Cl2-
E) O2-, F-, Ne, Na+

E

13

Which isoelectronic series is correctly arranged in order of increasing radius?
A) K+ < Ca2+ < Ar < Cl-
B) < Ar < K+ < Ca2+
C) Ca2+ < Ar < K+ < Cl-
D) Ca2+ < K+ < Ar < Cl-
E) Ca2+ < K+ < Cl- < Ar

D

14

Of the choices below, which gives the order for first ionization energies?
A) Cl > S > Al > Ar > Si
B) Ar > Cl > S > Si > Al
C) Al > Si > S > Cl > Ar
D) Cl > S > Al > Si > Ar
E) S > Si > Cl > Al > Ar

B

15

Rank the following in terms of decreasing first ionization energies?
A) Ne > O > N > Be > B
B) Ne > N > O > B > Be
C) Ne > O > N > B > Be
D) Ne > N > O > Be > B
E) B > Be > O > N > Ne

D

16

________ have the lowest first ionization energies of the groups listed.
A) Alkali metals
B) Transition elements
C) Halogens
D) Alkaline earth metals
E) Noble gases

A

17

Which of the following correctly represents the third ionization of gallium?
A) Ga (g) → Ga+ (g) + e-
B) Ga+ (g) → Ga2+ (g) + e-
C) Ga2- (g) + e- → Ga3- (g)
D) Ga2+ (g) → Ga3+ (g) + e-
E) Ga+ (g) + e- → Ga2+ (g)

D

18

Which of the following correctly represents the third ionization of aluminum?
A) Al2+ (g) + e- → Al+ (g)
B) Al (g) → Al+ (g) + e-
C) Al2- (g) + e- → Al3- (g)
D) Al2+ (g) + e- → Al3+ (g)
E) Al2+ (g) → Al3+ (g) + e-

E

19

Which of the following correctly represents the first ionization of oxygen?
A) O (g) → O+ (g) + e-
B) O+ (g) + e- → O2+ (g)
C) O (g) + e- → O- (g)
D) O- (g) + e- → O2- (g)
E) O+ (g) + e- → O (g)

A

20

Which equation correctly represents the first ionization of calcium?
A) Ca (g) → Ca+ (g) + e-
B) Ca (g) → Ca- (g) + e-
C) Ca (g) + e- → Ca- (g)
D) Ca- (g) → Ca (g) + e-
E) Ca+ (g) + e- → Ca (g)

A

21

Which of the following correctly represents the second ionization of calcium?
A) Ca (g) → Ca+ (g) + e-
B) Ca+ (g) → Ca2+ (g) + e-
C) Ca- (g) + e- → Ca2- (g)
D) Ca+ (g) + e- → Ca2+ (g)
E) Ca+ (g) + e- → Ca (g)

B

22

Which of the following correctly represents the second ionization of copper?
A) Cu (g) → Cu+ (g) + e-
B) Cu+ (g) → Cu2+ (g) + e-
C) Cu- (g) + e- → Cu2- (g)
D) Cu+ (g) + e- → Cu2+ (g)
E) Cu+ (g) + e- → Cu (g)

B

23

Which ion below has the largest radius?
A) Cl-
B) K+
C) Br-
D) F-
E) Na+

C

24

Which of the following species has the smallest ionic radius?
A) Al3+
B) Na+
C) Mg2+
D) S2-
E) Cl-

A

25

(i) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1
(ii) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2
(iii) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1
(iv) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4
(v) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5

The electron configuration belonging to the atom with the highest second ionization energy is ________.
A) (i)
B) (ii)
C) (iii)
D) (iv)
E) (v)

A

26

(i) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1
(ii) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2
(iii) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1
(iv) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4
(v) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5

The electron configuration that belongs to the atom with the lowest first ionization energy is ________.
A) (i)
B) (ii)
C) (iii)
D) (iv)
E) (v)

A

27

(i) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1
(ii) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2
(iii) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1
(iv) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4
(v) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5

The electron configuration of the atom with the most negative electron affinity is ________.
A) (i)
B) (ii)
C) (iii)
D) (iv)
E) (v)

E

28

(i) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1
(ii) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2
(iii) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1
(iv) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4
(v) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5

The electron configuration of the atom that is expected to have the least negative electron affinity is ________.
A) (i)
B) (ii)
C) (iii)
D) (iv)
E) (v)

D

29

Of the following elements, ________ has the most negative electron affinity.
A) P
B) Al
C) Si
D) Cl
E) BOf the following elements, ________ has the most negative electron affinity.
A) S
B) Cl
C) Se
D) Br
E) I

B

30

Of the following elements, ________ has the most negative electron affinity.
A) P
B) Al
C) Si
D) Cl
E) B

D

31

Of the following elements, ________ has the most negative electron affinity.
A) O
B) K
C) B
D) Na
E) S

E

32

Sodium is much more apt to exist as a cation than is chlorine. This is because ________.
A) chlorine is a gas and sodium is a solid
B) chlorine has a greater electron affinity than sodium does
C) chlorine is bigger than sodium
D) chlorine has a greater ionization energy than sodium does
E) chlorine is more metallic than sodium

D

33

Which equation correctly represents the electron affinity of calcium?
A) Ca (g) + e- → Ca- (g)
B) Ca (g) → Ca+ (g) + e-
C) Ca (g) → Ca- (g) + e-
D) Ca- (g) → Ca (g) + e-
E) Ca+ (g) + e- → Ca (g)

A

34

Which of the following correctly represents the electron affinity of bromine?
A) Br (g) → Br+ (g) + e-
B) Br (g) + e- → Br- (g)
C) Br2 (g) + e- → Br- (g)
D) Br2 (g) + 2e- → 2Br- (g)
E) Br+ (g) + e- → Br (g)

B

35

Which of the following correctly represents the electron affinity of phosphorus?
A) P (g) → P+ (g) + e-
B) P (g) + e- → P- (g)
C) P4 (g) + e- → P- (g)
D) P4 (g) + 4e- → 4P- (g)
E) P+ (g) + e- → P (g)

B

36

In the generation of most anions, the energy change (kJ/mol) that ________ an electron is ________.
A) removes, positive
B) adds, positive
C) removes, negative
D) adds, negative
E) None of the above is correct.

D

37

Of the elements below, ________ is the most metallic.
A) sodium
B) barium
C) magnesium
D) calcium
E) cesium

E

38

The list that correctly indicates the order of metallic character is ________.
A) B > N > C
B) F > Cl > S
C) Si > P > S
D) P > S > Se
E) Na > K > Rb

C

39

Which of the following has the most metallic character?
A) Al
B) Ca
C) Mg
D) Sr
E) Si

D

40

Of the elements below, ________ has the highest melting point.
A) Ca
B) K
C) Fe
D) Na
E) Ba

C

41

Of the following metals, ________ exhibits multiple oxidation states.
A) Al
B) Rb
C) Mg
D) Ni
E) Cs

D

42

Which of the listed oxides is the most acidic?
A) SO3
B) Na2O
C) K2O
D) Al2O3
E) MgO

A

43

Reacting CO2 with water results in a(n) ________ solution.
A) ionic
B) neutral
C) basic
D) acidic
E) CO2 does not react with water

D

44

The element in the periodic table that looks like a metal, is a poor thermal conductor, and acts as an electrical semiconductor is ________.
A) Sn
B) B
C) As
D) Si
E) Ge

D

45

Which of the following metals differ in the number of d-electrons?
A) Fe and Cu
B) Mg and Fe
C) Na and Rh
D) Cs and Ca
E) Ca and Na

A

46

Which of the following oxides do not produce an acidic solution when dissolved in water?
A) SO3
B) P2O5
C) CO2
D) Al2O3
E) Cl2O

D

47

Nonmetals can be ________ at room temperature.
A) solid, liquid, or gas
B) solid or liquid
C) solid only
D) liquid only
E) liquid or gas

A

48

Which of the following is not a characteristic of metals?
A) acidic oxides
B) low ionization energies
C) malleability
D) ductility
E) These are all characteristics of metals.

A

49

When two elements combine to form a compound, the ________ the difference in metallic character between the two elements, the ________ the likelihood that the compound will be a ________ at room temperature.
A) smaller, greater, solid
B) greater, greater, liquid
C) greater, greater, solid
D) smaller, greater, liquid
E) greater, smaller, solid

C

50

Alkaline earth metals ________.
A) have the smallest atomic radius in a given period
B) form monoanions
C) form basic oxides
D) exist as triatomic molecules
E) form halides with the formula MX

C

51

The difference in metallic character is the smallest between ________.
A) Li and O
B) Rb and F
C) Na and I
D) Rb and Cl
E) Na and Mg

E

52

The oxide of which element can react with water to give a basic solution?
A) sulfur
B) calcium
C) phosphorus
D) nitrogen
E) carbon

B

53

Consider the general valence electron configuration of ns2np5 and the following statements:

(i) Elements with this electron configuration are expected to form -1 anions.
(ii) Elements with this electron configuration are expected to have large positive electron affinities.
(iii) Elements with this electron configuration are nonmetals.
(iv) Elements with this electron configuration form acidic oxides.

Which statements are true?
A) (i) and (ii)
B) (i), (ii), and (iii)
C) (ii) and (iii)
D) (i), (iii,) and (iv)
E) All statements are true.

D

54

Which group in the periodic table has the lowest first ionization energy?
A) VIA
B) IA
C) IIIA
D) IIA
E) VIIA

B

55

Which of the following elements is the most reactive in water?
A) Na
B) Rb
C) Cs
D) Li
E) K

C

56

Which one of the following is not true about the alkali metals?
A) They are low density solids at room temperature.
B) They all readily form ions with a +1 charge.
C) They all have 2 electrons in their valence shells.
D) They are very reactive elements.
E) They have the lowest first ionization energies of the elements.

C

57

Consider the following properties of an element:

(i) It is solid at room temperature.
(ii) It easily forms an oxide when exposed to air.
(iii) When it reacts with water, hydrogen gas evolves.
(iv) It must be stored submerged in oil.

Which element fits the above description the best?
A) sulfur
B) copper
C) mercury
D) sodium
E) magnesium

D

58

All of the following reactions concerning alkali metals are correct except ________.
A) 2Na (s) + 2H2O (l) → 2NaOH (aq) + H2 (g)
B) Na (s) + O2 (g) → NaO2 (s)
C) 2Na (s) + H2 (g) → 2NaH (s)
D) 2Na (s) + S (s) → Na2S (s)
E) 2Na (s) + Cl2 (g) → 2NaCl (s)

B

59

The reaction of alkali metals with oxygen produce ________.
A) oxides, peroxides, and superoxides
B) peroxides only
C) superoxides only
D) oxides only
E) none of the above

A

60

Alkali metals tend to be more reactive than alkaline earth metals because ________.
A) alkali metals have lower densities
B) alkali metals have lower melting points
C) alkali metals have greater electron affinities
D) alkali metals have lower ionization energies
E) Alkali metals are not more reactive than alkaline earth metals.

D

61

The alkali metal that is naturally radioactive is ________.
A) rubidium
B) cesium
C) lithium
D) francium
E) sodium

D

62

Lithium ion salts were originally found in Seven-Up® drinks. How many electrons does Li atom lose to become an ion?
A) 4
B) 3
C) 0
D) 1
E) 2

D

63

Lithium ion salts were used to treat manic-depressive illness. Lithium is part of which group in the periodic table?
A) alkali metals
B) noble gases
C) alkaline earth metals
D) halogens
E) chalcogens

A

64

Which alkaline earth metal will not react with liquid water or with steam?
A) Be
B) Mg
C) Ca
D) Ba
E) They all react with liquid water and with steam.

A

65

Which element is solid at room temperature?
A) Cl2
B) F2
C) Br2
D) I2
E) H2

D

66

________ is a unique element and does not truly belong to any family.
A) Nitrogen
B) Radium
C) Hydrogen
D) Uranium
E) Helium

C

67

Which of the following statements is not true for oxygen?
A) The most stable allotrope of oxygen is O2.
B) The chemical formula of ozone is O3.
C) Dry air is about 79% oxygen.
D) Oxygen forms peroxide and superoxide anions.
E) Oxygen is a colorless gas at room temperature.

C

68

All of the following elements can exist as allotropes except ________.
A) N
B) Ar
C) O
D) S
E) F

B

69

Which of the following elements can exist as an allotrope?
A) iron
B) carbon
C) silver
D) silicon
E) neon

B

70

All of the halogens ________.
A) exist under ambient conditions as diatomic gases
B) tend to form positive ions of several different charges
C) tend to form negative ions of several different charges
D) exhibit metallic character
E) form salts with alkali metals with the formula MX

E

71

The noble gases were, until relatively recently, thought to be entirely unreactive. Experiments in the early 1960s showed that Xe could, in fact, form compounds with fluorine. The formation of compounds consisting of Xe is made possible by ________.
A) the availability of xenon atoms
B) xenon's noble gas electron configuration
C) the stability of xenon atoms
D) xenon's relatively low ionization energy
E) xenon's relatively low electron affinity

D

72

Which of the following noble gases is not reactive?
A) xenon and argon
B) helium and neon
C) xenon only
D) xenon, krypton, and argon
E) None of the above are reactive

B

73

In nature, the noble gases exist as ________.
A) monatomic gaseous atoms
B) the gaseous fluorides
C) solids in rocks and in minerals
D) alkali metal salts
E) the sulfides

A

74

Hydrogen is unique among the elements because ________.

1. It is not really a member of any particular group.
2. Its electron is not at all shielded from its nucleus.
3. It is the lightest element.
4. It is the only element to exist at room temperature as a diatomic gas.
5. It exhibits some chemical properties similar to those of groups 1A and 7A.

A) 1, 2, 3, 5
B) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
C) 1, 4, 5
D) 3, 4
E) 2, 3, 4, 5

A

75

________ is unique among the elements because its electron is not shielded from its nucleus.
A) Cesium
B) Potassium
C) Hydrogen
D) Lithium
E) Sodium

C

76

Ozone is a a(n) ________ of oxygen.
A) isotope
B) allotrope
C) precursor
D) peroxide
E) free radical

B

77

iodine has a(n) ________ density and a(n) ________ atomic radius compared to bromine.
A) smaller, greater
B) greater, smaller
C) smaller, smaller
D) greater, greater
E) equal, equal

D

78

________ has been shown to form compounds only when it is combined with something with a tremendous ability to remove electrons from other substances.
A) Neon
B) Helium
C) Hydrogen
D) Xenon
E) Oxygen

D

79

________ is credited with developing the concept of atomic numbers.
A) Dmitri Mendeleev
B) Lothar Meyer
C) Henry Moseley
D) Ernest Rutherford
E) Michael Faraday

C

80

Elements in the modern version of the periodic table are arranged in order of increasing ________.
A) oxidation number
B) atomic mass
C) average atomic mass
D) atomic number
E) number of isotopes

D

81

The greatest effective nuclear charge in a many-electron atom is experienced by an electron in a ________ subshell.
A) 6s
B) 5s
C) 2s
D) 4s
E) 3s

C

82

A tin atom has 50 electrons. Electrons in the ________ subshell experience the lowest effective nuclear charge.
A) 1s
B) 3p
C) 3d
D) 5s
E) 5p

E

83

The first ionization energies of the elements ________ as you go from left to right across a period of the periodic table, and ________ as you go from the bottom to the top of a group in the table.
A) increase, increase
B) increase, decrease
C) decrease, increase
D) decrease, decrease
E) The first ionization energies of the elements are completely unpredictable.

A

84

In general, as you go across a period in the periodic table from left to right:

(1) the atomic radius ________;
(2) the electron affinity becomes ________ negative; and
(3) the first ionization energy ________.

A) decreases, decreasingly, increases
B) increases, increasingly, decreases
C) increases, increasingly, increases
D) decreases, increasingly, increases
E) decreases, increasingly, decreases

D

85

The ________ have the most negative electron affinities.
A) alkaline earth metals
B) alkali metals
C) halogens
D) transition metals
E) chalcogens

C

86

Element M reacts with chlorine to form a compound with the formula MCl2. Element M is more reactive than magnesium and has a smaller radius than barium. This element is ________.
A) Sr
B) K
C) Na
D) Ra
E) Be

A

87

________ can be ________ at room temperature.
A) metals, liquid only
B) metals, solid only
C) metals; solid, liquid, or gases
D) metals, solid or liquid
E) metals, solid or gases

D

88

Most of the elements on the periodic table are ________.
A) gases
B) nonmetals
C) metalloids
D) liquids
E) metals

E

89

Na reacts with element X to form an ionic compound with the formula Na3X. Ca will react with X to form ________.
A) CaX2
B) CaX
C) Ca2X3
D) Ca3X2
E) Ca3X

D

90

Ca reacts with element X to form an ionic compound with the formula CaX. Al will react with X to form ________.
A) AlX2
B) AlX
C) Al2X3
D) Al3X2
E) Al3X

C

91

Oxides of the active metals combine with water to form ________.
A) metal hydroxides
B) metal hydrides
C) hydrogen gas
D) oxygen gas
E) water and a salt

A

92

Oxides of the active metals combine with acid to form ________.
A) hydrogen gas
B) metal hydrides
C) water and a salt
D) oxygen gas
E) metal hydroxides

C

93

Oxides of most nonmetals combine with water to form ________.
A) an acid
B) a base
C) water and a salt
D) water
E) hydrogen gas

A

94

Nonmetal oxides such as CO2 combine with NaOH to form water and ________.
A) HOCO3
B) NaCO3
C) Na2CO3
D) NaCO2
E) Na2CO2

C

95

An alkaline earth metal forms a compound with oxygen with the formula ________. (The symbol M represents any one of the alkaline earth metals.)
A) MO
B) M2O
C) MO2
D) M2O2
E) MO3

A

96

An alkali metal such as K forms a compound with chlorine gas with the formula ________.
A) K2Cl2
B) KCl
C) K2Cl
D) KCl2
E) KCl3

B

97

What is the coefficient of Na when the following equation is completed and balanced?

Na (s) + H2O (l) →

A) 1
B) 3
C) 4
D) 2
E) 0

D

98

The substance ________ is always produced when an active metal reacts with water.
A) NaOH
B) H2O
C) CO2
D) H2
E) O2

D

99

The reaction between alkali metals (M) and elemental hydrogen produce ________.
A) MH2
B) MH
C) M2H
D) MOH
E) None of the above; alkali metals will not react directly with hydrogen.

B

100

What is the coefficient of H2O when the following equation is completed and balanced?

Ca (s) + H2O (l) →

A) 1
B) 3
C) 2
D) 5
E) Ca(s) does not react with H2O (l).

C

101

________ compounds in fireworks are responsible for the observed blue colors.
A) sodium
B) barium
C) calcium
D) copper
E) strontium

D

102

________ compounds in fireworks are responsible for the observed green colors.
A) barium
B) strontium
C) calcium
D) copper
E) sodium

A

103

The reaction of a metal with a nonmetal produces a(n) ________.
A) base
B) salt
C) acid
D) oxide
E) hydroxide

B

104

Which nonmetal exists as a diatomic solid?
A) bromine
B) antimony
C) phosphorus
D) iodine
E) boron

D

105

The most common and stable allotrope of oxygen is ________.
A) O
B) O2
C) O4
D) O3
E) oxygen does not form allotropes.

B

106

Which group 6A element is a metal?
A) tellurium and polonium
B) sulfur
C) selenium
D) tellurium
E) polonium

E

107

A nitride ion has a charge of ________.
A) 3-
B) 2-
C) 1-
D) 0
E) nitrogen does not form ions.

A

108

The element carbon exists in several forms such diamond and graphite in nature. These forms are called ________.
A) isotopes
B) oxidation
C) metalloids
D) allotropes
E) noble gases

D

109

Which periodic table group contains only nonmetals?
A) 8A
B) 2A
C) 6A
D) 7A
E) 5A

A

110

Which periodic table group contains only metals?
A) 8A
B) 2A
C) 6A
D) 7A
E) 5A

B

111

Of the hydrogen halides, only ________ is a weak acid.
A) HCl (aq)
B) HBr (aq)
C) HF (aq)
D) HI (aq)
E) They are all weak acids.

C

112

Which of the groups in the periodic table contains elements that exist in the gas, liquid, and solid state at room temperature?
A) IA
B) IIA
C) VA
D) VIA
E) VIIA

E

113

All of the following noble gases have a ns2np6 valence electron configuration except ________.
A) helium
B) radon
C) neon
D) krypton
E) All noble gases have the ns2np6 valence electron configuration.

A

114

________ was the first ________ gas to be incorporated into a compound.
A) Xeon, chalcogen
B) Xeon, halogen
C) Chlorine, noble
D) Neon, noble
E) Xeon, noble

E

115

Of the halogens, which are gases at room temperature and atmospheric pressure?
A) fluorine, bromine, and iodine
B) fluorine, chlorine, and bromine
C) fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine
D) fluorine, chlorine, and iodine
E) fluorine and chlorine

E

116

2F2 (g) + 2H2O (l) → ________
A) 2HF (aq) + 2HFO (aq)
B) 2F- (aq) + 2H+ (aq) + H2O2 (aq)
C) 4HF (aq) + O2 (g)
D) 2HF2 (aq) + 2OH- (aq)
E) 4HF (aq) + 2O2- (aq)

C

117

Cl2 (g) + H2O (l) → ________
A) HCl (aq) + HOCl (aq)
B) 2Cl- (aq) + H2O (l)
C) 2HCl (aq) + O2 (g)
D) 2HCl (aq) + O2- (g)
E) Cl2 (aq) + H2O (l)

A

118

Which element would be expected to have chemical and physical properties closest to those of rubidium?
A) Cu
B) Fe
C) S
D) Ca
E) K

E

119

In which orbital does an electron in a nitrogen atom experience the greatest shielding?
A) 3p
B) 3s
C) 2p
D) 2s
E) 1s

C

120

In which orbital does an electron in a copper atom experience the greatest effective nuclear charge?
A) 1s
B) 4s
C) 4p
D) 4d
E) 3d

A

121

In which of the following atoms is the 3s orbital closest to the nucleus?
A) S
B) Po
C) Te
D) Se
E) P

B

122

________ is isoelectronic with helium.
A) H-
B) H+
C) H
D) B3-
E) N3-

A

123

________ is isoelectronic with krypton.
A) Se2-
B) Se3-
C) Br
D) Se2+
E) Te2-

A

124

________ is isoelectronic with argon.
A) Cl-
B) P4-
C) Ca
D) K-
E) F-

A

125

________ is isoelectronic with scandium.
A) Cr3+
B) Mn5+
C) Mn
D) Mn4-
E) K+

A

126

________ is isoelectronic with argon, and ________ is isoelectronic with neon.
A) P3-, N3-
B) P2-, N2-
C) P3+, N3+
D) N3-, P3-
E) P, N

A

127

Which one of the following atoms has the largest radius?
A) In
B) Sn
C) Sb
D) Te
E) I

A

128

Which one of the following atoms has the largest radius?
A) As
B) O
C) Sn
D) Cs
E) Ca

D

129

Which one of the following has the smallest radius?
A) Na
B) Al
C) K
D) Ca

B

130

Which of the following correctly lists the five atoms in order of increasing size (smallest to largest)?
A) Ge < Si < S < O < Ne
B) Ne < O < S < Si < Ge
C) Ne < S < O < Si < Ge
D) Ne < Si < O < S < Ge
E) Ne < Ge < Si < S < O

B

131

The ion with the smallest diameter is ________.
A) Li+
B) Na+
C) K+
D) Rb+
E) Cs+

A

132

The ion with the largest diameter is ________.
A) Po2-
B) S2-
C) Se2-
D) Te2-
E) O2-

A

133

Of the following atoms, which has the largest first ionization energy?
A) K
B) Rb
C) Sr
D) Ca
E) Ba

D

134

Which of the following has the largest second ionization energy?
A) Si
B) Mg
C) Al
D) Na
E) P

D

135

Which equation correctly represents the third ionization of aluminum?
A) Al2+(g) → Al3+(g) + e-
B) Al(g) → Al+(g) + e-
C) Al2-(g) → Al3-(g) + e-
D) Al3+(g) + e- → Al2+(g)
E) Al+(g) → Al2+(g) + e-

A

136

Which is the correct equation for the third ionization of phosphorous?
A) P2+(g) → P3+(g) + e-
B) P(g) → P+(g) + e-
C) P2-(g) → P3-(g) + e-
D) P3+(g) + e- → P2+(g)
E) P+(g) → P2+(g) + e-

A

137

Which is the correct equation for the first ionization of copper?
A) Cu(g) → Cu+(g) + e-
B) Cu+(g) → Cu2+(g) + e-
C) Cu(g) → Cu-(g) + e-
D) Cu+(g) + e- → Cu(g)
E) Cu2+(g) → Cu3+(g) + e-

A

138

Of the following elements, ________ has the most negative electron affinity.
A) F
B) Cl
C) Br
D) H
E) I

A

139

Which one of the following is a metalloid?
A) Si
B) S
C) Cl
D) In
E) Li

A

140

Which one of the following is a metal?
A) Li
B) S
C) I
D) He
E) Si

A

141

Of the elements below, ________ is the most metallic.
A) Sn
B) P
C) Br
D) Rn
E) As

A

142

Of the elements below, ________ is the least metallic.
A) Ne
B) F
C) Cl
D) O
E) S

A

143

Of the following metals, ________ exhibits multiple oxidation states.
A) Ni
B) K
C) Ca
D) Al
E) Sr

A

144

The reason Bromine is more likely to exist as an anion than is potassium is because ________.
A) Bromine is bigger than potassium
B) Bromine has a greater ionization energy than potassium does
C) Bromine has a greater electron affinity than potassium does
D) Bromine is a liquid and potassium is a solid
E) Bromine is more metallic than potassium

C

145

All of the following are ionic compounds except ________.
A) CH4
B) K2O
C) Be(OH)2
D) NiCl2
E) Sr3N2

A

146

When dissolved in water, ________ produces a basic solution.
A) SO2
B) Rb2O
C) OBr2
D) ZnCl2
E) N2

B

147

Element M reacts with oxygen to form an oxide with the formula MO. When MO is dissolved in water, the resulting solution is basic. Element M could be ________.
A) strontium
B) bromine
C) selenium
D) germanium
E) nitrogen

A

148

This element reacts with hydrogen to produce a gas with the formula HX. When dissolved in water, HX forms an acidic solution. X is ________.
A) chlorine
B) calcium
C) oxygen
D) germanium
E) arsenic

A

149

Element M reacts with oxygen to form an oxide with the formula M2O. When M2O is dissolved in water, the resulting solution is basic. Element M could be ________.
A) calcium
B) bromine
C) oxygen
D) carbon
E) nitrogen

A

150

The effective nuclear charge for an atom ________ going from left to right across a period.

increases

151

As successive electrons are removed from an element, the ionization energy ________.

increases

152

Which of the halogens has the highest first ionization energy?

fluorine

153

When electrons are removed from a lithium atom, they are removed first from which orbital?

2s1

154

In which orbital will an electron add to the element chlorine to form a Cl-?

3p

155

Write a balanced reaction between magnesium metal and hydrochloric acid.

Mg (s) + 2HCl (aq) → MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)

156

What are the elements called that are located between the metals and nonmetals?

metalloids

157

Complete the following: SO3 + H2O →

H2SO4

158

Which metal is a liquid at room temperature?

Mercury

159

[Kr]5s2 is the electron configuration for ________.

strontium

160

He]2s22p5 is the electron configuration for ________.

fluorine

161

The charges for the ions formed from the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals are ________ and ________, respectively.

1+, 2+

162

Peroxide or superoxides can be formed with ________ which is group IA in the periodic table.

alkali metals

163

Write a balanced equation for the reaction of sodium metal with water.

2Na (s) + 2H2O (l) → 2NaOH (aq) + H2 (g)

164

Which alkaline earth metal is the least reactive?

Be

165

Write a balanced equation for the reaction of elemental chlorine with liquid water.

Cl2 (g) + H2O (l) → HCl (aq) + HOCl (aq)

166

Write a balanced equation for the reaction of elemental sulfur and oxygen gas.

S (s) + O2 (g) → SO2 (g)

167

List seven nonmetals that exist as diatomic molecules in their elemental forms.

hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine

168

Which element(s) in group VIIA are solids at room temperature?

iodine

169

Which noble gas has the highest first ionization energy?

helium

170

The effective nuclear charge acting on an electron is larger than the actual nuclear charge.

false

171

The effective nuclear charge in an atom is proportional to the number of nuclear protons.

false

172

The atomic radius of iodine is one-half the distance separating the iodine nuclei.

true

173

A group of ions all containing the same number of electrons constitutes an isoelectronic series.

true

174

Elements that readily conduct electricity are elements with low ionization energies.

true

175

Electron affinity measures how easily an atom gains an electron.

true

176

Xenon can form compounds with fluorine.

true