Marketing Exam Chapter 1 Flashcards


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1

1. Marketing is defined as producing, promoting, and selling products. a. True b. False

ANSWER: False RATIONALE: Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.

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2. According to the American Marketing Association, marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large. a. True b. False

ANSWER: True

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3. An exchange cannot take place unless each party in the exchange has something that the other party values. a. True b. False

ANSWER: True

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4. Sara Lee Industries spent considerable money and time developing a crustless bread. Prior to the introduction, the company had not conducted market research among its customers, but it was confident that its science and technology department had produced a successful new product. Based on this example, Sara Lee is a good example of a production-oriented company. a. True b. False

ANSWER: True

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5. Unlike a production-orientated firm, a firm embracing a sales orientation focuses on customer wants and needs so it can develop the best product at the lowest cost that will require very little selling effort. a. True b. False

ANSWER: False RATIONALE: A sales orientation is based on the ideas that people will buy more goods and services if aggressive sales techniques are used and that high sales result in high profits.

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6. The focus of a production-oriented firm is on what it can make or do best. a. True b. False

ANSWER: True

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7. The marketing concept states that the social and economic justification for an organization's existence is the satisfaction of customers' wants and needs while meeting organizational objectives. a. True b. False

ANSWER: True

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8. The ultimate goal of most market-oriented firms is profitability that results from satisfying the wants and needs of its consumers. a. True b. False

ANSWER: True

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9. The societal marketing concept considers society's longterm best interests along with the satisfaction of customers' wants and needs. a. True b. False

ANSWER: True

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10. Increasingly well informed customers have shifted the power from manufacturers and retailers to consumers. a. True b. False

ANSWER: True

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11. Personnel in sales oriented firms tend to be "outward looking," focusing on selling what the market wants. a. True b. False

ANSWER: False RATIONALE: Personnel in salesoriented firms tend to be "inward looking," focusing on selling what the organization makes rather than making what the market wants.

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12. Customer value is the relationship between company profits and company costs. a. True b. False

ANSWER: False RATIONALE: Customer value is the relationship between benefits and the sacrifice necessary to obtain those benefits.

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13. The way to achieve customer satisfaction and value is to offer the lowest price. a. True b. False

ANSWER: False RATIONALE: Marketers interested in customer value offer realistic prices and try to achieve customer satisfaction and value by ensuring customer expectations are met or exceeded.

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14. 3D Systems is a company that uses computers to generate new product prototypes. It has generated loyal business clients by providing the best customer support in the industry. The company also provides direct sales consultations that give its salespeople intimate knowledge about what exactly its customers want. This partnership between 3D Systems and its customers is relationship marketing. a. True b. False

ANSWER: True

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15. Only a firm's salespeople need to be customer oriented. a. True b. False

ANSWER: False RATIONALE: All employees need to be customer oriented because in the customer's eyes, the employee (regardless of the position held in the organization) is the firm and may be the only firm representative the customer ever sees.

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16. Retailers who give their sales clerks the authority to handle customer complaints without having to get approval from a supervisor are using empowerment. a. True b. False

ANSWER: True

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17. In the early 1920s, Ford promised its customers any color vehicle they wanted as long as it was black. Ford's management assumed anyone buying a car would accept the color black, so it made products affordable by offering only one variety in large quantities. Ford is an example of a market-oriented firm. a. True b. False

ANSWER: False RATIONALE: A market-oriented organization recognizes that different customers groups want different features or benefits.

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18. While most marketing organizations rely on various forms of promotion to succeed, sales-oriented organizations make the most effective use of their entire marketing mix. a. True b. False

ANSWER: False RATIONALE: Sales-oriented firms usually rely more heavily on promotion alone than do market-oriented firms.

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19. A local grocer recently began grouping its customers into specific groups based on what they bought and when they shopped. The grocer then began to schedule shipments of specific items based on these customer segments and to offer different promotions to different shopper groups. This is an example of CRM. a. True b. False

ANSWER: True

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20. Salespeople who work for market-oriented organizations are generally perceived by their customers as problem solvers and important links to supply sources and new products. a. True b. False

ANSWER: True

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21. Marketing is important to business, so marketing should be part of the job of everyone in the organization, not just those in marketing. a. True b. False

ANSWER: True

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22. One facet of marketing is that it is: a. an approach that focuses on maximizing sales b. a short-term oriented approach to profit maximization c. an approach that requires diversity d. a philosophy that stresses customer satisfaction e. independent of value creation

ANSWER: d RATIONALE: Marketing has two facets. First, it is a philosophy, an attitude, a perspective, or a management orientation that stresses customer satisfaction. Second, marketing is an organization function and a set of processes used to implement this philosophy.

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23. A business is concerned with many day-to-day activities. Some of the most important of these activities are the planning and development of a product, its ability to communicate value, its pricing policy, and the distribution strategy. These activities are all a part of: a. a control system b. marketing c. accounting d. production e. human resources

ANSWER: b RATIONALE: Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.

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24. is a set of activities used to implement a management orientation that stresses customer satisfaction. a. Planning strategy b. Customer management c. Marketing d. A control system e. Reciprocity

ANSWER: c RATIONALE: This is the focus of marketing.

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25. The American Marketing Association's definition of marketing: a. is limited to promotional activities b. focuses on the value of empowerment, teamwork, and customer value c. shows how marketing benefits the marketer d. relies on the synergy created by exchange e. includes creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.

ANSWER: e RATIONALE: According to the American Marketing Association, marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.

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26. Which of the following occurs when people give up something in order to receive something they would rather have? a. Exchange b. Synergy c. Transformation d. Leveraging e. Reciprocity

ANSWER: a RATIONALE: Exchange is people giving up something to receive something they would rather have.

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27. All of the following are necessary for exchange to occur EXCEPT: a. each party is capable of communication and delivery b. each party signs a contract before exchange occurs c. each party believes it is appropriate or desirable to deal with the others d. each party is free to accept or reject the exchange offer e. each party must have something the other party considers to be valuable

ANSWER: b RATIONALE: Exchange can occur without a legal contract.

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28. A problem facing the timber industry is the absence of any effective way to prove that rain forest timber has been legally harvested. In places like Indonesia, as much as 80 percent of timber available for sale is illegally cut. Companies like The Home Depot do not want to sell timber from illegally logged forests even though the demand is great for timber from rain forests. Which of the following conditions required for an exchange to occur is missing when a company tries to sell illegally acquired logs to The Home Depot? a. There are more than two parties involved. b. Each party has something of value to bring to the exchange. c. One party is free to accept the exchange offer. d. Each party believes it is appropriate to deal with the other party. e. Nobody sees the exchange as producing value.

ANSWER: d RATIONALE: For an exchange to occur, two or more parties must be involved. Both parties are free to accept or reject the exchange. If The Home Depot believes the timber has been illegally harvested, then it will not want to deal with the loggers.

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29. Kellogg's is offering free DVDs to consumers who collect five official Collection certificates from the back panels of specially marked packages of Kellogg's cereals and then mail them with the official order form. Within 90 days, these consumers will receive the movie of their choice. A(n) will occur when a movie fan mails in his or her certificates for a movie. a. synergy b. sublimation c. exchange d. entropy e. reciprocity

ANSWER: c RATIONALE: For an exchange to occur, two or more parties must be involved. Both parties are free to accept or reject the exchange. Furthermore, each party must have something that is of value to the other party. Each party is capable of communication and delivery and believes it is desirable to do so. In this case, the value for Kellogg's is customer loyalty. The value for the customer is the cereal and free movie.

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30. For an exchange to take place: a. there must be at least two parties involved b. money must be used in the transaction c. each party must feel obligated to accept the offer d. at least one party must have something of value that the other party desires e. neither party must communicate with the other

ANSWER: a RATIONALE: For exchange to occur, there must be at least two parties, each party has something that might be of value to the other party, each party is capable of communication and delivery, each party is free to accept or reject the exchange offer, and each party believes it is appropriate or desirable to deal with the other party.

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31. The concept of exchange is important to marketing because: a. if all the conditions for an exchange are in place, then the exchange will be completed b. exchange provides money to marketers c. marketing activities help to create exchange d. marketing activities are a requirement for exchange to take place e. money is the only medium of exchange for business marketers

ANSWER: c RATIONALE: Marketing activities help the exchange to take place, but marketing can occur without an exchange.

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32. Barry collects antique watches and has decided to sell a few of them on eBay. Some of the watches he wants to sell are rare and very valuable. What condition is necessary for an exchange to occur between Barry and a buyer? a. His watch should have a certificate of authenticity. b. The opening bid must be lower than other watches being sold on the site. c. Buyers must provide payment before the item is shipped. d. Delivery must take place within 2 days of the purchase. e. Potential buyers must be able to see the watch and understand its qualities.

ANSWER: e RATIONALE: For an exchange to take place, there must be at least two parties, each party must have something the other values, the parties must be able to communicate, each party must believe that it is appropriate to deal with the other, and each party must be free to accept or reject the exchange offer.

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33. All of the following are marketing management philosophies EXCEPT: a. sales orientation b. societal marketing orientation c. market orientation d. profitability orientation e. production orientation

ANSWER: d RATIONALE: The four marketing philosophies are commonly referred to as production, sales, market, and societal marketing orientations.

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34. Indonesian logging companies harvest the rain forests for timber and assume that a market exists for their products. The typical Indonesian logging company has a(n) orientation. a. exchange b. product c. production d. sales e. environmental

ANSWER: c RATIONALE: A production orientation is a philosophy that focuses on the internal capabilities of the firm rather than on the desires and needs of the marketplace.

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35. Firms with a orientation focus on the internal capabilities of the firm rather than on the desires and needs of the marketplace. a. sales b. production c. market d. customer e. customer-benefit

ANSWER: b RATIONALE: A production orientation is a philosophy that focuses on the internal capabilities of the firm rather than on the desires and needs of the marketplace.

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36. A company that sets its goals and strategies based on what its current equipment can produce, what products engineering can design, and what the company itself can do best, has a(n) orientation. a. marketplace b. sales c. market d. exchange e. production

ANSWER: e RATIONALE: A production orientation focuses on the internal capabilities of the firm.

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37. Researchers at PPG Industries spent considerable time, effort, and money developing a bluish windshield that would let in filtered sunlight but block out the heat. Little market research was done, but the scientists were convinced this new product would be significantly better than existing windshields even though it was more expensive and of a different color than the current models on the market. This scenario suggests PPG most likely has a(n) __ orientation. a. exchange b. production c. sales d. promotion e. customer

ANSWER: b RATIONALE: A production orientation is a philosophy that focuses on the internal capabilities of the firm rather than on the desires and needs of the marketplace.

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38. A newspaper ad for a hospital that states, "We have the most modern delivery rooms and stateofthe art medical equipment," is an indication of which marketing management philosophy? a. Sales b. Customer c. Market d. Societal e. Production

ANSWER: e RATIONALE: A production orientation focuses on the internal capabilities of the firm.

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39. A firm with a production orientation is most likely to survive if: a. there are many small competitors in the marketplace b. demand for the product it produces exceeds supply c. the needs of the marketplace are constantly shifting d. supply for the product it produces exceeds demand e. there are many large competitors in the marketplace

ANSWER: b RATIONALE: The production orientation can survive in the short term under a variety of conditions; however, if market needs change, long-term survival is difficult.

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40. A firm that adopts a(n) ____ orientation to marketing will fail to consider whether what the firm produces most efficiently also meets the needs of the marketplace. a. customer b. exchange c. product d. market e. production

ANSWER: e RATIONALE: The production orientation forces a company to build whatever it builds best--that is, whatever it has the experience and expertise in doing.

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41. Toyota found that consumers wanted cars to last longer and be more environmentally friendly. GM, however, enjoyed being the top U.S. car producer and focused more on how many cars and trucks it could manufacture, not on what customers wanted from a vehicle. GM had more of a ___ orientation. a. sales b. production c. market d. product e. customer

ANSWER: b RATIONALE: The production orientation forces a company to build whatever it builds best--that is, whatever it has the experience and expertise in doing.

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42. The ___ orientation assumes people will buy more if aggressive selling techniques are used. a. market b. sales c. customer d. production e. exchange

ANSWER: b RATIONALE: The sales orientation assumes aggressive selling is what is needed to increase demand.

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43. Which marketing management philosophy is often adopted by organizations that sell unsought products such as life insurance, retirement plans, and preplanned funeral services? a. Sales orientation b. Production orientation c. Marketing orientation d. Product orientation e. Customer orientation

ANSWER: a RATIONALE: Aggressive selling is sometimes used by companies that sell products their customers do not want to buy.

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44. Which marketing orientation assumes people will buy more goods and services if aggressive marketing techniques are used? a. Sales b. Production c. Market d. Customer e. Marketplace

ANSWER: a RATIONALE: A sales orientation is based on the ideas that people will buy more goods and services if aggressive sales techniques are used and that high sales result in high profits.

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45. Colorado Silversmith creates and markets silver and turquoise jewelry, which it sells to retailers in the western United States. The company's management believes its retail customers will stock more jewelry if its salespeople use aggressive marketing techniques, so the company provides strong incentives for salespeople and promotional allowances to resellers to get distribution for its jewelry. In other words, the company has a ___ orientation. a. promotion b. production c. sales d. market e. customer

ANSWER: c RATIONALE: The sales orientation assumes aggressive sales techniques will sell more product, regardless of customer desires and needs.

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46. If a company uses a sales orientation, consumer complaints would most likely result in: a. a modification of the sales presentation b. product reinvention c. continuous market research d. philanthropy e. attempts to cut production costs

ANSWER: a RATIONALE: The sales orientation relies on aggressive sales techniques to fuel business.

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47. Fujifilm Computer Products has improved the efficiency and productivity of its plant, which manufactures printing technology. For the new fiscal year, the company projects a production increase of 25 percent. It has instructed its sales force to aggressively distribute and promote its printers. The CEO is sure the market will absorb more product if the sales force is determined and assertive. Fujifilm appears to have a ___ orientation. a. market b. production c. sales d. customer e. marketplace

ANSWER: c RATIONALE: A sales orientation is based on the belief that people will buy more goods and services if aggressive sales techniques are used.

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48. Which marketing management philosophy focuses on the question, "What can we make or do best?" a. Production b. Marketing c. Sales d. Societal e. Internal

ANSWER: a RATIONALE: A production orientation focuses on the internal capabilities of the firm rather than on the desires and needs of the marketplace.

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49. Which marketing management philosophy focuses on the question, "How can we sell more aggressively?" a. Production b. Marketing c. Sales d. External e. Internal

ANSWER: c RATIONALE: A sales orientation is based on the ideas that people will buy more goods and services if aggressive sales techniques are used and that high sales result in high profits.

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50. Which marketing management philosophy focuses on the question, "What do customers want and need?" a. Sales b. Production c. Product d. Market e. Internal

ANSWER: d RATIONALE: A market orientation is based on the marketing concept, which is the idea that the social and economic justification for an organization's existence is the satisfaction of customer wants and needs while meeting organizational objectives.

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51. Which marketing management philosophy assumes that a sale does not depend on an aggressive sales force but rather on a customer's decision to purchase a product? a. Sales b. Production c. Product d. Market e. Exchange

ANSWER: d RATIONALE: A market orientation states that the social and economic justification for an organization's existence is the satisfaction of customer wants and needs while meeting organizational objectives.

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52. Companies that rely on the marketing concept and that have implemented a market orientation strategy recognize that: a. price is the most important variable for customers b. sales depend predominantly on an aggressive sales force c. what the customer thinks he or she is buying is what is important d. a company has to apply scientific management techniques to survive e. selling and marketing are essentially the same thing

ANSWER: c RATIONALE: The perceived product and perceived value are what the customer is buying, and the marketing concept and market orientation have endeavored to understand those perceptions.

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53. A company that has a market orientation and adheres to the marketing concept does NOT: a. integrate all the activities of the firm to satisfy customer wants b. focus on consumer needs and wants c. differentiate the firm's products from its competitor's products d. fuel sales growth through the application of aggressive sales techniques e. concentrate on long-term goal achievement (such as profits and growth) for the firm

ANSWER: d RATIONALE: Aggressive sales techniques are part of the sales orientation and are not needed if a company is meeting the needs and wants of its customers.

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54. Minor League Baseball (MiLB) suffers from sluggish attendance. To attract more fans to MiLB games, owners often resort to gimmicks--free hot dog nights, events designed to get into the Guinness World Records, and celebrity visits. Since baseball fans are seldom asked what would make them want to attend more games, this suggests most MiLB teams do not have a(n) ___ orientation. a. sales b. empowerment c. community d. societal e. market

ANSWER: e RATIONALE: The marketing concept and a marketoriented philosophy is based on the consumers' wants and needs, and the organization will focus its activities on satisfying these customers by listening to them and revising strategies as necessary.

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55. A company adhering to the marketing concept will likely take which of the following steps if it learned that its customers were dissatisfied with its product? a. Hire more salespeople b. Decrease its organizational overhead c. Increase its advertising to underserved markets d. Increase the number of outlets in which the product is sold e. Conduct research to determine if its customers' needs have changed

ANSWER: e RATIONALE: A marketing concept and marketoriented philosophy are based on the consumers' wants and needs, and the organization will focus its activities on satisfying these customers by listening to them and revising strategies as necessary.

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56. The marketing concept involves: a. focusing on customers' wants and needs so that the organization can distinguish its product (or products) from competitors' products b. satisfying management's needs and wants with the idea of maximizing profits in the short run c. selling as much product as possible under the assumption people will buy more goods and services if aggressive selling techniques are used d. selling as much as possible under the assumption consumers will buy more at lower prices e. focusing on production in order to increase product quality and lower prices

ANSWER: a RATIONALE: This is the definition of the marketing concept.

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57. The marketing concept stresses that the social and economic justification for an organization's existence is the satisfaction of customer needs and wants while: a. producing a good or service at the lowest possible cost b. improving the general standard of living c. constantly increasing sales volumes d. applying scientific management techniques to improve efficiency e. simultaneously meeting organization objectives

ANSWER: e RATIONALE: The marketing concept holds that the needs and wants of both the customer and the firm be served.

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58. SAP, the world's largest business software company, has pledged to put the "customer at the center" of their universe. SAP has captured the idea of: a. the 80/20 rule b. Maslow's hierarchy of needs c. the marketing concept d. the sales orientation philosophy e. the societal concept

ANSWER: c RATIONALE: The marketing concept justifies a company's existence by its ability to satisfy customers.

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59. When a homeowner visited The Home Depot to buy what he thought he needed to fix a leaking toilet, he gathered up materials totaling almost $70. One his way to check out, an employee asked him what was he trying to fix. After some discussion, the employee convinced the homeowner that a $5.99 replacement part would fix the problem better than the materials he thought he needed and with less trouble. This sort of discussion between employees and customers is commonplace at The Home Depot and indicates the retail store has a(n) ___ orientation. a. sales b. market c. product d. exchange e. production

ANSWER: b RATIONALE: The marketing concept, the foundation of a market orientation, holds that the needs and wants of both the customer and the firm be served.

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60. At The Container Store, every employee is trained to serve customers. Full-time salespeople receive 240 hours of training. The Container Store works to hire people who are self-motivated and have a passion for customer service. The Container Store has a ___ orientation. a. sales b. market c. product d. societal e. production

ANSWER: b RATIONALE: The marketing concept, the foundation of a market orientation, holds that the needs and wants of both the customer and the firm be served.

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61. A company that wants to implement a market orientation would need to: a. do research on its customers, competitors, and markets b. determine how to deliver superior customer value c. establish and maintain mutually satisfying relationships with customers d. implement actions that provide value to customers e. do all of the activities listed

ANSWER: e RATIONALE: These are all options that make up a successful marketing orientation.

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62. Mimi Couturier is a design company that specializes in formalwear for women. The company is known for challenging fashion mores. The company's fashion designers use computerassisted design software to create what it thinks women should wear. The company regularly hires industry experts to examine its factories to find waste and inefficiencies that can be eliminated. The company has expanded the number of products it offers for sale many times. However, for the last two years Mimi Couturier has lost money, and it has had to lay off some of its workforce. To avoid this occurrence in the future, Mimi Couturier should: a. hire more retail efficiency experts to trace down any production problems b. increase its sales force to find more potential customers for the firm c. have someone study its target market to see what needs and wants should be met by Mimi Couturier d. cut prices so that its prices will be at least 10 percent below those of its competitors e. design more sophisticated products that use the latest computer-aided techniques

ANSWER: c RATIONALE: Mimi Couturier has been production-oriented. It should develop a market orientation, which means the firm will produce only those items needed by its target market.

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63. Best Buy has become the nation's largest specialty retailer by focusing on the customer's needs and wants. This philosophy is at the heart of a(n) ___ orientation. a. sales b. market c. retail d. production e. exchange

ANSWER: b RATIONALE: A marketoriented philosophy is based on the consumers' wants and needs, and the organization will focus its activities on satisfying these customers by listening to them and revising strategies as necessary.

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64. At www.mystarbucksidea.com, customers are encouraged to share their ideas and thoughts about how Starbucks can better serve its customers. Starbucks customers told management that they wanted to be recognized for choosing Starbucks coffee. So Starbucks instituted the My Starbucks Reward program with money-saving benefits to their Starbuck cardholders. Starbucks is an example of a company with a ___-oriented philosophy. a. transaction b. sales c. product d. society e. market

ANSWER: e RATIONALE: A marketoriented philosophy is based on consumers' wants and needs, and the organization will focus its activities on satisfying these customers by listening to them and revising strategies as necessary.

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65. At the Lands' End Web site, a customer can chat online with customer service representatives while shopping. This live help allows the customer to have questions answered before placing an order. This focus on meeting customer needs illustrates a(n) ___ orientation. a. societal b. market c. sales d. production e. one-to-one

ANSWER: b RATIONALE: A marketoriented philosophy is based on the consumers' wants and needs, and the dealer satisfies these needs by providing excellent customer service. Building a relationship with these customers is an important key.

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66. After hearing his company criticized for its failure to respond to consumer needs, the CEO of a bank realized that his company needs to adhere to the marketing concept and implement a market-oriented strategy. Which of the following actions would be the best approach to achieving this goal? a. Reorganizing the company and making marketing its most important department b. Hiring new salespeople to find new customers c. Expanding the advertising budget to make potential customers more aware of its product offerings d. Creating cross-functional teams and instructing them to focus on creating greater customer value e. Hiring a new product development manager

ANSWER: d RATIONALE: Market-oriented companies are successful in getting all business functions working together to deliver customer value.

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67. Jacques Torres Chocolate is a factory and retail store in Brooklyn. Its owner is willing to try to produce new products when his customers suggest them--such as chilipepperlaced chocolate candy. His only condition is that when he adds new products, his customers have the final say on whether the product is of any value. According to Torres, "If something doesn't move, that's the last time you see it." By focusing on customer' wants, the chocolate company exhibits a(n) ___ orientation. a. exchange b. product c. production d. sales e. market

ANSWER: e RATIONALE: Torres understands that a sale occurs because a customer makes a decision to buy

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68. An organization with a(n)___believes that it exists not only to satisfy customer wants and needs and to meet organizational objectives but also to preserve or enhance individuals' and society's longterm best interests. a. sales orientation b. market orientation c. ethical business mission d. focused target market strategy e. societal marketing orientation

ANSWER: e RATIONALE: The societal marketing orientation extends the marketing concept by acknowledging that some products that customers want may not really be in their best interests or the best interests of society as a whole.

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69. Most companies become sensitized to community issues after they've done enough damage to draw the locals' anger. Dofasco, Inc., a highly successful steel company in Ontario, tries to get ahead of business and community issues by annually bringing together representatives from the local area and deciding which projects to improve the local environment will be implemented. This annual community-wide meeting indicates Dofasco has a ___ orientation. a. societal marketing b. sales c. reciprocal exchange d. production e. product

ANSWER: a RATIONALE: Societal marketing orientation is the idea that an organization exists not only to satisfy customer wants and needs and to meet organizational objectives but also to preserve individuals' and society's longterm best interests.

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70. Life is good® no longer encloses its apparel in individual poly bags when shipping to customers because the management feels it harms the environment. This is an example of a ___ orientation. a. societal marketing b. sales c. reciprocal exchange d. production e. product

ANSWER: a RATIONALE: Societal marketing orientation is the idea that an organization exists not only to satisfy customer wants and needs and to meet organizational objectives but also to preserve individuals' and society's longterm best interests.

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71. Procter & Gamble (P&G) decided to address the fact that Hispanic women are more likely to die from breast cancer because they're reluctant to get mammograms or discuss screening. So P&G brought screening to the supermarket, parking mobile mammography vehicles in grocery store parking lots in Texas and inviting shoppers in for free x-rays. Tie-ins with local hospitals assured that women with suspicious films got follow-up care. P&G adopted a ___ orientation to achieve this goal. a. promotional b. societal marketing c. customer d. marketing e. product

ANSWER: b RATIONALE: Societal marketing orientation is the idea that an organization exists not only to satisfy customer wants and needs and to meet organizational objectives but also to preserve individuals' and society's longterm best interests.

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72. Which of the following statements about the societal orientation is FALSE? a. Companies that protect the environment by using all-natural materials in their products are showing a societal marketing orientation. b. Marketers cannot deliver all benefits sought by customers, as these benefits may not be in the long-term best interests of the customers. c. The societal marketing concept is an important refinement of the market concept. d. Organizations have both a social and economic justification for their existence. e. The majority of consumers support environmentally friendly companies and willingly paying more for these products.

ANSWER: e RATIONALE: While a majority of consumers report that environmental issues are important, they are not willing to make trade-offs for higher costs or lower performance.

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73. Life is good® developed the "Good Karma" line of environmentally friendly 100% organic cotton apparel. The production of the Good Karma line is consistent with a ___ orientation. a. societal marketing b. supplier c. sales d. production e. philanthropic

ANSWER: a RATIONALE: Societal marketing orientation is the idea that an organization exists not only to satisfy customer wants and needs and to meet organizational objectives but also to preserve individuals' and society's longterm best interests.

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74. Target shoppers can enroll in the Take Charge of Education® program so that Target will donate 1 percent of purchases made with a consumer's REDcard, a Target credit card. The more money customers spend, the larger the donation to the consumer's school of choice. By instituting the Take Charge of Education® program to help local schools, Target has shown a ___ orientation. a. societal marketing b. supplier c. sales d. production e. philanthropic

ANSWER: a RATIONALE: Societal marketing orientation is the idea that an organization exists not only to satisfy customer wants and needs and to meet organizational objectives but also to preserve individuals' and society's longterm best interests.

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75. Jewelry stores want to provide their customers with the highest quality of diamonds available at the lowest possible prices. Unfortunately, the lowest priced diamonds these days are sold by African rebels who use the profits to engage in genocide. Human rights organization have asked jewelers to buy diamonds that are "conflict free"--that is, from South Africa, Australia, or Canada. LeeBrant is one retail jewelry store that sells only diamonds that are certified to be from these countries. LeeBrant is exhibiting which marketing management orientation? a. Production b. Sales c. Societal marketing d. Direct e. Omnipotent

ANSWER: c RATIONALE: LeeBrant has a societal marketing orientation because it is not only trying to satisfy customers' wants but also is trying to enhance society's longterm best interests. The other jewelers that continue to sell diamonds purchased from the rebels are more interested in satisfying their customers' desire for lower prices than in serving society.

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76. Which marketing management philosophy focuses on the question, "What do customers want and need, and how can we benefit society?" a. Internal b. External c. Sales d. Societal marketing e. Production

ANSWER: d RATIONALE: The societal marketing concept extends the marketing concept by acknowledging that some products that customers want may not really be in their best interests or in the best interests of society as a whole.

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77. The sales and market orientations differ on all of the following characteristics EXCEPT: a. those to whom the product is directed b. the firm's performance c. the firm's business d. the firm's primary goal e. the tools to achieve goals

ANSWER: b RATIONALE: These two orientations differ with respect to the organization's focus, the firm's business, those to whom the product is directed, the firm's primary goal, and the tools used to achieve those goals.

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78. Market-oriented firms primarily focus their efforts upon: a. improving the technological skills and competitive advantages of the firm b. satisfying the organization's needs for low overhead c. achieving the company's societal responsibilities inexpensively d. distributing goods and services e. satisfying the wants and needs of their customers

ANSWER: e RATIONALE: Market-oriented firms are focused outward toward their customers.

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79. Which of the following statements about a typical sales-oriented business is TRUE? a. The company develops its products to meet the needs of specific groups of people. b. The primary goal of the company is profit through customer satisfaction. c. The company invests the majority of its resources in promoting its products and services. d. The company is in business to satisfy customer wants and needs and deliver superior value. e. the company focuses on what it is good at making.

ANSWER: c RATIONALE: Sales-oriented firms focus on selling what the organization makes rather than making what the market wants.

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80. ___ is defined as the relationship between benefits and the sacrifice necessary to obtain those benefits. a. Opportunity cost b. Marketing utility c. Market quality d. Satisfaction percentage e. Customer value

ANSWER: e RATIONALE: This is the definition of customer value.

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81. The U.S. Postal Service (USPS) argues that its express service is comparable to what is offered by FedEx and that its prices are much lower. Yet, FedEx dominates with more than a 45 percent share of the express-delivery market. Which of the following statements describes this situation? a. The USPS is perceived as offering greater customer value. b. FedEx is perceived as offering greater customer value. c. FedEx and the USPS offer the same customer value. d. Customer value is not an issue in deciding which express-delivery service to use. e. The USPS should lower its prices even further to increase market share.

ANSWER: b RATIONALE: Customer value is defined as the relationship between benefits and the sacrifice necessary to obtain those benefits.

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82. Marketers interested in offering customer value can: a. offer products that it is skilled at making. b. sell to customers using facts and other sales pitches. c. offer organization-wide commitment to service and after-the-sale support. d. price as high as the market will bear. e. offer a large sales team to make cold calls.

ANSWER: c

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83. Chaz loves to play a Disney online pirate game in which he gets to create a pirate by choosing hair color, skin color, clothing, and physical features. Then he gets to choose from a variety of quests and can sail a ship, dig for treasure, fight skeleton pirates, or fight the British Navy. This game provides what element of value? a. Offering products that perform b. Earning of trust c. Avoiding unrealistic pricing d. Giving facts e. Co-creation

ANSWER: e RATIONALE: Co-creation allows customers to help create their own experience.

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84. Which of the following is the customers' evaluation of a good or service in terms of whether that good or service has met their needs and expectations? a. Value b. Perception c. Attitude d. Dissonance e. Satisfaction

ANSWER: e RATIONALE: This is the definition of customer satisfaction.

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85. When customer expectations regarding product quality, service quality, and value-based price are met or exceeded, ___ is created. a. a value line b. a quality rift c. planning excellence d. customer satisfaction e. expectation satisfaction

ANSWER: d RATIONALE: Customer satisfaction is the customers' evaluation of a good or service in terms of whether that good or service has met their needs and expectations.

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86. Ninety-six percent of USAA home insurance policy holders report that USAA representatives meet their commitment in calling back customers quickly about claims. The most likely result of USAA's efforts is: a. management empowerment b. retailer-customer synergy c. customer satisfaction d. transactional marketing e. disintermediation

ANSWER: c RATIONALE: When customer expectations regarding product quality, service quality, and value-based price are met or exceeded, customer satisfaction is created.

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87. Xerox emphasizes ___ by replacing at its own expense any dissatisfied customer's equipment within a period of three years after purchase. a. management empowerment b. management-customer synergy c. customer satisfaction d. transactional marketing e. direct selling

ANSWER: c RATIONALE: When customer expectations regarding product quality, service quality, and value-based price are met or exceeded, customer satisfaction is created.

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88. ___ is a strategy that focuses on keeping and improving relationships with current customers. a. Commitment selling b. Relationship marketing c. Transactional marketing d. Market engineering e. Organization-customer synergy

ANSWER: b RATIONALE: This is the definition of relationship marketing.

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89. Networkcar.com sells a plug-in device that connects to computer diagnostic ports that are standard on cars. The device beams signals to dealers who can remotely diagnose or spot trouble, allowing car dealerships to maintain a closer bond with their customers by offering maintenance before a problem leaves customers with an inoperable or possibly dangerous car. With the device, dealers can better engage in: a. management empowerment b. management-customer synergy c. relationship marketing d. transactional marketing e. direct selling

ANSWER: c RATIONALE: Relationship marketing is a strategy that entails forging long-term partnerships with customers.

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90. Kellogg's gives consumers the chance to receive a free DVD. Consumers who buy five boxes of specially marked cereal can cut out the coupons and mail in their completed official form to get a free DVD. Kellogg's is engaging in: a. transactional marketing b. sports distribution c. relationship marketing d. one-to-one marketing e. customer transformation

ANSWER: c RATIONALE: Relationship marketing is a strategy that entails forging long-term partnerships with customers.

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91. Frequent-flyer programs are an example of financial incentives to customers in exchange for their continuing patronage. After flying a certain number of miles or flying a specified number of times, the frequent-flyer program participant earns a free flight or some other award such as free lodging. Airlines that use frequent-flyer programs are practicing: a. commitment selling b. transaction marketing c. transformational marketing d. marketing engineering e. relationship marketing

ANSWER: e RATIONALE: The strategy that entails forging long-term partnerships with customers is called relationship marketing.

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92. Greenberg Smoked Turkey, Inc. is a nationwide mail-order business that operates without any advertising. It does not accept credit cards, has no toll-free number for customers to call, and does not have a Web site. This hopelessly oldfashioned company is also very profitable with thousands of devoutly loyal customers--some of whom have ordered Greenberg smoked turkeys every year for the last 50 years. Greenberg more than likely uses ___ to maintain these long-term ties to its customers. a. reactive marketing b. synergistic management c. relationship marketing d. a sales orientation e. management empowerment

ANSWER: c RATIONALE: Relationship marketing is a strategy that entails forging long-term partnerships with customers.

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93. The Geek Squad is a tech support station located inside every Best Buy electronics retail store. Best Buy gives intensive training to the Geeks. The purpose of this training is to: a. improve customer service b. give higher education benefits to employees c. promote the company image by increasing public awareness d. reduce the need of empowerment e. increase employment levels

ANSWER: a RATIONALE: Leading marketers recognize the role of employee training in customer service.

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94. Some market-oriented firms give employees expanded authority to solve customer problems on the spot. This is known as: a. training b. deregulation c. empowerment d. commissioning e. mediating

ANSWER: c RATIONALE: Empowerment is the delegation of authority to solve customer problems quickly, usually by the first person the customer notifies regarding a problem.

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95. ___ gives customers the feeling their concerns are being addressed and at the same time gives employees the feeling their expertise matters to management. a. Management-employee synergy b. Organizational entropy c. Managerial reciprocity d. Empowerment e. Delegation

ANSWER: d RATIONALE: Empowerment is the delegation of authority to solve customers' problems quickly, usually by the first person the customer notifies regarding a problem.

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96. The Ritz-Carlton has Service Values that guide employees in providing its Gold Standard service. One of the service values states, "I own and immediately resolve guest problems." The RitzCarlton management uses ___ to provide customer service. a. training b. deregulation c. empowerment d. commissioning e. mediating

ANSWER: c RATIONALE: Empowerment is the delegation of authority to solve customers' problems quickly.

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97. As part of instituting an empowerment program, a marketing director should: a. hire college graduates who have the latest training in marketing management techniques b. create a customer service department and place a key staff person in charge of the department c. train the company's staff to judge the quality of the products the firm produces d. allow non-management employees to resolve problems on their own without prior approval from their immediate supervisors e. conduct a survey of the company's marketing staff to learn about employee morale

ANSWER: d RATIONALE: Empowerment occurs when firms give employees expanded authority to solve customer problems on the spot without having to get management's permission first.

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98. ___ is the collaborative efforts of people to achieve common objectives. a. Effort training b. Teamwork c. Empowerment d. OJT training e. Mediation

ANSWER: b RATIONALE: This is the definition of teamwork.

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99. TUFF SHED, Inc. is one of the leading suppliers of installed storage buildings and garages in the United States. TUFF SHED mandates that sales, management, and construction teams work together to anticipate and eliminate potential problems. They make sure customers get the right buildings for their needs, and they all are built well and in a timely manner. By using teamwork, TUFF SHED : a. operates successfully using a production orientation b. provides its customer with a high level of satisfaction c. has a high employee turnover rate d. does not deliver superior customer service e. has a sales orientation

ANSWER: b RATIONALE: Teamwork is one way a company with a market orientation creates customer satisfaction.

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100. A sales-oriented firm defines its business (or mission) in terms of: a. employees b. goods and services c. customers d. competitors e. benefits

ANSWER: b RATIONALE: A sales-oriented firm focuses inward on its products and services.

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101. A firm that wants to develop a deeper understanding of its customers may optimize profitiablity, revenue, and customer satisfaction by focusing on highly defined and precise customer groups. This is: a. Customer optimization b. Customer Relationship Management c. Sales Orientation d. Sales Maximization e. Social orientation

ANSWER: b RATIONALE: This is the definition of Customer Relationship Management

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102. A market-oriented firm defines its business in terms of: a. goods and services b. the benefits its customers seek c. employee empowerment d. competitive position e. customer satisfaction

ANSWER: b RATIONALE: A market-oriented firm is defined in terms of the benefits its customers seek.

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103. Redefining the business mission of a mattress manufacturer as "a good night's sleep" rather than stating the mission as "the manufacture of highquality mattresses" will: a. not stimulate an awareness of changes in consumer desires b. be too broad a statement to be of any real use in serving customers c. stifle creativity in discovering opportunities to serve customers d. help ensure the firm retains its focus on consumers e. ensure the core products will be retained

ANSWER: d RATIONALE: The broader business mission of "a good night sleep" will stimulate innovation and creativity because not all sleep aids are mattresses. It will lead the company to further growth.

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104. One of the reasons given for the decline of the passenger rail industry in the United States is that the industry defined its mission as trains and not as transportation sources. The railroad industry failed to: a. define its mission in terms of the benefits its customers seek b. ignore the marketing concept of serving customer needs and wants c. realize "customers only want what they know" d. have a sales orientation e. empower the consumer

ANSWER: a RATIONALE: A market-oriented firm defines its business in terms of the benefits its customers seek. Because of the limited way the railroad industry defined its business, it missed an opportunity to define itself in terms of the benefits customers were seeking.

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105. Walker Farms heard from many of its customers that they would like organic produce. As a result, Walker Farms became a certified organic farm. Walker realized that while not all consumers were willing to pay the higher prices for organic produce, his customers wanted the organic produce. Walker realized: a. he missed sales by not concentrating on the average customer b. different customer groups have different needs and wants c. he is a sales-oriented farm d. his business is about selling the cheapest vegetables e. his aim is a goal of profit through maximum sales volume

ANSWER: b RATIONALE: One way to implement the marketing concept is to concentrate on the needs of specific groups of customers.