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1

In his book, Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis, the Reverend Josiah Strong advocated American expansion to

a. maintain the international balance of power.

b. open up new markets for industrial goods.

c. spread American religion and values to backward nations.

d. ease labor violence at home.

e. demonstrate and maintain white racial superiority.

C

2

Which of the following was not among the small but dangerous international crises the United States experienced in the 1890s?

a. A conflict with Germany over the Samoan islands

b. A near-war with Italy over the lynching of Italians in New Orleans

c. The Valparaiso crisis with Chile over the killing of two American sailors

d. A conflict with Japan over naval refueling rights at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

e. A conflict with Canada over seal hunting near the Pribilof Islands

D

3

The clash between Germany and America over the Samoan islands eventually resulted in

a. a small naval war between the two emerging powers.

b. a colonial division of the islands between Germany and the United States.

c. complete independence for all of Samoa.

d. the intervention of Japan to prevent a German-American war.

e. a new American doctrine opposing any colonialism in the Pacific.

B

4

Alfred Thayer Mahan argued that

a. free trade was essential to a nation's economic health.

b. control of the sea was the key to world domination.

c. the United States should continue its policy of isolationism.

d. the United States should immediately build an isthmian canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

e. the United States should construct a fleet of battleships.

B

5

To justify American intervention in the Venezuela boundary dispute with Britain, Secretary of State Olney invoked the

a. Platt Amendment.

b. Open Door policy.

c. Monroe Doctrine.

d. Foraker Act.

e. Gentlemen's Agreement.

C

6

The numerous near-wars and diplomatic crises of the United States in the late 1880s and 1890s demonstrated

a. the hostile reaction to American expansionism.

b. that other nations were jealous of American power.

c. how weak America seemed to the rest of the world.

d. the failure of the Monroe Doctrine.

e. the aggressive new national mood.

E

7

To justify American intervention in the Venezuela boundary dispute with Britain, Secretary of State Olney invoked the

a. Platt Amendment.

b. Open Door policy.

c. Monroe Doctrine.

d. Foraker Act.

e. Gentlemen's Agreement.

C

8

During the boundary dispute between Venezuela and Britain, the United States

a. threatened war with Britain and asserted its domination of Latin America.

b. failed to invoke the Monroe Doctrine.

c. sought a peaceful negotiated settlement.

d. asserted its strong belief in Latin American independence.

e. was only "twisting the [British] lion's tail" for domestic political effect.

A

9

A primary reason that the British submitted their border dispute with Venezuela to arbitration was

a. that growing tensions with Germany made Britain reluctant to engage in conflict with the United States.

b. that they expected the Monroe Doctrine to be ruled invalid in the World Court.

c. that they did not want to become involved in a dangerous war in South America.

d. to undermine Spain's close relations with the Latin American republics.

e. that they accepted America's complete domination of Latin America.

A

10

The near-war between the United States and Britain over the Venezuela boundary crisis ultimately resulted in

a. a brief war between Venezuela and British Guiana.

b. British concession of the disputed territory to Venezuela.

c. stationing United States marines along the disputed border.

d. a growing diplomatic reconciliation between the two English-speaking countries.

e. a naval arms race between the United States and Britain.

D

11

One reason that the white American sugar lords tried to overthrow native Hawaiian rule and annex the islands to the United States was they

a. found the government of Queen Liliuokalani repressive and inefficient.

b. sought to control American foreign policy in the Pacific.

c. wanted to convert the native Hawaiians and East Asian immigrants to Christianity.

d. feared that Japan might intervene in Hawaii on behalf of abused Japanese imported laborers.

e. intended to force the growing native Hawaiian population to become indentured plantation laborers

D

12

Hawaii's Queen Liliuokalani was forced from power in 1893 because

a. she refused to allow Christian missionaries in her country.

b. many Hawaiians found her rule corrupt.

c. Hawaiian agriculture had failed under her leadership.

d. President Grover Cleveland believed that U.S. national honor required control of the Hawaiian government.

e. she opposed annexation to the United States and insisted that native Hawaiians should continue to control Hawaii.

E

13

Which of the following prominent American leaders was least enthusiastic about U.S. imperialistic adventures in the 1890s?

a. Theodore Roosevelt

b. William Randolph Hearst

c. Alfred Thayer Mahan

d. William McKinley

e. Grover Cleveland

E

14

Before a treaty annexing Hawaii to the United States could be rushed through the U.S. Senate in 1893

a. President Harrison's term expired and anti-imperialist Grover Cleveland became president.

b. war broke out between the United States and Spain.

c. the white American sugar rebels decided that Hawaii should remain independent.

d. popular opinion in the United States turned against such colonial ventures.

e. the pro-annexation forces demanded that Hawaii be admitted to the Union as a state.

A

15

President Grover Cleveland rejected the effort to annex Hawaii because

a. he wanted to protect the interests of Louisiana sugar producers.

b. the United States did not have the naval power to protect the islands against Japanese or German threats.

c. he believed that the native Hawaiians had been wronged and that a majority of Hawaiians opposed annexation to the United States.

d. passage of the McKinley Tariff made Hawaiian sugar unprofitable.

e. the United States would soon have to establish military bases in Hawaii.

C

16

Along with serving as the last reigning queen of Hawaii, Queen Liliuokalani is also remembered for

a. helping to build tourism to Hawaii.

b. writing songs such as "Aloha Oe."

c. establishing the pineapple business on the island.

d. her lavish personal expenditures, particularly for clothes.

e. None of these

B

17

The Cuban insurrectos who wanted to overthrow Spanish rule in Cuba

a. were heavily dependent on American funding for their rebellion.

b. blew up the battleship Maine.

c. made guerilla raids on Havana.

d. began assassinating Spanish officials.

e. adopted a scorched-earth policy of burning cane fields and sugar mills.

E

18

Americans favored providing aid to the Cuban revolutionaries for all of the following reasons except

a. fear that the substantial American investment in Cuban sugar and other businesses would be lost.

b. a belief that Spain's control of Cuba presented a national security threat to the United States.

c. fear that Spanish misrule in Cuba menaced the Gulf of Mexico and the route to the proposed Panama Canal.

d. sympathy for Cuban patriots fighting for their freedom.

e. the atrocity stories reported in the yellow press of William Randolph Hearst.

B

19

The actual purpose of the battleship Maine's visit to Cuba was to

a. provoke a war with Spain.

b. protect and evacuate American citizens from the island.

c. offer a way for Cuban rebels to escape to Florida.

d. stop rioting by the Cuban rebels.

e. prepare for intervention by the U.S. marines if necessary.

B

20

The battleship Maine was sunk by

a. the Spanish.

b. an accidental internal explosion on the ship.

c. Cuban rebels.

d. pro-war agents of William Randolph Hearst.

e. a mine planted by pro-Cuban Americans

B

21

President William McKinley asked Congress to declare war on Spain mainly because

a. the business community favored the conflict.

b. the Spanish government had directly insulted the United States.

c. it became clear that there was no other way to obtain Cuban independence.

d. the Teller Amendment guaranteed that the United States would not establish colonial control of Cuba.

e. the American public and many leading Republicans demanded it.

E

22

The United States declared war on Spain even though the Spanish had already agreed to

a. end the reconcentration camps and sign an armistice with the Cuban rebels.

b. accept Cuban independence.

c. transfer Cuba to American possession.

d. apologize for the sinking of the Maine.

e. accept international arbitration of the conflict.

A

23

The Teller Amendment

a. guaranteed that the United States would support Cuban independence after Spain was ousted.

b. stated that Cuba would become an American possession.

c. directed President McKinley to order American troops into Cuba.

d. appropriated funds to combat yellow fever in Cuba.

e. granted the United States a permanent base at Guantanamo Bay.

A

24

The most successful American military action during the Spanish-American War was largely due to

a. the well-trained U.S. Army.

b. effective collaboration between U.S. forces and Cuban and Filipino rebels.

c. the strategic skill of U.S. military leadership.

d. the efficient logistical support for U.S. forces provided by the War Department.

e. effective use of the new steel navy.

E

25

On the whole, the United States Army's performance in Cuba was

a. a model of tactical brilliance in an essentially guerilla campaign.

b. more successful than that of the U.S. Navy.

c. crippled by logistical chaos and disease that killed thousands of soldiers.

d. too dependent on the professional military leadership of Colonel Theodore Roosevelt's Rough Riders.

e. weakened by lingering tensions between former Union and former Confederate officers.

C

26

The Philippine nationalist who led the insurrection against both Spanish rule and the later United States occupation was

a. Valeriano Weyler.

b. Emilio Aguinaldo.

c. Dupuy de Lóme.

d. Pasqual de Cervera.

e. Ramon Macapagal.

B

27

When the United States captured the Philippines from Spain

a. Hawaii was annexed by the United States as a key territory in the Pacific.

b. America granted the Philippines its independence.

c. Spain immediately asked for an end to the Spanish-American War.

d. Filipinos were granted American citizenship.

e. they did so without Filipino assistance.

A

28

The Rough Riders, organized principally by Teddy Roosevelt,

a. experienced no serious military action.

b. were trained in guerrilla warfare.

c. managed to take San Juan Hill unassisted.

d. were an amateur collection of western cowboys, eastern polo players, and other volunteers.

e. were turned into an effective fighting force by Colonel Leonard Wood.

E

29

Member of the Rough Riders consisted of

a. volunteers.

b. cowboys and former polo players.

c. ex-convicts.

d. All of these

e. None of these

D

30

The end of the Cuban War came after the last substantial Spanish fleet was destroyed at the Battle of

a. Havana.

b. Santiago.

c. Guantanamo.

d. Samoa.

e. Manila Bay

B

31

When the United States invaded Puerto Rico during the Spanish-American War

a. the army encountered stiff resistance from the Spanish.

b. it met almost no resistance from Spanish forces.

c. most of the population greeted the invaders as liberating heroes.

d. heavy fighting occurred in the harbor at San Juan.

e. its intentions were to grant Puerto Rican independence.

B

32

The greatest loss of life for American fighting men during the Spanish-American War resulted from

a. naval battles in the Caribbean.

b. the war in the Philippines.

c. land battles in the Cuban campaign.

d. sickness in both Cuba and the United States.

e. the bungling of unprofessional military volunteers.

D

33

At the time, the greatest controversy emerging from the Spanish-American War was over

a. whether the declaration of war against Spain had been justified.

b. whether the Teller Amendment promising Cuban independence was wise.

c. the U.S. insistence on gaining a permanent military base at Guantanamo Bay.

d. the U.S. colonial acquisition of the Philippines.

e. the U.S. colonial acquisition of Puerto Rico.

D

34

All of the following became possessions of the United States under the provisions of the Treaty of Paris with Spain except

a. Puerto Rico.

b. Guam.

c. the Philippine Islands.

d. Hawaii.

e. Manila.

D

35

President McKinley justified American acquisition of the Philippines primarily by emphasizing that

a. the Filipinos wanted to be annexed by the United States.

b. the electoral success of the Republican party depended on their acquisition.

c. the United States would gain key naval bases there.

d. the Philippines were spoils of war and America's by right of conquest.

e. there was no acceptable alternative to their acquisition.

E

36

American imperialists who advocated acquisition of the Philippines especially stressed

a. their strategic advantage for American naval operations.

b. their economic potential for American businessmen seeking trade with China and other Asian nations.

c. the opportunity that they presented for Christian missionary work.

d. the Filipinos' own preference that their archipelago become an American protectorate.

e. their potential as a military base for defense of the Pacific.

B

37

Anti-imperialists presented all of the following arguments against acquiring the Philippine Islands except that

a. it would violate the "consent of the governed" philosophy of the Declaration of Independence.

b. despotism abroad might lead to despotism at home.

c. the islands were still rightfully Spain's, since they were taken after the armistice had been signed.

d. annexation would propel the United States into the political and military cauldron of East Asia.

e. imperialism was likely to be more costly than profitable.

C

38

Starting in 1917, many Puerto Ricans came to the mainland United States seeking

a. independence.

b. political refuge.

c. to learn English.

d. citizenship.

e. employment.

E

39

When they first arrived in the US, Puerto Ricans worked in all of the following positions except

a. Arizona cotton fields.

b. New Jersey soup factories.

c. Utah mines.

d. New York garment and cigar factories.

e. Georgia farms.

E

40

On the question of whether American laws applied to the overseas territory acquired in the Spanish-American War, the Supreme Court ruled in the Insular Cases that

a. the American Constitution and laws did not apply to U.S. colonies.

b. the president could determine which U.S. laws applied in U.S. colonies.

c. federal but not state laws applied.

d. only tariff laws could be forced.

e. only the Bill of Rights applied.

A

41

The United States asserted that it had a virtual right of continuing intervention in Cuba in the

a. insular cases.

b. Platt Amendment.

c. Teller Amendment.

d. Foraker Act.

e. Guantanamo Bay Treaty.

B

42

By acquiring the Philippine Islands at the end of the Spanish-American War, the United States

a. assumed rule over millions of Asian people.

b. became a full-fledged East Asian power.

c. assumed commitments that would be difficult to defend.

d. developed popular support for a big navy.

e. All of these

E

43

Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) American declaration of war on Spain, (B) sinking of the Maine, (C) passage of the Teller Amendment, and (D) passage of the Platt Amendment.

a. A, B, D, C

b. D, C, B, A

c. B, A, D, C

d. B, A, C, D

e. C, D, A, B

D

44

In 1899, guerrilla warfare broke out in the Philippines because

a. Spanish citizens still living there tried to regain political control of the country.

b. the United States refused to give the Filipino people their independence.

c. Communist insurgents attempted to seize control of the islands.

d. the United States refused to promote the economic and social development of the Filipino people.

e. American missionaries tried to convert Catholic Filipinos to Protestantism.

B

45

The Philippine insurrection was finally broken in 1901 when

a. American troops overwhelmed the Filipino rebels.

b. the islands were given their independence.

c. the Senate passed a resolution pledging eventual independence for the Philippines.

d. the Filipino resistance army splintered.

e. Emilio Aguinaldo, the Filipino leader, was captured.

E

46

The American war against the Philippine insurrectionists promoting Philippine independence

a. was won with fewer casualties than the war in Cuba.

b. was remarkable for its avoidance of civilian casualties.

c. resulted in torture and atrocities committed by both sides.

d. was waged in accord with traditional American ideals.

e. was highly popular in the United States

C

47

President McKinley's policy of benevolent assimilation in the Philippines

a. failed to solve serious sanitation and public-health problems.

b. fell short of providing an effective public-school system for the Filipinos.

c. was not welcomed by the Filipinos.

d. worked remarkably well and led to the early granting of the Philippine independence.

e. recognized the value of traditional Filipino culture

C

48

As part of the benevolent assimilation program in the Philippines, the United States did all of the following except

a. enhance roads.

b. work to improve sanitation and public health.

c. develop economic ties, especially for trade in sugar.

d. train and enhance the military.

e. set up schools and help make English a second language.

D

49

When Filipinos first came to the United States, they worked mainly as

a. chefs.

b. railroad laborers.

c. servants in the navy.

d. industrial laborers.

e. agricultural laborers.

E

50

Many Americans became concerned about the increasing foreign intervention in China because they

a. feared that American missions would be jeopardized and Chinese markets closed to non-Europeans.

b. wanted the United States to have exclusive trade rights with the Chinese.

c. feared German military domination of China.

d. believed that such intervention undermined Chinese sovereignty.

e. disliked the superior racial attitudes displayed by the Europeans toward the Chinese

A

51

America's initial Open Door policy was essentially an argument to promote

a. free trade in China.

b. equal spheres of influence in China.

c. military protection for the Chinese emperor.

d. exclusive trade concessions for the U.S. in Shanghai.

e. the principle of self-determination.

A

52

China's Boxer Rebellion was an attempt to

a. overthrow the corrupt Chinese government.

b. establish American power in the Far East.

c. throw out or kill all foreigners.

d. destroy the Open Door policy.

e. restore traditional Chinese religion.

C

53

In response to the Boxer Rebellion, the United States

a. refused to accept any indemnity for the losses that it incurred while putting down this uprising.

b. sent more American missionaries to China.

c. sent money but no troops to help a multinational contingent to crush the uprising.

d. became an East Asian power.

e. abandoned its general principles of nonentanglement and noninvolvement in overseas conflict.

E

54

In the aftermath of the Boxer uprising, the United States used the indemnity that China was forced to pay to

a. educate Chinese students in the United States.

b. maintain the Open Door policy.

c. establish permanent American military bases in China.

d. assist the Chinese Nationalists in the efforts to overthrow the emperor.

e. support U.S. missionaries in China.

A

55

Teddy Roosevelt received the Republican vice-presidential nomination in 1900 mainly because

a. his progressivism balanced McKinley's conservatism.

b. New York party bosses wanted him out of the governorship.

c. his presence on the ticket would appeal to western voters.

d. Mark Hanna supported his candidacy.

e. his personal warmth balanced McKinley's aloofness.

B

56

The extended Open Door policy advocated in Secretary John Hay's second note to all the great powers called on them to

a. recognize Philippine independence at an early date.

b. guarantee the independence of Cuba.

c. maintain a balance of power in East Asia.

d. uphold the territorial integrity of China.

e. pursue further investment in China.

D

57

In the 1900 presidential election, the Democratic party and its candidate, William Jennings Bryan, insisted that ____ was the paramount issue of the campaign.

a. tariff protection

b. imperialism

c. free silver

d. social reform

e. national defense

B

58

As a vice-presidential candidate in 1900, Teddy Roosevelt

a. openly advocated a more progressive program than President McKinley.

b. appealed primarily to wealthy easterners.

c. ran a quiet and dignified front-porch campaign.

d. countered William Jennings Bryan's popular appeal by engaging in his own flamboyant campaign.

e. tried to lure former Populists away from the Democrats.

D

59

The Republicans won the 1900 election mainly because of

a. their support of imperialism.

b. public opposition to a third term as president for Grover Cleveland.

c. their support of freedom abroad.

d. Bryan's lackluster campaign.

e. the prosperity achieved during McKinley's first term.

E

60

Theodore Roosevelt can best be described as

a. lacking in self-confidence.

b. mentally vigorous but physically frail.

c. highly energetic and egotistical.

d. a loudmouth with few political skills.

e. a reflective intellectual.

C

61

Regarding the presidency, Teddy Roosevelt believed that

a. it was crucial to work with Congress.

b. the checks and balances among the three branches of government were essential to American government.

c. the president could take any action not specifically prohibited by the laws and the Constitution.

d. the president should state principles but real power should be held by the Cabinet.

e. the president should never appeal to public opinion.

C

62

Construction of an isthmian canal across Central America was motivated mainly by

a. a desire to improve defense by allowing rapid naval movements between two oceans.

b. the Panamanian Revolution.

c. America's growing economic interests in Asia.

d. the British rejection of the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty.

e. American economic interests in Central America.

A

63

The British gave up their opposition to an American-controlled isthmian canal because they

a. sold their rights to Philippe Bunau-Varilla.

b. could see no economic gains in continuing to block canal construction.

c. confronted an unfriendly Europe and were bogged down in the Boer War.

d. were involved in a war with India.

e. accepted American domination of Latin America.

C

64

The major alternative route, besides Panama, that was seriously considered as the location for a canal between oceans was across

a. Colombia.

b. Nicaragua.

c. British Honduras.

d. Mexico.

e. Costa Rica.

B

65

The United States gained a perpetual lease on the Panama Canal Zone in the

a. Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty.

b. Hay-Pauncefote Treaty.

c. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.

d. Gentlemen's Agreement.

e. Teller Amendment.

A

66

Theodore Roosevelt strongly encouraged the Panamanians to revolt against Colombia because

a. he thought they would not charge as much for a canal route as the Colombians.

b. he wanted to establish a permanent U.S. military base in the region.

c. Roosevelt was personal friends with the Panamanian engineer Bunau-Varilla.

d. he regarded the Colombians as racially inferior.

e. the Colombian senate had rejected the American offer to buy a canal route across Panama.

E

67

Teddy Roosevelt's role in the Panamanian Revolution involved

a. using American naval forces to block Colombian troops from crushing the revolt.

b. ordering an economic embargo of Colombia.

c. remaining completely neutral between the Panamanian rebels and Colombia.

d. sending in American ground troops.

e. funding the Panamanian rebels

A

68

Theodore Roosevelt's aggressive involvement in the Panamanian revolt had the general international effect of

a. making other nations reluctant to use the Panama Canal.

b. sparking revolts against American rule in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.

c. allying the United States closely with Britain.

d. making all the Central American governments respect the United States.

e. increasing anti-American sentiment throughout Latin America.

E

69

Theodore Roosevelt's aggressive policies, along with the economic and political instability in Central America and the Caribbean, frequently led to

a. growing demands for U.S. economic aid to the region.

b. the intervention of the U.S. marines in the region.

c. radical anti-American movements in Central American countries.

d. the intervention of Britain and Germany in Latin America affairs.

e. the growth of Central American immigration to the United States.

B

70

American involvement in the affairs of Latin American nations, at the turn of the century, usually stemmed from

a. the need to defend these nations against a reassertion of Spanish power.

b. the hope that involvement would lead to their outright acquisition by the United States.

c. the fact that they were chronically in debt.

d. the desire to control the flow of Latin American immigrants into the United States.

e. a desire to strengthen Latin American democracy.

C

71

The Roosevelt Corollary added a new provision to the Monroe Doctrine that was specifically designed to

a. enable the United States to rule Puerto Rico and the Canal Zone.

b. stop European colonization in the Western Hemisphere.

c. restore cordial relations between the United States and Latin American countries.

d. establish a friendly partnership with Britain so that it could join the United States in policing Latin American affairs.

e. justify U.S. intervention in the affairs of Latin American countries.

E

72

The United States' frequent intervention in the affairs of Latin American countries in the early twentieth century

a. established political stability in the area.

b. was appreciated in the region as an effective cloak of defense against European threats.

c. was a "Bad Neighbor" policy that left a legacy of ill will and distrust of the United States throughout Latin America.

d. departed from Theodore Roosevelt's big-stick diplomacy.

e. was intended to spread democracy to the region

C

73

Japan's victories in the early stages of the Russo-Japanese War were especially stunning because

a. it was the first time in many centuries that a non-European nation had defeated a European great power.

b. the Japanese were well positioned to invade the United States.

c. Russia had by far the larger and more sophisticated naval forces.

d. Japan had previously been bogged down in a war in China's Manchuria province.

e. the United States had provided strong support to Russia before the war

A

74

Theodore Roosevelt became involved in the peace settlement for the Russo-Japanese War

a. on his own initiative.

b. as a way of enhancing America's position in East Asia.

c. when Russia asked for his assistance.

d. because he feared that the British might intervene and thus gain prestige.

e. when Japan secretly asked him to help.

E

75

President Roosevelt organized a conference in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in 1905 to

a. extend a grant of independence to the Philippines.

b. mediate a conflict between Germany and Spain over North Africa.

c. arrange a mutual defense pact with Great Britain.

d. establish a colonial office to manage the United States' new empire.

e. mediate a conclusion to the Russo-Japanese War.

E

76

The primary diplomatic result of Roosevelt's diplomatic ending of the Russo-Japanese War was that

a. the United States began to ally itself with Russia against Japan.

b. both Japan and Russia became increasingly hostile to the United States.

c. U.S. relations with Japan improved.

d. U.S. relations with Russia improved.

e. China began to seek an alliance with the United States in order to check Japan and Russia.

B

77

The secret Gentlemen's Agreement that President Theodore Roosevelt worked out with the Japanese in 1907-1908

a. concluded the Russo-Japanese War.

b. helped him to win the Nobel Peace Prize.

c. caused Japan to halt the flow of laborers to America in return for the repeal of a racist school decree by the San Francisco School Board.

d. put a stop to the racist yellow journalism being practiced in the United States.

e. restricted Japanese immigration to upper-class gentlemen.

C

78

The relatively small Japanese immigration into California in the early 1900s led to

a. growing Japanese control of certain key industries like banking and horticulture.

b. growing employment of Japanese actors to play villains in the Hollywood movie industry.

c. an appreciation for Japanese arts and culture on the West Coast.

d. growing racial discrimination and fear of a yellow peril.

e. the increasing belief that Japan was plotting to attack the United States.

D

79

In the Root-Takahira agreement of 1908

a. the Japanese government agreed to limit the number of Japanese immigrant laborers entering the United States.

b. the United States and Japan agreed to respect each other's territorial holdings in the Pacific.

c. the United States agreed to accept a Japanese sphere of influence in China.

d. the Japanese agreed to accept the segregation of Japanese children in California schools in return for the United States' recognition of Japanese control of Korea.

e. Japan agreed to accept U.S. control of the Philippines in exchange for Japanese domination of Manchuria.

B

80

A group of historians known as the New Left revisionists argued that the United States' burst of overseas expansion

a. was motivated by naive idealism.

b. was necessary to maintain an international balance of power.

c. was designed to create an informal empire that would guarantee American economic dominance of foreign markets and investments.

d. sought to build a colonial empire.

e. was motivated by a desire among American men to assert their masculinity.

C

81

Historians have argued that race and gender were important in Roosevelt's and other's justifications for imperialism because these imperialists

a. claimed American society had lost touch with manly virtues.

b. saw the nation as becoming soft and feminine since the frontier closed.

c. perceived other nations as at the bottom of a strict racial hierarchy.

d. regarded blacks as primitive and Anglo-Saxons as civilized.

e. All of these

E