APUSH 32 Flashcards

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Franklin Roosevelt's __________ contributed the most to his development of compassion and strength of will.

a. education
b. domestic conflicts with Eleanor Roosevelt
c. family ties with Teddy Roosevelt
d. affliction with infantile paralysis
e. service in World War I



The most vigorous "champion of the dispossessed"- that is, the poor and minorities- in Roosevelt administration circles was

a. Harold Ickes.
b. Alfred E. Smith.
c. Eleanor Roosevelt.
d. Frances Perkins.
e. Henry A. Wallace



The Democratic party platform on which Franklin Roosevelt campaigned for the presidency in 1932 called for

a. a balanced budget.
b. deficit spending.
c. higher tariffs.
d. radical social reforms.
e. breaking up monopolistic corporations.



In 1932 Franklin Roosevelt campaigned on the promise that as president he would attack the Great Depression by

a. nationalizing all banks and major industries.
b. mobilizing America's youth as in wartime.
c. returning to the traditional policies of laissez-faire capitalism.
d. continuing the policies already undertaken by President Hoover.
e. experimenting with bold new programs for economic and social reform.



The phrase "Hundred Days" refers to

a. the worst months of the Great Depression.
b. the time it took for Congress to begin acting on President Roosevelt's plans for combating the Great Depression.
c. the first months of Franklin Roosevelt's presidency.
d. the "lame-duck" period between Franklin Roosevelt's election and his inauguration.
e. the time that all banks were closed by FDR.



One striking new feature of the 1932 presidential election results was that

a. the South had shifted to the Republican party.
b. Democrats made gains in the normally Republican Midwest.
c. urban Americans finally cast more votes than rural Americans.
d. "clear Agender gap" opened up in which more women favored the Democrats.
e. African Americans shifted from their Republican allegiance and became a vital element in the Democratic party.



While Franklin Roosevelt waited to assume the presidency in early 1933, Herbert Hoover tried to get the president-elect to commit to

a. maintaining a balanced federal budget.
b. renewal of the extremely high Hawley-Smoot Tariff.
c. an anti-inflationary policy that would make much of the New Deal impossible.
d. appointing some Republicans to his cabinet.
e. a policy of not offering direct welfare to the unemployed.



The Works Progress Administration was a major __________ program of the New Deal; the Public Works Administration was a __________ long-range program; and the Social Security Act was a ___________ major program.

a. relief; recovery; reform
b. reform; recovery; relief
c. recovery; relief; reform
d. relief; reform; recovery
e. reform; relief; recovery



When Franklin Roosevelt assumed the presidency in March 1933,

a. Congress refused to grant him any legislative authority.
b. he knew exactly what he wanted to do.
c. he received unprecedented congressional support.
d. he wanted to make as few mistakes as possible.
e. he at first proceeded cautiously.



The Glass-Steagall Act

a. took the United States off the gold standard.
b. empowered President Roosevelt to close all banks temporarily.
c. created the Securities and Exchange Commission to regulate the stock exchange.
d. permitted commercial banks to engage in Wall Street financial dealings.
e. created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to insure individual bank deposits.



The most immediate emergency facing Franklin Roosevelt when he became president in March 1933 was

a. a chaotic banking situation.
b. the national debt.
c. the need to silence demagogic rabble-rousers such as Huey Long.
d. the collapse of international trade.
e. the farm crisis.



Franklin Roosevelt's initial "managed currency" policy aimed to

a. stimulate inflation.
b. reduce the price of gold.
c. restore confidence in banks.
d. reduce the amount of money in circulation.
e. shake up the Federal Reserve Board.



The __________ was probably the most popular New Deal program; ___________ the was one of the most complex; and the __________ was the most radical.

a. Works Progress Administration; Agricultural Adjustment Act; Civilian Conservation Corps
b. Agricultural Adjustment Act; Public Works Administration; Tennessee Valley Authority
c. National Recovery Act; Tennessee Valley Authority; Social Security Act
d. Civilian Conservation Corps; National Recovery Act; Tennessee Valley Authority
e. Social Security Act; Civilian Conservation Corps; Works Progress Administration



President Roosevelt's chief "administrator of relief" was

a. George Norris.
b. John L. Lewis.
c. Mary McLeod Bethune.
d. Harold Ickes.
e. Harry Hopkins.



Match each New Deal critic below with the "cause" or slogan that he promoted.

A. Father Coughlin
B. Huey Long
C. Francis Townsend
D. Herbert Hoover

1. "social justice"
2. "every man a king"
3. "a holy crusade for liberty"
4. old-age pensions

a. A-1, B-2, C-4, D-3
b. A-2, B-1, C-3, D-4
c. A-3, B-4, C-2, D-1
d. A-4, B-3, C-1, D-2
e. A-1, B-4, C-3, D-2



Senator Huey P. Long of Louisiana gained national popularity by

a. advocating social justice for all.
b. blaming Jews for the Depression.
c. making Louisiana a model for ordinary citizens.
d. supporting a $200-a-month old-age pension.
e. promising to give every family $5,000.



Prominent female social scientists of the 1930s like Ruth Benedict and Margaret Mead brought widespread contributions to the field of

a. economics.
b. political science.
c. psychology.
d. sociology.
e. anthropology.



Match each New Dealer below with the federal agency or program with which he or she was closely identified.

A. Robert Wagner
B. Harry Hopkins
C. Harold Ickes
D. Frances Perkins

1. Department of Labor
2. Public Works Administration
3. Works Progress Administration
4. National Labor Relations Act

a. A-1, B-2, C-3, D-4
b. A-4, B-3, C-2, D-1
c. A-3, B-1, C-4, D-2
d. A-4, B-3, C-1, D-2
e. A-2, B-4, C-1, D-3



The National Recovery Act (NRA) failed largely because

a. businesses resisted regulation by the agency.
b. it required too much self-sacrifice on the part of industry, labor, and the public.
c. Harold Ickes, the head of the agency, proved to be an incompetent administrator.
d. it did not provide enough protection for labor to bargain with management.
e. the agency did not have enough power to control business.



The first Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) raised the money that it paid to farmers not to grow crops by

a. raising the tariff.
b. imposing a tax on the sale of farms.
c. selling government surplus grain.
d. increasing taxes on the wealthy.
e. taxing processors of farm products.



The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) proposed to solve the "farm problem" by

a. reducing agricultural production.
b. subsidizing American farm exports overseas.
c. encouraging farmers to switch to industrial employment.
d. helping farmers to pay their mortgages.
e. creating farm cooperatives.



Both ratified in the 1930s, the Twentieth Amendment __________; the Twenty-first Amendment __________.

a. shortened the time between presidential election and inauguration; ended prohibition
b. limited a president to two complete terms in office; repealed the Eighteenth Amendment
c. rendered most New Deal programs unconstitutional; limited a president to two complete terms in office
d. ended prohibition; shortened the time between presidential election and inauguration
e. expanded the size of the Supreme Court; ended prohibition



All of the following contributed to the Dust Bowl of the 1930s

a. dry-farming techniques.
b. drought.
c. farmers' failure to use steam tractors and other modern equipment.
d. the cultivation of marginal farmlands on the Great Plains.
e. soil erosion.



In 1935, President Roosevelt set up the Resettlement Administration to

a. help farmers migrate from Oklahoma to California.
b. place unemployed industrial workers in areas where their labor was needed.
c. move Indians from land that could be farmed by victims of the Dust Bowl.
d. find jobs for farmers in industry.
e. help farmers who were victims of the Dust Bowl move to better land.



The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 attempted to

a. reverse the forced assimilation of Native Americans into white society by establishing tribal self-government.
b. encourage Native Americans to give up their land claims.
c. reinforce the Dawes Act of 1887.
d. pressure Native Americans to renounce self-government.
e. define clearly which tribes were federally recognized.



Most Dust Bowl migrants headed to

a. Oklahoma.
b. Arizona.
c. Nevada.
d. Oregon.
e. California.



Most "Okies" in California escaped the deprivation and uncertainty of seasonal farm labor when they

a. acquired farms in the San Joaquin Valley.
b. found work in the canning industry.
c. found jobs in defense industries during World War II.
d. joined the armed forces in World War II.
e. formed evangelical religious communes.



The Federal Securities Act and the Securities Exchange Commission aimed to

a. halt the sale of stocks on margin (i.e. with borrowed funds).
b. force stockbrokers to register with the federal government.
c. prevent interlocking directorates and business "pyramiding" schemes.
d. provide full disclosure of information and prevent insider trading and other fraudulent practices.
e. enable the Chicago Board of Trade to compete with the New York Stock Exchange.



On the following, the one least related to the other three is

a. the Securities and Exchange Commission.
b. the Tennessee Valley Authority.
c. George W. Norris.
d. Muscle Shoals.
e. hydroelectric power.



The federally-owned Tennessee Valley Authority was seen as a particular threat to

a. the entire capitalist system.
b. the Republican party.
c. the automobile industry.
d. the private electrical utility industry.
e. white southern racial practices.



The strongest criticisms leveled against the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) drew criticism was that it

a. lacked government control.
b. produced electricity inefficiently.
c. primarily benefited the South.
d. did not take account of environmental conditions.
e. represented the first stage of "creeping socialism."



The most controversial aspect of the Tennessee Valley Authority was its efforts in

a. electrical power.
b. flood control.
c. soil conservation.
d. reforestation.
e. resettlement of poor farmers.



The Social Security Act of 1935 provided all of the following except

a. unemployment insurance.
b. old-age pensions.
c. economic provisions for the blind and disabled.
d. support for the blind and physically handicapped.
e. health care for the poor.



The Wagner Act of 1935 proved to be a trail blazing law that

a. gave labor the right to bargain collectively.
b. established the NRA.
c. established the Social Security system.
d. authorized the Public Works Administration (PWA).
e. guaranteed housing loans to workers.



The National Labor Relations Act proved most beneficial to

a. employers.
b. skilled workers.
c. the unemployed.
d. trade associations.
e. unskilled workers.



The primary interest of the Congress of Industrial Organizations was

a. the effective enforcement of "yellow dog" contracts.
b. the organization of trade unions.
c. the maintenance of "open shop" industries.
d. the organization of all workers within an industry.
e. maintaining existing wage levels.



The 1936 election was most notable for

a. a strong third-party effort by the American Liberty League.
b. its reflection of a bitter class struggle between the poor and the rich.
c. the large number of blacks who still voted Republican out of gratitude to Abraham Lincoln.
d. Roosevelt's loss of support among post-immigration Catholics and Jews.
e. the strong race run by Kansas Governor Alfred Landon.



President Roosevelt's "Court-packing" scheme in 1937 reflected his desire to make the Supreme Court

a. more conservative.
b. more independent of Congress.
c. more sympathetic to New Deal programs.
d. less burdened with appellate cases.
e. more respectful of the Constitution's original intent.



After Franklin Roosevelt's failed attempt to "pack" the Supreme Court,

a. Roosevelt was unable to make any changes in the Court.
b. the Democrats lost the next election in 1940.
c. Congress permanently set the number of justices at nine.
d. much New Deal legislation was ruled unconstitutional.
e. the Court began to support New Deal programs.



As a result of the 1937 "Roosevelt recession,"

a. Roosevelt backed away from further economic experiments.
b. Social Security taxes were reduced.
c. Republicans gained control of the Senate in 1938.
d. Roosevelt adopted Keynesian (planned deficit spending) economics.
e. much of the early New Deal was repealed.



During the 1930s,

a. the Great Depression forced President Roosevelt to trim the size of the federal bureaucracy.
b. the states regained influence over the economy.
c. businesspeople eventually came to admire President Roosevelt's New Deal programs.
d. the New Deal substantially closed the gap between production and consumption in the American economy.
e. the national debt doubled.



By 1938, the New Deal

a. had lost most of its momentum.
b. turned more toward direct relief than social reform.
c. had plainly failed to achieve its objectives.
d. had won over the majority of business people to its policies.
e. was prepared to embark on ambitious new initiatives.



Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal was most notable for

a. ending the Great Depression.
b. providing moderate social reform without radical revolution or reactionary fascism.
c. undermining state and local governments.
d. aiding big cities at the expense of farmers.
e. attacking the American capitalist system.