American Pageant Chapter 24

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1

Leland Stanford

One of the Big Four financial backers of the Central Pacific railroad. He was the ex-governor of California who had useful political connections. He kept clean of bribery and drove the ceremonious "last gold spike" into the connected transcontinental railroad.

2

Cornelius Vanderbilt

A railroad owner who built a railway connecting Chicago and New York. He popularized the use of steel rails in his railroad, which made railroads safer and more economical.

3

Alexander Graham Bell

He was an American inventor who was responsible for developing the telephone. This greatly improved communications in the country.

4

Thomas Edison

American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.

5

John D. Rockefeller

Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.

6

JP Morgan

Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons"

7

Terence Powderly

led the Knights of Labor, a skilled and unskilled union, wanted equal pay for equal work, an 8hr work day and to end child labor

8

Samuel Gompers

He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.

9

Philip Armour

Pioneered the shipping of hogs to Chicago for slaughter, canning, and exporting of meat.

10

Charles Darwin

English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution.

11

James Buchanan Duke

Southern industrialist behind the American Tobacco Company and Southern Power Company who made great advances in the businesses of tobacco and hydroelectric power.

12

land grant

a tract of land given by the government, as for colleges or railroads.

13

standard time zones

A condition created by the railroad companies because efficient RR transportation needed to be regulated and directed

14

vertical integration

Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution

15

horizontal integration

An act of joining or consolidating with ones competitors to create a monopoly. Rockefeller was excellent with using this technique to monopolize certain markets. It is responsible for the majority of his wealth.

16

trust

A monopoly that controls goods and services, often in combinations that reduce competition.

17

interlocking directorates

A board of directors, the majority of whose members also serve as the board of directors of a competing corporation

18

plutocracy

society ruled by the wealthy

19

injunction

A judicial order to a party to do or stop doing something

20

company town

A town or city in which most or all real estate, buildings (both residential and commercial), utilities, hospitals, small businesses such as grocery stores and gas stations, and other necessities or luxuries of life within its borders are owned by a single company.

21

Social Darwinism

A description often applied to the late 19th century belief of people such as Herbert Spencer and others who argued that "survival of the fittest" justifies the competition of laissez-faire capitalism and imperialist policies.

22

"survival of the fittest"

Process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called natural selection

23

scabs

Stirkebreakers hired by employers as replacement workers when unions went on strike

24

lockout

When management closes the doors to the place of work and keeps the workers from entering until an agreement is reached

25

yellow dog contract

an agreement some companies forced workers to take that forbade them from joining a union. This was a method used to limit the power of unions, thus hampering their development.

26

blacklist

A list circulated among employers containing the names of persons who should not be hired

27

nonproducers

Bankers and merchants; use connections to increase wealth to the disadvantage of producers (farmers/artisans); Whigs; Federal economic development include tariffs, national bank, and internal improvements; bankers, businessmen, farmers in good regions, wealthy planters;

28

anarchists

people who oppose all forms of organized government

29

socialism

A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.

30

craft union

union made up of skilled workers in a specific trade or industry

31

closed shop

A company with a labor agreement under which union membership can be a condition of employment.

32

Union Pacific Railroad

Congress commissioned this railroad to push westward from Omaha, Nebraska to California

33

Central Pacific Railroad

A railroad that started in Sacramento , and connected with the Union Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, Utah

34

Crédit Mobilier

a joint-stock company organized in 1863 and reorganized in 1867 to build the Union Pacific Railroad. It was involved in a scandal in 1872 in which high government officials were accused of accepting bribes.

35

Pullman Palace Cars

luxury passenger cars that were built and were very popular for travelers

36

Grange

an association formed by farmers in the last 1800s to make life better for farmers by sharing information about crops, prices, and supplies

37

Wabash, St. Louis, and Pacific Railroad Company v. Illinois

A Supreme Court decision that severely limited the rights of states to control interstate commerce. It led to the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission.

38

Mesabi Range

A section of low hills in Minnesota owned by Rockefeller in 1887, it was a source of iron ore for steel production.

39

Standard Oil Company

Founded by John D. Rockefeller. Largest unit in the American oil industry in 1881. Known as A.D. Trust, it was outlawed by the Supreme Court of Ohio in 1899.

40

Bessemer process

A way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove impurities.

41

United States Steel

Created by J.P. Morgan from Carnegie's holdings; became the first billion dollar Corporation

42

Gospel of Wealth

This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.

43

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions

44

American Tobacco Company

A company formed by the Duke family of Virginia after the invention of a machine for rolling cigarettes. The invention of the machine and the growing popularity of cigarettes provided a market for the company's ready-made cigarettes. Tobacco was the one industry that the South dominated in the late 19th century.

45

Interstate Commerce Act

Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices

46

National Labor Union

The first large-scale U.S. union; founded to organize skilled and unskilled laborers, farmers, and factory workers.

47

Knights of Labor

Led by Terence V. Powderly; open-membership policy extending to unskilled, semiskilled, women, African-Americans, immigrants; goal was to create a cooperative society between in which labors owned the industries in which they worked

48

Haymarket Square

Labor disorders had broken out and on May 4 1886, the Chicago police advanced on a protest; alleged brutalities by the authorities. Following the hysteria, eight anarchists (possibly innocent) were rounded up. Because they preached "incendiary doctrines," they could be charged with conspiracy. Five were sentenced to death, one of which committed suicide; the other three were given stiff prison terms. Six years later, a newly elected Illinois governor recognized this gross injustice and pardoned the three survivors. Nevertheless, the Knights of Labor were toast: they became (incorrectly )associated with anarchy and all following strike efforts failed.

49

American Federation of Labor

1886; founded by Samuel Gompers; sought better wages, hrs, working conditions; skilled laborers, arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor, rejected socialist and communist ideas, non-violent.

50

alternate mile-square

checkerboard division of land grants given to railroad companies to incentivise them to build railroads.

51

Land Grants to Railroads

Property would be given to railroad companies by the government in order to encourage transportation

52

Paddies

term for irish men, took jobs with pick and shovel work on canals and railroads- many died

53

Big Four

"The Big Four" was the name popularly given to the famous and influential businessmen, philanthropists and railroad tycoons who built the Central Pacific Railroad, (C.P.R.R.), which formed the western portion through the Sierra Nevada and the Rocky Mountains of the First Transcontinental Railroad in the United States, built from the mid-continent at the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean during the middle and late 1860s. Composed of Leland Stanford, (1824-1893), Collis Potter Huntington, (1821-1900), Mark Hopkins, (1813-1878), and Charles Crocker, (1822-1888), the four themselves however, personally preferred to be known as "The Associates.

54

James J. Hill

Driving force of the Gr. Northern Railway , Became a Shipping Agent For Winnipeg Merchants Nicknamed the "Empire Builder"

55

steel rails

replaced the older technology of iron rails

56

standard gauge

the uniform width of 4 feet, 8.5 inches for railroad tracks, adopted during the 1880s

57

Westinghouse air brake

the marvelous contribution to railroad safety and efficiency which was generally adopted in he 1870s

58

Jay Gould

United States financier who gained control of the Erie Canal and who caused a financial panic in 1869 when he attempted to corner the gold market (1836-1892)

59

Stock Watering

Price manipulation by strategic stock brokers of the late 1800s. The term for selling more stock than they actually owned in order to lower prices, then buying it back.

60

pool

An agreement to divide the business in a given area and share the profits.

61

Kickbacks

gifts given by suppliers to purchasing agents for the purpose of influencing their choice of suppliers

62

Wabash Case (1886)

was a United States Supreme Court case that severely limited the rights of states to control interstate commerce. It led to the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission. Limited States' rights

63

Richard Olney (1835-1917)

The pugnacious successor to James G. Blaine as secretary of state, serving from 1895 to 1897, he stirred up conflict with Great Britain during the Venezuelan Crisis of 1895-1896. He also insisted on the protection of American lives and property and on reparations for losses incurred during violent disturbances in Cuba, China, and Turkey.

64

Liquid capital

Money or goods that are easily spendable, think about how easy it is to spend money vs. land.

65

heavy industries

The coal, iron, and steel sectors and the machinery and armaments production associated with them.

66

capital goods

Buildings, machines, technology, and tools needed to produce goods and services.

67

consumer goods

products and services that satisfy human wants directly

68

Andrew Carnegie

A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.

69

philanthropic

charitable, giving

70

Drake's Folly

First successful oil well drilled by Edwin Drake in Pennsylvania; poured out its liquid "black gold" in 1859; almost overnight, an industry was born that was to take more wealth from the earth, and more useful wealth at that, than all of the gold extracted by the forty-niners and their western successors

71

kerosene

a light fuel oil obtained by distilling petroleum, used especially in jet engines and domestic heaters and lamps and as a cleaning solvent.

72

internal combustion engine

an engine that burns fuel inside cylinders within the engine

73

Reckafellow

nick-name for John D. Rockefeller

74

Gustavus Swift

In the 1800s he enlarged fresh meat markets through branch slaughterhouses and refrigeration. He monopolized the meat industry.

75

William Graham Sumner

He was an advocate of Social Darwinism claiming that the rich were a result of natural selection and benefits society. He, like many others promoted the belief of Social Darwinism which justified the rich being rich, and poor being poor.

76

Social Darwinism

The belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle.

77

David Ricardo (1772-1823)

English economist who formulated the "iron law of wages," according to which wages would always remain at the subsistence level for the workers because of population growth.

78

Thomas Malthus (1766-1834)

Populations have the potential to increase at a faster rate than resources As a result there is intense competition among individuals Eugenicist

79

Russell Conwell "Acres of Diamonds"

Baptist minister and his lecture, supporter of "wealth is available to all" theory. gave this lecture more than 6000 times between 1880 and 1900

80

Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad

in 1886 this supreme court case regarded corporations as people and upheld their 14th amendment rights. It protected the railroads against "unequal" taxation.

81

Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)

First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions

82

Henry W. Grady

editor of the Atlanta Constitution, who spearheaded a crusade to build a prosperous "New South" centered around Atlanta

83

New South

After the Civil War, southerners promoted a new vision for a self-sufficient southern economy built on modern capitalist values, industrial growth, and improved transportation. Henry Grady played an important role.

84

Trust Busting

Government activities aimed at breaking up monopolies and trusts.

85

Gibson Girl

The idealized American girl of the 1890s as pictured by a magazine image that showed that woman could make it big and did have buying power, created by Charles Dana Gibson.

86

Oligarchy of money

*small group having control of most of the money DATE: 1900 1/10th of the people owned 9/10ths of the nations wealth. EXAMPLE TODAY (SYNTHESIS): NY Times reported, "Fewer than four hundred families are responsible for almost half the money raised in the 2016 presidential campaign, a concentration of political donors that is unprecedented in the modern era."

87

Corporation

A business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not personally responsible for its debts

88

Strikebreakers (Scabs)

Non-union workers hired as replacements for striking employees in order to break a union.

89

Iron Clad Oaths / Yellow Dog Contracts:

A tool of Management and Industry - A written contract between employers and employees in which the employees sign an agreement that they will not join a union while working for the company

90

May Day Strikes (1886)

the Knights of Labor became involved in a number of these strikes in 1886, about half of which failed; strikes against the McCormick Reaper Company after management had cut their wages three times

91

Mother Jones

a dressmaker in Chicago until a fire destroyed her business. She then devoted her life to the cause of workers. Supported striking railroad workers in Pittsburg, and traveled around the country organizing coal miners and campaigning for improved working conditions. Helped pave the way for reform.

92

Labor Day, 1894

Was made a legal holiday as the public started to concede the rights of workers. Passed as a result of government overstep in the Pullman strike.