After evaluation, a child’s asthma is characterized as “extrinsic.” This means that the asthma is
associated with specific allergic triggers.
An increased urine bilirubin is associated with
A patient who has difficulty walking without assistance is incontinent of urine when help doesn’t get to her quickly enough. The term for this type of incontinence is
Uncompensated metabolic alkalosis would result in
increased pH, increased HCO3 –.
The nurse provides teaching regarding dietary intake of potassium to avoid an electrolyte imbalance when a patient
has chronic heart failure that is treated with diuretics.
________ edema occurs when ischemic tissue swells because of cellular energy failure.
Manifestations from sodium imbalances occur primarily as a result of
cellular fluid shifts.
The consequence of an upper urinary tract obstruction in a single ureter is
Accumulation of fluid in the pleural space is called
A patient presenting with a severe, pounding headache accompanied by nausea and photophobia is likely experiencing a ________ headache.
Which dysrhythmia is thought to be associated with reentrant mechanisms?
Preexcitation syndrome tachycardia (Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome)
It is recommended that women of childbearing age take folic acid daily for prevention of
neural tube defects.
A fracture in which bone breaks into two or more fragments is referred to as
What problem is a patient likely to experience in end-stage renal disease?
A 32-year-old female complaining of severe pain with menstruation and inability to participate in her routine household activities is likely experiencing
A person with acute pyelonephritis would most typically experience
Intracranial pressure normally ranges from ______ mm Hg.
To avoid the progression of cutaneous lesions, a patient diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) should
avoid sun exposure.
What effect do demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis have on neurotransmission?
Slower rate of action potential conduction
An abnormally wide (more than 0.10 second) QRS complex is characteristic of
premature ventricular complexes.
Which blood pressure reading is considered to be indicative of prehypertension according to the JNC-7 criteria?
Lusitropic impairment refers to
impaired diastolic relaxation.
The defining characteristic of severe acute kidney injury is
The definitive treatment for cholecystitis is
It is true that scleroderma involves
inflammation and fibrosis of connective tissue.
When a parent asks how they will know if their 2-month-old baby, who is throwing up and has frequent diarrhea, is dehydrated, the nurse’s best response is
“If the soft spot on the top of his head feels sunken in and his mouth is dry between his cheek and his gums, then he is probably dehydrated.”
Anemia in people who have end-stage chronic renal disease is caused by
decreased secretion of erythropoietin.
A person who experiences a panic attack and develops hyperventilation symptoms may experience
numbness and tingling in the extremities
The most common causes of prehepatic jaundice are ________ and ineffective erythropoiesis.
Absence of menstruation is called
Causes of hypomagnesemia include
Which acid are the kidneys unable to excrete?
A patient with pancreatitis may experience muscle cramps secondary to
The arterial blood gas pH = 7.52, PaCO 2 = 30 mm Hg, HCO 3 – = 24 mEq/L demonstrates
Administration of which therapy is most appropriate for hypovolemic shock?
A patient with flail chest will demonstrate
outward chest movement on expiration.
What effect would adrenocortical insufficiency have on an individual’s response to surgical stress?
More prone to hypotension
A patient who was involved in a fall from a tree becomes short of breath. The lung sounds are absent on one side. This patient is experiencing ________ shock.
Which statement is true about the incidence of multiple sclerosis?
The age of onset ranges from 20 to 50 years.
Individuals with end-stage chronic renal disease are at risk for renal osteodystrophy and spontaneous bone fractures, because
they are deficient in active vitamin D.
Modulation of pain signals is thought to be mediated by the release of
Surgical removal of a gland may result in
Narcotic administration should be administered carefully in patients with acute pancreatitis related to potential for
sphincter of Oddi dysfunction
Hepatitis B is usually transmitted by exposure to
blood or semen
Muscular dystrophy includes a number of muscle disorders that are
A patient presents to the emergency department with a diastolic blood pressure of 132 mm Hg, retinopathy, and symptoms of an ischemic stroke. This symptomology is likely the result of
The nurse is swabbing a patient’s throat to test for streptococcal pharyngitis. The nurse must understand that tests such as this differ in the probability that they will be positive for a condition when applied to a person with the condition; this probability is termed sensitivity.
In general, the best prognosis for long-term disease-free survival occurs with
ALL (acute lymphoid leukemia).
Diabetes mellitus is the ________ leading cause of death and a major cause of disability in the United States.
A patient who reported a very painful sore throat 3 weeks ago is now diagnosed with acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. When asked, “Why is my urine the color of coffee?”, the nurse responds
“Your immune system was activated by your sore throat and has caused some damage in your kidneys that allows red blood cells to leak into the fluid that becomes urine and make it coffee-colored.”
A patient is exhibiting severe dyspnea and anxiety. The patient also has bubbly crackles in all lung fields with pink, frothy sputum. This patient is most likely experiencing
acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema
The physiologic mechanisms involved in the pain phenomenon are termed
Glomerular disorders include
The primary reason that prolonged seizure activity predisposes to ischemic brain damage is that
the lack of airway maintenance can lead to hypoxia.
Cerebral aneurysm is most frequently the result of
Gastrointestinal drainage, perioperative and postoperative hypotension, and hemorrhage may all contribute to renal failure by causing
acute tubular necrosis.
A thyroid gland that grows larger than normal is known as
The prothrombin time (PT) and INR (international normalized ratio) measure the integrity of
Patients with acute pancreatitis are generally made NPO and may require continuous gastric suctioning in order to
remove the usual stimuli for pancreatic secretion.
Which clinical manifestation is not likely the result of a tuberculosis infection?
Which pulmonary function test result is consistent with a diagnosis of asthma?
Reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)
The most challenging aspect of treatment for chronic pancreatitis is
The ________ system compensates for metabolic acidosis and alkalosis.
Rickets is characterized by soft, weak bones resulting from a deficiency of
Which serum biomarker(s) are indicative of irreversible damage to myocardial cells?
.Elevated CK-MB, troponin I, and troponin T
A patient with pure left-sided heart failure is likely to exhibit
pulmonary congestion with dyspnea
Orthostatic hypotension may be a manifestation of
A patient admitted with bleeding related to esophageal varices could be expected to receive a continuous intravenous infusion of
The effects of excessive cortisol production include
Most muscle strains are caused by
abnormal muscle contraction
Low cardiac output in association with high preload is characteristic of ________ shock.
The arterial oxygen content (CaO 2) for a patient with PaO 2 100 mm Hg, SaO 2 95%, and hemoglobin 15 g/dL is _____ mL oxygen/dL.
Anticholinesterase inhibitors may be used to manage
A patient presents to the physician’s office with pinpoint hemorrhages on the skin. The patient is most likely between the ages of _____ years.
4 and 7
A laboratory test result that helps confirm the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is
positive antinuclear antibodies.
Gouty arthritis is a complication of
inadequate renal excretion of uric acid.
Indicators that an individual is experiencing high stress include all the following except
A person who is diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome is also experiencing hypoalbuminemia. This happens because
albumin is excreted in the urine.
Referred pain may be perceived at some distance from the area of tissue injury, but generally felt
within the same dermatome
Autologous stem cell transplantation is a procedure in which
stem cells are harvested from the patient and then returned to the same patient.
When systemic vascular resistance is decreased, blood flow
The stage during which the patient functions normally, although the disease processes are well established, is referred to as
The displacement of two bones in which the articular surfaces partially lose contact with each other is called
Velocity of blood flow is measured in
centimeters per second.
Most gallstones are composed of
Metabolic alkalosis is often accompanied by
The most helpful laboratory value in monitoring the progression of declining renal function is
The microorganism that causes the vast majority of urinary tract infections is
ECV excess and hypokalemia.
A tool used to assess levels of consciousness is
Glascow Coma Scale (GCS)
The final stage of gout, characterized by crystalline deposits in cartilage, synovial membranes, and soft tissue, is called
Rupture of a cerebral aneurysm should be suspected if the patient reports
sudden severe headache
Rupture of esophageal varices is a complication of cirrhosis with portal hypertension and carries a high ________ rate.
The patient who requires the most careful monitoring for development of metabolic acidosis is a patient who
has had diarrhea for over a week
Following a bone fracture, the most likely event to occur is
development of a blood clot beneath the periosteum
Patients with immunodeficiency disorders are usually first identified because they
develop recurrent infections
Rheumatoid arthritis is commonly associated with the presence of rheumatoid factor autoantibodies in the bloodstream. This indicates that rheumatoid arthritis is likely to be
an autoimmune process
The most common types of uterine tumors are known as
Risk factors for hemorrhagic stroke include
A person with acute hypoxemia may hyperventilate and develop