Which statement is true about the incidence of multiple sclerosis?
The age of onset ranges from 20 to 50 years
A patient presenting with a severe, pounding headache accompanied by nausea and photophobia is likely experiencing a ________ headache.
Parkinson disease is associated with
a deficiency of dopamine in the substantia nigra.
It is recommended that women of childbearing age take folic acid daily for prevention of
neural tube defects.
A severe complication of elevated intracranial pressure is
Individuals diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are at risk for developing numerous complications of various organs because of
immune injury to basement membranes.
The physiologic change most likely to lead to an increase in intracranial pressure is
To avoid the progression of cutaneous lesions, a patient diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) should
avoid sun exposure.
A clinical finding consistent with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis would be
systemic manifestations of inflammation.
What effect do demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis have on neurotransmission?
Slower rate of action potential conduction
deposits of urate crystals in tissues.
Risk factors for hemorrhagic stroke include
In older women, osteoporosis is thought to be primarily because of
The physiologic mechanisms involved in the pain phenomenon are termed
Intracranial pressure normally ranges from ______ mm Hg.
0 to 15
The complication which is not likely to result from a compound, transverse fracture of the tibia and fibula is
The most important preventive measure for hemorrhagic stroke is
blood pressure control.
A patient diagnosed with diabetes, smokes a pack of cigarettes daily and eats very few green leafy vegetables. After experiencing a fractured toe, this patient is at risk for
Complete healing of a bone fracture occurs when
the callus has been completely replaced with mature bone.
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease in which
acetylcholine receptors are destroyed or dysfunctional.
The pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis involves
immune cells accumulating in pannus and destroying articular cartilage.
The person at highest risk of a greenstick fracture from falling off a tall ladder is age
Pain is thought of as
a subjective experience that is difficult to measure objectively
Cerebral aneurysm is most frequently the result of
A malignant bone-forming tumor is referred to as a(n)
A fracture in which bone breaks into two or more fragments is referred to as
Ankylosing spondylitis is characterized by
inflammation, stiffness, and fusion of spinal joints.
Secondary injury after head trauma refers to
brain injury resulting from the body’s response to tissue damage
Steroids may be used in the management of acute exacerbation of symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis, because
demyelination is mediated by immune mechanisms.
It is true that Bell palsy is a
paralysis of the muscles innervated by the facial nerve.
Slow pain sensation is transmitted primarily by
unmyelinated C fibers.
Ankylosing spondylitis causes
intervertebral joint fusion.
Inflammation of the sacs that overlie bony prominences is called
“Tell me again the name of that chemical that makes crystals when my gout flares up,” asks the client. The nurse’s best response is
Assessment of an extremity six hours after surgical alignment and casting demonstrates pulselessness and pallor. The priority action to take is to
initiate action to have the cast split or removed.
The most common symptom of multiple myeloma is
People who have osteoporosis are at risk for
Rupture of a cerebral aneurysm should be suspected if the patient reports
sudden, severe headache.
Bone healing may be impaired by
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a rheumatic disease attributed to
Seizures that involve both hemispheres at the outset are termed
Following a bone fracture, the most likely event to occur is
development of a blood clot beneath the periosteum
Which group of clinical findings indicates the poorest neurologic functioning?
Assumes decorticate posture with light touch, no verbal response
The final stage of gout, characterized by crystalline deposits in cartilage, synovial membranes, and soft tissue, is called
Clinical manifestations of a stroke within the right cerebral hemisphere include
left-sided muscle weakness and neglect.
The disorders characterized by softening and then enlargement of bones is referred to as
A bone disorder that results from insufficient vitamin D is referred to as
In contrast to osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis may be associated with
systemic aching in the musculoskeletal system.
What type of fracture generally occurs in children?
Rheumatoid arthritis is commonly associated with the presence of rheumatoid factor autoantibodies in the bloodstream. This indicates that rheumatoid arthritis is likely to be
an autoimmune process
It is true that scleroderma involves
inflammation and fibrosis of connective tissue
The dementia of Alzheimer disease is associated with structural changes in the brain, including
deposition of amyloid plaques in the brain.
Rickets is characterized by soft, weak bones resulting from a deficiency of
Prosthetic joint infection is most often because of
A unique characteristic feature of fibromyalgia is the presence of
tender point pain
A laboratory test result that helps confirm the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is
positive antinuclear antibodies.
Most muscle strains are caused by
abnormal muscle contraction.
In the acute phase of stroke, treatment is focused on
stabilization of respiratory and cardiovascular function.
The chief pathologic features of osteoarthritis are
degeneration of articular cartilage, destruction of the bone under the cartilage, and thickening of the synovium
A tool used to assess levels of consciousness is
Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS).
Referred pain may be perceived at some distance from the area of tissue injury, but generally felt
within the same dermatome.
The pain of nonarticular rheumatism (“growing pain”) is worse
during the night.
Healing of a fractured bone with a poor alignment is called
The stage of spinal shock that follows spinal cord injury is characterized by
absent spinal reflexes below the level of injury.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage is usually managed with volume expansion and blood pressure support to enhance cerebral perfusion. This is necessary because subarachnoid hemorrhage predisposes to
Compartment syndrome occurs secondary to
The earliest manifestation of scleroderma is
Orthostatic hypotension may be a manifestation of
An example of inappropriate treatment for head trauma would be
Pain with passive stretching of a muscle is indicative of
noncontractile tissue injury
The gate control theory of pain transmission predicts that activity in touch receptors will
decrease pain signal transmission in the spinal cord
A compound, transverse fracture is best described as a bone that is
broken and protruding through the skin
Pain in fibromyalgia involves
changes in pain transmission in the spinal cord
Paget's disease is characterized by
excessive bone resorption followed by excessive formation of fragile bone
The most common site affected in Paget's disease is the
The ________ is the level of painful stimulation required to be perceived
Muscular dystrophy includes a number of muscle disorders that are
A patient who experiences early symptoms of muscle twitching, cramping, and stiffness of the hands may be demonstrating signs of
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
It is true that epidural bleeding is
characterized by a lucid interval immediately after injury
Modulation of pain signals is thought to be mediated by the release of
________ occurs when a brainstem impaired patient exhibits a persistent rhythmic or jerky movement in one or both eyes
The displacement of two bones in which the articular surfaces partially lose contact with each other is called
Manifestations of acute brain ischemia (Cushing reflex) are due primarily to
sympathetic nervous system activation
The first indication of brain compression from increasing intracranial pressure (ICP) may be
sluggish pupil response to light
_________ is a form of spina bifida in which a saclike cyst filled with CSF protrudes through the spinal defect but does not involve the spinal cord.