President Wilson broke diplomatic relations with Germany when
a) the Zimmermann note was intercepted and made public
b) Germany announced that it would wage unrestricted submarine warfare in the Atlantic
c) news was received that a revolutionary movement had overthrown the czarists regime in Russia
d) Germany rejected Wilson's Fourteen Points for peace
e) it appeared that the German army would take Paris
The Zimmermann note involved a proposed secret agreement between
a) Britain and France
b) Russia and Germany
c) Germany and Mexico
d) Mexico and France
e) Germany and Canada
The U.S. declared war on Germany
a) in response to demands by American munitions makers
b) as a result of treaty obligations
c) because Wall Street bankers demanded it
d) after Mexico signed an alliance with Germany
e) after German U-boats sank four unarmed American merchant vessels
President Woodrow Wilson persuaded the American people to enter World
War I by
a) appealing to America's tradition of intervention in Europe
b) convincing the public of the need to make the world safe from the German submarine
c) pledging to make the war "a war to end all wars" and to make the world safe for democracy
d) promising territorial gains
e) declaring that only the navy would be involved in combat
President Wilson viewed America's entry into World War I as an
opportunity for the U.S. to
a) reestablish the balance of power in European diplomacy
b) expand America's territorial holdings
c) rebuild its dangerously small military and naval forces
d) establish a permanent military presence in Europe
e) shape a new international order based on the ideals of democracy
Of Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points, the one that he hoped would
provide a system of collective security was the
a) reduction of armaments
b) League of Nations
c) abolition of secret treaties
d) guarantee of freedom of the seas
e) principle of national self-determination of peoples
The major problem for George Creel and his Committee on Public Information was that
a) he oversold Wilson's ideals and led the world to expect too much.
b) he relied too much on formal laws to gain compliance
c) the entertainment industry was not willing to go along with the propaganda campaign
d) U.S. allies refused to cooperate
e) the public was skeptical of government propaganda
Match each civilian administrator below with the World War I mobilization agency that he directed.
A. George Creel
B. Herbert Hoover
C. Bernard Baruch
D. William H. Taft
1. War Industries Board
2. Committee on Public Information
3. Food Administration
4. National War Labor Board
a) A-4, B-1, C-3, D-2
b) A-2, B-4, C-1, D-3
d)A-2, B-3, C-1, D-4
When the U.S. entered World War I, it was
a) well prepared thanks to the foresight of Woodrow Wilson
b) well prepared militarily but not industrially
c) well prepared for land combat but not for naval warfare
d) well prepared industrially but not militarily
e) poorly prepared to leap into global war
During World War I, civil liberties in America were
a) protected by the Espionage Act
b) limited, but no one was actually imprisoned for his or her convictions
c) extended to everyone in this country, because the war was fought for democracy
d) protected for everyone except German-Americans
e) denied to many, especially those suspected of disloyalty
Two constitutional amendments adopted in part because of because of wartime influences were the 18th, which dealt with _________________, and the 19th, whose subject was _______________. a) prohibition; an income tax
b) direct election of senators; woman suffrage
c) prohibition; woman suffrage
d) an income tax; direct election of senators
e) women suffrage; prohibition
As a result of their work supporting the war effort, women
a) in large numbers secured a foothold in the work force
b) finally received the right to vote
c) were allowed to join the air force
d) organized the National Women's Party
e) all of the above
During World War I, the government's treatment of labor could be best described as
b) strict and financially unrewarding
c) extremely brutal
d) so good the right to form unions was finally granted
e) decent for native Americans but harsh for ethnic groups
The strikes and sabotage of the Industrial Workers of the World during WWI were
a) aimed at undermining the war effort
c) never taken seriously by the government
d) based on Samuel Gompers' union philosophy
e) the result of some of the worst working conditions in the country
Grievances of labor during and shortly after World War I include all of the following except
a) the inability to gain the right to organize
b) war-spawned inflation
c) suppression of the American Federation of Labor
d) violence against workers by employers
e) the use of African-Americans as strike breakers
The 1919 steel strike resulted in
a) the eight-hour workday
b) the right to bargain collectively
c) higher wages
d) a grievous setback crippling the union movement for a decade
e) a "general strike" in Seattle and Pittsburgh
The movement of tens of thousands of Southern blacks north during WWI resulted in
a) better race relations in the South
b) racial violence in the North
c) fewer blacks willing to be used as strikebreakers
d) a new black middle class
e) all of the above
Most wartime mobilization agencies relied on _____________ to prepare the economy for war.
a) congressional legislation
b) voluntary compliance
c) presidential edict
d) court decisions
e) business trade organizations
Most of the money raised to finance World War I came from
a) confiscation of German property
b) income taxes
d) sale of armaments to Britain and France
In an effort to make economic mobilization more efficient during World War I, the federal government took over and operated
a) the railroads
b) the merchant marine
c) heavy industry
d) American agriculture
e) the steel mills
The U.S. used all of the flowing methods to support the war effort except
a) encouraging people to buy war bonds
b) having "heatless Mondays" to conserve fuel
c) using government power extensively to regulate the economy
d) seizing enemy merchant vessels trapped in American harbors
e) restricting the manufacture of beer
During World War I the U.S. used naval vessels
a) made from concrete
b) purchased from Germany
c) from the Civil War era
d) none of the above
e) all of the above
When the U.S. entered WWI in 1917, most Americans did not believe that
a) the navy was obligated to defend freedom of the seas
b) it would be necessary to continue making loans to the Allies
c) the U.S. would have to ship war materials to the Allies
d) mobilization for war should be largely voluntary
e) it would be necessary to send a large American army to Europe
Those who protested conscription during World War I did so because
a) they disliked the idea of compelling a person to serve
b) the law required the registration of sixteen-year-old males
c) women were included in the draft law
d) substitutes could be hired to take someone's place
e) there was racial discrimination in the military
During WWI, American troops fought in all of the following countries except
A unique feature of the U.S. armed forces during World War I was
a) the absence of a draft
b) the use of black soldiers in combat
c) the formation of the Marine Corps
d) the formation of a separate air force
e) the entry of women for the first time
Russia's withdrawal from World War I in 1918 resulted in
a) a communist takeover of that country
b) the U.S' entry into the war
c) the release of thousands of German troops for deployment on the front in France
d) Germany's surrender to the Allies
e) a setback for the idea of a "war for democracy"
The first significant engagement of American troops in a European battle in American history came in the spring of 1918
c) St. Mihiel
d) The Second Battle of the Marne
The Second Battle of the Marne was significant because it
a) was the first time American troops saw action in France
b) forced the Kaiser to abdicate
c) was the first time American troops fought by themselves
d) saw the first use of combat aircraft
e) marked the beginning of a German withdrawal that was never reversed
As a condition of ending World War I, Woodrow Wilson demanded that
a) Germany remove its army from Russia
b) Germany be present at the peace conference
c) the German government pay for war damages
d) the German Kaiser be forced from power
e) Germany accept guilt for the war
The U.S.' main contributions to the Allied victory in World War I included all of the following except
a) battlefield victories
e) financial credit
The Germans were eventually demoralized by
a) the U.S.' military performance
b) defeat of the Battle of Meuse-Argonne
c) the U.S.' troop reserves
d) Russia's entry into the war
e) American propaganda
The chief difference between Woodrow Wilson and the parliamentary statesmen at the Paris peace table was that Wilson
a) lacked their popularity in Europe
b) did not command a legislative majority at home
c) brought some of his political opponents with him
d) refused to play politics with the peace powers
e) was not popular with his own people
Woodrow Wilson's ultimate goal at the Paris Peace conference was to
a) stop the spread of communism
b) blame no one for starting the war
c) force Germany to pay reparations for the war
d) establish the League of Nations
e) create new national states in Europe
At the Paris Peace Conference, Wilson sought all of the following goals except
a) preventing a seizure of territory by the victors
b) an end to the European colonial empires in Africa and Asia
c) a world parliament of nations to provide collective security
d) national self-determination for smaller European nations
e) free trade and freedom of the seas
Opposition to the League of Nations by the U.S. Senate during the Paris Peace Conference
a) gave Allied leaders in Paris a stronger bargaining position
b) resulted in the League's being left out of the final draft of the treaty
c) led to an abandonment of the Monroe Doctrine
d) reinforced German's unwillingness to sigh the treaty
e) forced Wilson to weaken the League idea
After the Treaty of Versailles had been signed, Wilson
a) remained a popular leader
b) was condemned by both disillusioned liberals and frustrated imperialists
c) was popular only with the Germans
d) admitted that he should nave been willing to compromise
e) planned a shrewd strategy for Senate approval
In the U.S., the most controversial aspect of the Treaty of Versailles was
a) arms limitation
b) open diplomacy
c) the permanent U.S. alliance with France
e) Article X
The Republican strategy regarding the Treaty of Versailles was to
a) delay and amend the treaty
b) defeat the treaty
c) appeal to the American public to support it
d) rush the treaty to a vote before Wilson could get enough support to pass it
e) make the election of 1920 a "solemn referendum" on the treaty
Senate opponents of the League of Nations as proposed in the Treaty of Versailles argued that it
a) failed to provide any German financial reparations for the U.S.
b) violated Wilson's own Fourteen Points
c) robbed Congress of its war-declaring powers
d) isolated the U.S. from postwar world affairs
e) would require U.S. troops to serve in international forces
In Congress, the most reliable support for Wilson's position on the League of nations came from
a) Henry Cabot Lodge
b) pro-league Republicans
c) the irreconcilables
d) Midwestern senators
The Senate likely would have accepted American participation in the League of Nations had Wilson
a) stuck to the principles of his own Fourteen Points
b) personally gone to Europe to negotiate the League Covenant
c) actively campaigned for support from the American public
d) had been willing to compromise with League opponents in Congress
e) run for re-election and won on a pro-League platform
Who was most responsible for the Senate defeat of the Treaty of Versailles?
a) Henry Cabot Lodge
b) Woodrow Wilson
Wilson's "solemn referendum" in 1920 concerned
a) whether he should run for a third term as president
b) the moral fitness of Warren G. Harding for the presidency
c) his attempt to use the presidential election as a public vote on the Treaty of Versailles
d) the role of women in the 1920 election
e) a proposed constitutional amendment authorizing the League
Republican isolationists successfully turned Warren Harding's 1920 presidential victory into a
a) victory for the munitions industry
b) victory for idealism
c) demand for self-sacrifice
d) crusade against Bolshevik communism
e) death sentence for the League of Nations
The major weakness of the League of Nations was that it
a) had no military power
b) did not include the Soviet Union
c) was sued by Hitler to gain power
d) did not include the U.S.
e) permitted a veto by the great powers
As World War I began in Europe, the alliance system placed Germany
and Austria-Hungary as leaders of the __________, while Russia and
France were among the _________
a. Central Powers; Holy Alliance
b. Central Powers; Triple Alliance
c. Allies; Central Powers
d. Triple Alliance; Central Powers
e. Central Powers; Allies
From 1914 to 1916, trade between the United States and Britain
a. decreased considerably.
b. violated international neutrality laws.
c. was carried only on British ships.
d. was based on weapons shipments.
e. pulled the American economy out of a recession.
With the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the great majority of Americans
a. earnestly hoped to stay out of the war.
b. favored entering the war in support of the Allies.
c. supported the Central Powers.
d. wanted to form a military alliance of neutral nations.
e. favored U.S. mediation of the conflict.
One primary effect of World War I on the United States was that it
a. opened new markets in Germany and Austria-Hungary.
b. suffered severe business losses.
c. conducted an immense amount of trade with the Allies.
d. turned more of its economic activity toward Latin America and Asia.
e. virtually ended American international trade.
President Wilson insisted that he would hold ___________ to "strict accountability" for __________.
a. Britain; repaying the loans made to it by American bankers
b. Britain; the disruption of American trade with the European continent
c. Germany; starting the war
d. Germany; fair treatment of civilians in Belgium
e. Germany; the loss of American ships and lives to submarine warfare
German submarines began sinking unarmed and unresisting merchant and passenger ships without warning
a. when the United States entered the war.
b. in retaliation for the British naval blockade of Germany.
c. in an effort to keep the United States out of the war.
d. because international law now allowed this new style of warfare.
e. in a last ditch effort to win the war.
Which of the following American passenger liners was sunk by German submarines?
e. None of these was an American ship.
The Progressive "Bull Moose" party died when
a. Teddy Roosevelt refused to run as the party's presidential candidate in 1916.
b. Teddy Roosevelt lost the presidential race in 1916.
c. the United States entered World War I.
d. the Republican candidate, Charles Evans Hughes, advocated the same programs as Roosevelt.
e. Woodrow Wilson won over most Bull Moose voters.
In the Sussex pledge, Germany promised
a. not to sink passenger ships.
b. to maintain the territorial integrity of France.
c. to halt its naval blockade of Britain.
d. to halt all submarine warfare.
e. not to sink passenger ships without warning.
When Woodrow Wilson won reelection in 1916, he received strong support from the
a. East Coast.
b. working class.
c. business community.
d. pro-war members of both parties.
e. new women voters.