Pathophysiology - E-Book: Ch 44, 45, 47, 51, 52 Flashcards


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Pathophysiology - E-Book
Chapters 44, 45, 47, 51, 52
updated 4 years ago by Coffeequ33n
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pathophysiology, medical, physiology, pathology
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1

Which statement is true about the incidence of multiple sclerosis?

The age of onset ranges from 20 to 50 years

2

A patient presenting with a severe, pounding headache accompanied by nausea and photophobia is likely experiencing a ________ headache.

migraine

3

Parkinson disease is associated with

a deficiency of dopamine in the substantia nigra.

4

It is recommended that women of childbearing age take folic acid daily for prevention of

neural tube defects.

5

A severe complication of elevated intracranial pressure is

brain herniation

6

Individuals diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are at risk for developing numerous complications of various organs because of

immune injury to basement membranes.

7

The physiologic change most likely to lead to an increase in intracranial pressure is

cerebral vasodilation.

8

To avoid the progression of cutaneous lesions, a patient diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) should

avoid sun exposure.

9

A clinical finding consistent with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis would be

systemic manifestations of inflammation.

10

What effect do demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis have on neurotransmission?

Slower rate of action potential conduction

11

Tophi are

deposits of urate crystals in tissues.

12

Risk factors for hemorrhagic stroke include

acute hypertension.

13

In older women, osteoporosis is thought to be primarily because of

estrogen deficiency.

14

The physiologic mechanisms involved in the pain phenomenon are termed

nociception.

15

Intracranial pressure normally ranges from ______ mm Hg.

0 to 15

16

The complication which is not likely to result from a compound, transverse fracture of the tibia and fibula is

air embolus.

17

The most important preventive measure for hemorrhagic stroke is

blood pressure control.

18

A patient diagnosed with diabetes, smokes a pack of cigarettes daily and eats very few green leafy vegetables. After experiencing a fractured toe, this patient is at risk for

delayed healing.

19

Complete healing of a bone fracture occurs when

the callus has been completely replaced with mature bone.

20

Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease in which

acetylcholine receptors are destroyed or dysfunctional.

21

The pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis involves

immune cells accumulating in pannus and destroying articular cartilage.

22

The person at highest risk of a greenstick fracture from falling off a tall ladder is age

8.

23

Pain is thought of as

a subjective experience that is difficult to measure objectively

24

Cerebral aneurysm is most frequently the result of

subarachnoid hemorrhage.

25

A malignant bone-forming tumor is referred to as a(n)

osteosarcoma.

26

A fracture in which bone breaks into two or more fragments is referred to as

comminuted.

27

Ankylosing spondylitis is characterized by

inflammation, stiffness, and fusion of spinal joints.

28

Secondary injury after head trauma refers to

brain injury resulting from the body’s response to tissue damage

29

Steroids may be used in the management of acute exacerbation of symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis, because

demyelination is mediated by immune mechanisms.

30

It is true that Bell palsy is a

paralysis of the muscles innervated by the facial nerve.

31

Slow pain sensation is transmitted primarily by

unmyelinated C fibers.

32

Ankylosing spondylitis causes

intervertebral joint fusion.

33

Inflammation of the sacs that overlie bony prominences is called

bursitis

34

“Tell me again the name of that chemical that makes crystals when my gout flares up,” asks the client. The nurse’s best response is

uric acid.

35

Assessment of an extremity six hours after surgical alignment and casting demonstrates pulselessness and pallor. The priority action to take is to

initiate action to have the cast split or removed.

36

The most common symptom of multiple myeloma is

bone pain.

37

People who have osteoporosis are at risk for

bone fractures.

38

Rupture of a cerebral aneurysm should be suspected if the patient reports

sudden, severe headache.

39

Bone healing may be impaired by

nicotine use.

40

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a rheumatic disease attributed to

autoimmune mechanisms.

41

Seizures that involve both hemispheres at the outset are termed

generalized.

42

Following a bone fracture, the most likely event to occur is

development of a blood clot beneath the periosteum

43

Which group of clinical findings indicates the poorest neurologic functioning?

Assumes decorticate posture with light touch, no verbal response

44

The final stage of gout, characterized by crystalline deposits in cartilage, synovial membranes, and soft tissue, is called

tophaceous gout.

45

Clinical manifestations of a stroke within the right cerebral hemisphere include

left-sided muscle weakness and neglect.

46

The disorders characterized by softening and then enlargement of bones is referred to as

Paget disease.

47

A bone disorder that results from insufficient vitamin D is referred to as

osteomalacia

48

In contrast to osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis may be associated with

systemic aching in the musculoskeletal system.

49

What type of fracture generally occurs in children?

Greenstick

50

Rheumatoid arthritis is commonly associated with the presence of rheumatoid factor autoantibodies in the bloodstream. This indicates that rheumatoid arthritis is likely to be

an autoimmune process

51

It is true that scleroderma involves

inflammation and fibrosis of connective tissue

52

The dementia of Alzheimer disease is associated with structural changes in the brain, including

deposition of amyloid plaques in the brain.

53

Rickets is characterized by soft, weak bones resulting from a deficiency of

vitamin D.

54

Prosthetic joint infection is most often because of

hematogenous transfer.

55

A unique characteristic feature of fibromyalgia is the presence of

tender point pain

56

A laboratory test result that helps confirm the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is

positive antinuclear antibodies.

57

Most muscle strains are caused by

abnormal muscle contraction.

58

In the acute phase of stroke, treatment is focused on

stabilization of respiratory and cardiovascular function.

59

The chief pathologic features of osteoarthritis are

degeneration of articular cartilage, destruction of the bone under the cartilage, and thickening of the synovium

60

A tool used to assess levels of consciousness is

Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS).

61

Referred pain may be perceived at some distance from the area of tissue injury, but generally felt

within the same dermatome.

62

The pain of nonarticular rheumatism (“growing pain”) is worse

during the night.

63

Healing of a fractured bone with a poor alignment is called

malunion.

64

The stage of spinal shock that follows spinal cord injury is characterized by

absent spinal reflexes below the level of injury.

65

Subarachnoid hemorrhage is usually managed with volume expansion and blood pressure support to enhance cerebral perfusion. This is necessary because subarachnoid hemorrhage predisposes to

cerebral vasospasm.

66

Compartment syndrome occurs secondary to

soft-tissue damage

67

The earliest manifestation of scleroderma is

Raynaud phenomenon

68

Orthostatic hypotension may be a manifestation of

Parkinson disease.

69

An example of inappropriate treatment for head trauma would be

hypoventilation.

70

Pain with passive stretching of a muscle is indicative of

noncontractile tissue injury

71

The gate control theory of pain transmission predicts that activity in touch receptors will

decrease pain signal transmission in the spinal cord

72

A compound, transverse fracture is best described as a bone that is

broken and protruding through the skin

73

Pain in fibromyalgia involves

changes in pain transmission in the spinal cord

74

Paget's disease is characterized by

excessive bone resorption followed by excessive formation of fragile bone

75

The most common site affected in Paget's disease is the

lower spine

76

The ________ is the level of painful stimulation required to be perceived

threshold

77

Muscular dystrophy includes a number of muscle disorders that are

genetically transmitted

78

A patient who experiences early symptoms of muscle twitching, cramping, and stiffness of the hands may be demonstrating signs of

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

79

It is true that epidural bleeding is

characterized by a lucid interval immediately after injury

80

Modulation of pain signals is thought to be mediated by the release of

endorphins

81

________ occurs when a brainstem impaired patient exhibits a persistent rhythmic or jerky movement in one or both eyes

Nystagmus

82

The displacement of two bones in which the articular surfaces partially lose contact with each other is called

subluxation

83

Manifestations of acute brain ischemia (Cushing reflex) are due primarily to

sympathetic nervous system activation

84

The first indication of brain compression from increasing intracranial pressure (ICP) may be

sluggish pupil response to light

85

_________ is a form of spina bifida in which a saclike cyst filled with CSF protrudes through the spinal defect but does not involve the spinal cord.

Meningocele