American Pageant Chapter 33

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1

Franklin D. Roosevelt

32nd US President - He began New Deal programs to help the nation out of the Great Depression, and he was the nation's leader during most of WWII

2

Eleanor Roosevelt

FDR's Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women

3

Harry Hopkins

A New York social worker who headed the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and Civil Works Administration. He helped grant over 3 billion dollars to the states wages for work projects, and granted thousands of jobs for jobless Americans.

4

Frances Perkins

She was the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman ever appointed to the cabinet. As a loyal supporter of her friend Franklin D. Roosevelt, she helped pull the labor movement into the New Deal coalition

5

Charles Coughlin

A radio priest who was anti-Semetic and anti-New Deal. He catered away some support from FDR.

6

Huey Long

Immensely popular governor and senator of Louisiana; provided tax favors, roads, schools, free textbooks, charity hospitals, and improved public services for Louisiana citizens; cost: corruption and personal dictatorship; formed national organization (Share Our Wealth)

7

Francis Townsend

American physician and social reformer whose plan for a government-sponsored old-age pension was a precursor of the Social Security Act of 1935.

8

Ruth Benedict

A researcher who argued that the sexual socialization of youngsters in many traditional societies was a calm and non stressful process in societies in which sexual experimentation was treated openly. Prominent 1930s social scientist who argued that each culture produced its own type of personality

9

Pearl Buck

novelist who won Nobel Peace prize, advanced humanitarian causes. "Americans in China"

10

John Steinbeck

American novelist who wrote "The Grapes of Wrath". (1939) A story of Dust bowl victims who travel to California to look for a better life.

11

Mary McLeod Bethune

United States educator who worked to improve race relations and educational opportunities for Black Americans (1875-1955)

12

Harold Ickes

Interior Secretary under the Roosevelt administration. He organized liberal Republicans for Roosevelt in 1932.

13

George W. Norris

US Senator from Nebraska responsible for the REA, TVA, 22nd Amendment and the Nebraska Unicameral

14

John L. Lewis

He was a miner known for creating the United Mine Workers. He helped found the CIO and was responsible for the Fair Labor Standards Act.

15

John Maynard Keynes

English economist who advocated the use of government monetary and fiscal policy to maintain full employment without inflation (1883-1946)

16

Alfred M. Landon

Republican who carried only two states in a futile campaign against "the champ" in 1936

17

"the forgotten man"

A nickname given to everyday Americans people by FDR during the depression

18

parity

equality, as in amount, status, or value

19

New Deal

President Franklin Roosevelt's precursor of the modern welfare state (1933-1939); programs to combat economic depression enacted a number of social insurance measures and used government spending to stimulate the economy; increased power of the state and the state's intervention in U.S. social and economic life. RELIEF, RECOVERY, AND REFORM

20

Brain Trust

Group of expert policy advisers who worked with FDR in the 1930s to end The Great Depression

21

Hundred Days

The special session of Congress that Roosevelt called to launch his New Deal programs. The special session lasted about three months.

22

the "three Rs"

Relief, Reform, Recovery

23

Glass-Steagall Act

(Banking Act of 1933) - Established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and included banking reforms, some designed to control speculation. Repealed in 1999, opening the door to scandals involving banks and stock investment companies.

24

Civilian Conservation Corps

Hired young, unemployed people to do restoration projects throughout the country, employed over 3 million people.

25

Works Progress Administration

May 6, 1935- Began under Hoover and continued under Roosevelt but was headed by Harry L. Hopkins. Provided jobs and income to the unemplyed but couldn't work more than 30 hours a week. It built many public buildings and roads, and as well operated a large arts project.

26

National Recovery Act

A New Deal legislation that focused on the employment of the unemployed and the regulation of unfair business ethics. This pumped cash into the economy to stimulate the job market and created codes that businesses were to follow to maintain the ideal of fair competition and created this.

27

Schechter case

Stated that congress could not delegate legislative powers to the executive. Also known as the sick chicken decision because of the involvement of a fowl business in new york.

28

Public Works Administration

1935 Created for both industrial recovery and for unemployment relief. Headed by the Secretary of Interior Harold L. Ickes, it aimed at long-range recovery and spent $4 billion on thousands of projects that included public buildings, highways, and parkways.

29

Agricultural Adjustment Act

(FDR) 1933 and 1938 , Helped farmers meet mortgages. Unconstitutional because the government was paying the farmers to waste 1/3 of there products. Created by Congress in 1933 as part of the New Deal this agency attempted to restrict agricultural production by paying farmers subsidies to take land out of production.

30

"Every Man a King"

the slogan of the share our wealth movement of Louisiana senator Huey Long

31

Dust Bowl

Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.

32

Securities and Exchange Commission

A government commission created by Congress to regulate the securities markets and protect investors. In addition to regulation and protection, it also monitors the corporate takeovers in the U.S.

33

Tennessee Valley Authority

A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.

34

Federal Housing Administration

A federal agency established in 1943 to increase home ownership by providing an insurance program to safeguard the lender against the risk of nonpayment.

35

Social Security Act

The act passed by FDR that provided for immediate relief for poor elderly; national Old-Age and survivors insurance, a shared federal-state plan of unemployment insurance, and public assistance programs (AFDC)

36

Wagner Act

1935; established National Labor Relations Board; protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.

37

National Labor Relations Board

Act establishing federal guarantee of right to organize trade unions and collective bargaining.

38

Congress of Industrial Organizations

A federation of labor union for all unskilled workers. It provided a national labor union for unskilled workers, unlike the AFL, which limited itself to skilled workers.

39

sitdown strike

Work stoppage in which workers shut down all machines and refuse to leave a factory until their demands are met.

40

Indian Reorganization Act

1934 - Restored tribal ownership of lands, recognized tribal constitutions and government, and provided loans for economic development.

41

Liberty League

Conservatives who did not agree with Roosevelt, they wanted government to let business alone and play a less active role in the economy. Members of this organization complained that the New Deal interfered too much with business and with people's lives.

42

Roosevelt coalition

an alignment of interest groups and voting blocks used to remain Democratic party in power-labor unions, minority groups involved

43

Court-packing plan

President FDR's failed 1937 attempt to increase the number of US Supreme Court Justices from 9 to 15 in order to save his 2nd New Deal programs from constitutional challenges

44

Keynesianism

Belief in aggressive government intervention to combat recession & promote economic growth, especially by massive federal spending ("stimulus")

45

Bank Holiday 1933

Franklin D Roosevelt declared that all banks were to be closed on March 6, 1933

46

Emergency Banking Relief Act of 1933

March 6, 1933 - FDR ordered a bank holiday. Many banks were failing because they had too little capital, made too many planning errors, and had poor management. The Emergency Banking Relief Act provided for government inspection, which restored public confidence in the banks.

47

Fireside Chats

radio broadcasts made by FDR to the American people to explain his initiatives

48

Gold Standard

A monetary system in which paper money and coins are equal to the value of a certain amount of gold

49

CCC

Civilian Conservation Corps. It was Relief that provided work for young men 18-25 years old in food control, planting, flood work, etc.

50

FERA

Federal Emergency Relief Administration: combined cash relief to needy families with work relief

51

AAA

Agricultural Adjustment Administration: attempted to regulate agricultural production through farm subsidies; ruled unconstitutional in 1936; disbanded after World War II

52

HOLC

(Home Owners' Loan Corporation) Relief and Recovery. Helped home-owners and mortgage companies. government payed companies for the home-owners so they could keep their homes and pay off w/ lower interest and longer time.

53

CWA

Civil Works Adminstration: emergency work relief program, put more than four million people to work during the winter of 1933-34

54

Share Our Wealth Program

Huey Long's economic program that would have eliminated poverty by giving every family a minimum income; the program also called for providing an old-age pension to elderly people

55

WPA

Work Progress Administration: Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting; disbanded by FDR during WWII

56

Margaret Mead

United States anthropologist noted for her claims about adolescence and sexual behavior in Polynesian cultures (1901-1978)

57

NRA

National Recovery Administration: established and adminstered a system of industrial codes to control production, prices, labor relations, and trade practices

58

PWA

Public Works Administration. Part of Roosevelts New Deal programs. Put people to work building or improving public buildings like schools, post offices,etc.

59

21st Amendment

Repeal of Prohibition

60

Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act

Replaced the AAA in which farmers were paid to cut production of soil depleting crops and they were also given reward s for practicing good soil conservation methods

61

Second Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938

replaced National Recovery Administration (Agricultural Adjustment Act), it paid farmers to plant crops like soybeans or leave the land fallow

62

The Grapes of Wrath

John Steinbeck's novel about a struggling farm family during the Great Depression. Gave a face to the violence and exploitation that migrant farm workers faced in America

63

Frazier-Lemke Farm Bankruptcy Act

It made possible a suspension of mortgage foreclosures for 5 years. It was struck down in 1935 by the Supreme Court.

64

Resettlement Administration (RA)

RELIEF under Brain Trust, Rexford Tugwell, provided loans to sharecroppers, tenants, and small farmers. It also established federal camps where migrant workers could find decent housing.

65

John Collier

Head of the Bureau of Indian Affairs who introduced the Indian New Deal and pushed congress to pass Indian Reorganization Act

66

Federal Securities Act

(FDR) 1933, 1934, , required promoters to transmit to the investor sworn information regarding the soundness of their stocks and bonds

67

SEC

Securities and Exchange Commission

68

Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935

an act that took aim at financial corruption in public utilities industry, outlawing the ownership of utilities by multiple holding companies

69

TVA

(Tennessee Valley Authority Act) Relief, Recover, and Reform. one of the most important acts that built a hyro-electric dam for a needed area.

70

FHA

The Federal Housing Administration gave both the construction industry and homeowners a boost by insuring bank loans for building new houses and repairing old ones

71

CIO

Congress of Industrial Organizations. proposed by John L. Lewis in 1932. a federation of unions that organized workers in industrial unions in the United States and Canada from 1935 to 1955.

72

Fair Labor Standards Act

1938 act which provided for a minimum wage and restricted shipments of goods produced with child labor

73

20th Amendment

Congress begins on January 30th; President starts on January 20th "Lame-duck" Amendment

74

"Roosevelt Recession" of 1937

1937 economic downturn caused by sound fiscal policy due to cut spending and higher taxes

75

Hatch Act (1939)

Permitted government employees to vote in government elections but forbade them from participating in partisan politics