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Pathophysiology - E-Book
Chapters 27-29, 31, 33, 36-38, 40, 41, 44, 45, 47, 51, 52
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1

After evaluation, a child’s asthma is characterized as “extrinsic.” This means that the asthma is

associated with specific allergic triggers.

2

An increased urine bilirubin is associated with

hepatitis

3

A patient who has difficulty walking without assistance is incontinent of urine when help doesn’t get to her quickly enough. The term for this type of incontinence is

functional.

4

Uncompensated metabolic alkalosis would result in

increased pH, increased HCO3 .

5

The nurse provides teaching regarding dietary intake of potassium to avoid an electrolyte imbalance when a patient

has chronic heart failure that is treated with diuretics.

6

________ edema occurs when ischemic tissue swells because of cellular energy failure.

Cytotoxic

7

Manifestations from sodium imbalances occur primarily as a result of

cellular fluid shifts.

8

The consequence of an upper urinary tract obstruction in a single ureter is

hydronephrosis.

9

Accumulation of fluid in the pleural space is called

pleural effusion.

10

A patient presenting with a severe, pounding headache accompanied by nausea and photophobia is likely experiencing a ________ headache.

migraine

11

Which dysrhythmia is thought to be associated with reentrant mechanisms?

Preexcitation syndrome tachycardia (Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome)

12

It is recommended that women of childbearing age take folic acid daily for prevention of

neural tube defects.

13

A fracture in which bone breaks into two or more fragments is referred to as

comminuted.

14

What problem is a patient likely to experience in end-stage renal disease?

Uremia

15

A 32-year-old female complaining of severe pain with menstruation and inability to participate in her routine household activities is likely experiencing

dysmenorrhea.

16

A person with acute pyelonephritis would most typically experience

fever

17

Intracranial pressure normally ranges from ______ mm Hg.

0-15

18

To avoid the progression of cutaneous lesions, a patient diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) should

avoid sun exposure.

19

What effect do demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis have on neurotransmission?

Slower rate of action potential conduction

20

An abnormally wide (more than 0.10 second) QRS complex is characteristic of

premature ventricular complexes.

21

Which blood pressure reading is considered to be indicative of prehypertension according to the JNC-7 criteria?

128/82

22

Lusitropic impairment refers to

impaired diastolic relaxation.

23

The defining characteristic of severe acute kidney injury is

oliguria.

24

The definitive treatment for cholecystitis is

cholecystectomy.

25

It is true that scleroderma involves

inflammation and fibrosis of connective tissue.

26

When a parent asks how they will know if their 2-month-old baby, who is throwing up and has frequent diarrhea, is dehydrated, the nurse’s best response is

“If the soft spot on the top of his head feels sunken in and his mouth is dry between his cheek and his gums, then he is probably dehydrated.”

27

Anemia in people who have end-stage chronic renal disease is caused by

decreased secretion of erythropoietin.

28

A person who experiences a panic attack and develops hyperventilation symptoms may experience

numbness and tingling in the extremities

29

The most common causes of prehepatic jaundice are ________ and ineffective erythropoiesis.

hemolysis

30

Absence of menstruation is called

amenorrhea.

31

Causes of hypomagnesemia include

chronic alcoholism

32

Which acid are the kidneys unable to excrete?

carbonic

33

A patient with pancreatitis may experience muscle cramps secondary to

hypocalcemia.

34

The arterial blood gas pH = 7.52, PaCO 2 = 30 mm Hg, HCO 3 = 24 mEq/L demonstrates

respiratory alkalosis

35

Administration of which therapy is most appropriate for hypovolemic shock?

Crystalloids

36

A patient with flail chest will demonstrate

outward chest movement on expiration.

37

What effect would adrenocortical insufficiency have on an individual’s response to surgical stress?

More prone to hypotension

38

A patient who was involved in a fall from a tree becomes short of breath. The lung sounds are absent on one side. This patient is experiencing ________ shock.

obstructive

39

Which statement is true about the incidence of multiple sclerosis?

The age of onset ranges from 20 to 50 years.

40

Individuals with end-stage chronic renal disease are at risk for renal osteodystrophy and spontaneous bone fractures, because

they are deficient in active vitamin D.

41

Modulation of pain signals is thought to be mediated by the release of

endorphins

42

Surgical removal of a gland may result in

hyposecretion

43

Narcotic administration should be administered carefully in patients with acute pancreatitis related to potential for

sphincter of Oddi dysfunction

44

Hepatitis B is usually transmitted by exposure to

blood or semen

45

Muscular dystrophy includes a number of muscle disorders that are

genetically transmitted

46

A patient presents to the emergency department with a diastolic blood pressure of 132 mm Hg, retinopathy, and symptoms of an ischemic stroke. This symptomology is likely the result of

hypertensive crisis

47

The nurse is swabbing a patient’s throat to test for streptococcal pharyngitis. The nurse must understand that tests such as this differ in the probability that they will be positive for a condition when applied to a person with the condition; this probability is termed sensitivity.

True

48

In general, the best prognosis for long-term disease-free survival occurs with

ALL (acute lymphoid leukemia).

49

Diabetes mellitus is the ________ leading cause of death and a major cause of disability in the United States.

seventh

50

A patient who reported a very painful sore throat 3 weeks ago is now diagnosed with acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. When asked, “Why is my urine the color of coffee?”, the nurse responds

“Your immune system was activated by your sore throat and has caused some damage in your kidneys that allows red blood cells to leak into the fluid that becomes urine and make it coffee-colored.”

51

A patient is exhibiting severe dyspnea and anxiety. The patient also has bubbly crackles in all lung fields with pink, frothy sputum. This patient is most likely experiencing

acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema

52

The physiologic mechanisms involved in the pain phenomenon are termed

nociception.

53

Glomerular disorders include

nephrotic syndrome.

54

The primary reason that prolonged seizure activity predisposes to ischemic brain damage is that

the lack of airway maintenance can lead to hypoxia.

55

Cerebral aneurysm is most frequently the result of

subarachnoid hemorrhage.

56

Gastrointestinal drainage, perioperative and postoperative hypotension, and hemorrhage may all contribute to renal failure by causing

acute tubular necrosis.

57

A thyroid gland that grows larger than normal is known as

goiter

58

The prothrombin time (PT) and INR (international normalized ratio) measure the integrity of

extrinsic pathway

59

Patients with acute pancreatitis are generally made NPO and may require continuous gastric suctioning in order to

remove the usual stimuli for pancreatic secretion.

60

Which clinical manifestation is not likely the result of a tuberculosis infection?

Cyanosis

61

Which pulmonary function test result is consistent with a diagnosis of asthma?

Reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)

62

The most challenging aspect of treatment for chronic pancreatitis is

pain control

63

The ________ system compensates for metabolic acidosis and alkalosis.

respiratory

64

Rickets is characterized by soft, weak bones resulting from a deficiency of

vitamin D

65

Which serum biomarker(s) are indicative of irreversible damage to myocardial cells?

.Elevated CK-MB, troponin I, and troponin T

66

A patient with pure left-sided heart failure is likely to exhibit

pulmonary congestion with dyspnea

67

Orthostatic hypotension may be a manifestation of

Parkinson disease

68

A patient admitted with bleeding related to esophageal varices could be expected to receive a continuous intravenous infusion of

octreotide acetate.

69

The effects of excessive cortisol production include

immune suppression.

70

Most muscle strains are caused by

abnormal muscle contraction

71

Low cardiac output in association with high preload is characteristic of ________ shock.

cardiogenic

72

The arterial oxygen content (CaO 2) for a patient with PaO 2 100 mm Hg, SaO 2 95%, and hemoglobin 15 g/dL is _____ mL oxygen/dL.

19.4

73

Anticholinesterase inhibitors may be used to manage

myasthenia gravis.

74

A patient presents to the physician’s office with pinpoint hemorrhages on the skin. The patient is most likely between the ages of _____ years.

4 and 7

75

A laboratory test result that helps confirm the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is

positive antinuclear antibodies.

76

Gouty arthritis is a complication of

inadequate renal excretion of uric acid.

77

Indicators that an individual is experiencing high stress include all the following except

pupil constriction.

78

A person who is diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome is also experiencing hypoalbuminemia. This happens because

albumin is excreted in the urine.

79

Referred pain may be perceived at some distance from the area of tissue injury, but generally felt

within the same dermatome

80

Autologous stem cell transplantation is a procedure in which

stem cells are harvested from the patient and then returned to the same patient.

81

When systemic vascular resistance is decreased, blood flow

decreases

82

The stage during which the patient functions normally, although the disease processes are well established, is referred to as

subclinical.

83

The displacement of two bones in which the articular surfaces partially lose contact with each other is called

subluxation

84

Velocity of blood flow is measured in

centimeters per second.

85

Most gallstones are composed of

cholesterol.

86

Metabolic alkalosis is often accompanied by

hypokalemia.

87

The most helpful laboratory value in monitoring the progression of declining renal function is

serum creatinine.

88

The microorganism that causes the vast majority of urinary tract infections is

Escherichia coli.

89

Hyperaldosteronism causes

ECV excess and hypokalemia.

90

A tool used to assess levels of consciousness is

Glascow Coma Scale (GCS)

91

The final stage of gout, characterized by crystalline deposits in cartilage, synovial membranes, and soft tissue, is called

tophaceous gout

92

Rupture of a cerebral aneurysm should be suspected if the patient reports

sudden severe headache

93

Rupture of esophageal varices is a complication of cirrhosis with portal hypertension and carries a high ________ rate.

mortality

94

The patient who requires the most careful monitoring for development of metabolic acidosis is a patient who

has had diarrhea for over a week

95

Following a bone fracture, the most likely event to occur is

development of a blood clot beneath the periosteum

96

Patients with immunodeficiency disorders are usually first identified because they

develop recurrent infections

97

Rheumatoid arthritis is commonly associated with the presence of rheumatoid factor autoantibodies in the bloodstream. This indicates that rheumatoid arthritis is likely to be

an autoimmune process

98

The most common types of uterine tumors are known as

leiomyomas.

99

Risk factors for hemorrhagic stroke include

acute hypertension

100

A person with acute hypoxemia may hyperventilate and develop

respiratory alkalosis