Pathophysiology - E-Book: CH. 36-38, 40-41 Flashcards


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Pathophysiology - E-Book
Chapters 36-38, 40, 41
updated 2 years ago by Coffeequ33n
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pathophysiology, medical, physiology, pathology
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1

A laboratory finding that would help confirm the diagnosis of hyperaldosteronism is

hypokalemia.

2

A thyroid gland that grows larger than normal is known as

goiter.

3

Premature infants are at greater risk for developing

necrotizing enterocolitis.

4

Celiac sprue is a malabsorptive disorder associated with

inflammatory reaction to gluten-containing foods.

5

Insulin binding to its receptor on target cells results in

increased facilitated cellular diffusion of glucose

6

Steatohepatitis is caused by an accumulation of ________ in the liver cells.

fat.

7

A patient who should be routinely evaluated for peptic ulcer disease is one who is

being treated with high-dose oral glucocorticoids

8

Chronic pancreatitis may lead to

diabetes mellitus.

9

Pathophysiologically, esophageal varices can be attributed to

portal hypertension

10

A patient presenting with muscle cramps, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and prolonged Q-T intervals on EKG may be showing symptoms of

hypoparathyroidism.

11

Fecal leukocyte screening would be indicated in a patient with suspected

enterocolitis.

12

The underlying pathogenic mechanism for type 2 diabetes is

insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction

13

Jaundice is a common manifestation of

liver disease.

14

A tumor which results in excessive production and release of catecholamines is

pheochromocytoma.

15

A viral hepatitis screen with positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) should be interpreted as ________ hepatitis B.

acute

16

Radioactive iodine treatment is the therapy of choice in patients with Graves disease. The patient should be expected to

need lifelong thyroid replacement therapy.

17

Rupture of esophageal varices is a complication of cirrhosis with portal hypertension and carries a high ________ rate.

mortality

18

Patients with acute pancreatitis are generally made NPO and may require continuous gastric suctioning in order to

remove the usual stimuli for pancreatic secretion.

19

Brain injury secondary to high serum bilirubin is called

kernicterus.

20

The definitive treatment for cholecystitis is

cholecystectomy.

21

Propylthiouracil may be used to treat hyperthyroidism, because it

inhibits thyroid hormone synthesis.

22

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (adrenogenital syndrome) results from

blocked cortisol production

23

Acute right lower quadrant pain associated with rebound tenderness and systemic signs of inflammation are indicative of

appendicitis

24

Epigastric pain that is relieved by food is suggestive of

gastric ulcer

25

_______ is the most powerful predictor of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Obesity

26

________ disease is a rare autosomal recessive disorder in which excessive amounts of copper accumulate in the liver.

Wilson

27

A type of insulin that would be most appropriate for acute management of hyperglycemia is

regular.

28

More than half of the initial cases of pancreatitis are associated with

alcoholism

29

A patient with a history of alcoholism presents with hematemesis and profound anemia. The expected diagnosis is

gastroesophageal varices.

30

Calcitonin is produced by thyroid parafollicular cells and increases bone formation by

osteoblasts.

31

An increased urine bilirubin is associated with

hepatitis.

32

A patient being treated for hepatic encephalopathy could be expected to receive a(n) ________ diet.

low-protein and high-fiber

33

Normal bile is composed of

water, electrolytes, and organic solutes.

34

Diabetic neuropathy is thought to result from

decreased myoinositol transport.

35

Hepatic encephalopathy is associated with

increased blood ammonia levels.

36

Growth hormone-deficient infants would display

normal birth length and weight.

37

The breakdown of stored glycogen in the liver and muscles is called

glycogenolysis.

38

A clinical finding consistent with a diagnosis of syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH) is

hyponatremia.

39

Hepatitis B is usually transmitted by exposure to

blood or semen.

40

Liver transaminase elevations in which aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is markedly greater than alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is characteristic of

alcohol-induced injury

41

Diabetes mellitus is the ________ leading cause of death and a major cause of disability in the United States.

seventh

42

A patient reporting vision changes, photophobia, and lid lag may be exhibiting signs of

Graves disease.

43

It is true that Graves disease is

associated with autoantibodies to TSH receptors.

44

What indicator is most helpful in evaluating long-term blood glucose management in patients with diabetes mellitus?

Glycosylated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c)

45

It is true that the synthesis of thyroid hormones

is inhibited by iodine deficiency.

46

It is true that growth hormone in excess in adults:

Results in the condition of acromegaly

47

A clinical finding that is consistent with a diagnosis of adrenocortical insufficiency is

hypoglycemia.

48

A clinical finding consistent with a hypoglycemic reaction is

tremors.

49

Myxedema coma is a severe condition associated with

hypothyroidism.

50

The most common causes of prehepatic jaundice are ________ and ineffective erythropoiesis.

hemolysis

51

Which symptom suggest the presence of a hiatal hernia?

Heartburn

52

An early indicator of colon cancer is

a change in bowel habits

53

What clinical finding would suggest an esophageal cause of a client's report of dysphagia?

chest pain during meals

54

A patient with chronic gastritis would likely be tested for

H. Pylori

55

Barrett esophagus is a

preneoplastic lesion

56

What finding would rule out a diagnosis of IBS in a patient with chronic diarrhea?

bloody stools

57

A patient receiving chemotherapy may be at a greater risk for development of

stomatits

58

Most gallstones are composed of

cholesterol.

59

Proton pump inhibitors may be used in the management of peptic ulcer disease to

decrease hydrochloric acid (HCl) secretion.

60

A patient with pancreatitis may experience muscle cramps secondary to

hypocalcemia.

61

A biliary cause of acute pancreatitis is suggested by an elevation in which serum laboratory results?

Alkaline phosphatase

62

Elevated serum lipase and amylase levels are indicative of

pancreatitis.

63

What finding should prompt further diagnostic testing in a child presenting with diarrhea?

Blood and mucus in the stools

64

The underlying pathogenic mechanism for type 1 diabetes is

pancreatic alpha-cell destruction.

65

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is often associated with

nonketotic hyperosmolality

66

The American Diabetes Association recommends a postprandial blood glucose level of ________ mg/dl for adults with diabetes

less than 180

67

A patient admitted with bleeding related to esophageal varices could be expected to receive a continuous intravenous infusion of

octreotide acetate.

68

An infusion of mannitol would be prescribed to treat

cerebral edema.

69

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) increases

water reabsorption in the collecting tubule of the kidney.

70

Myxedema coma is a severe condition associated with

hypothyroidism.

71

Which response to an injection of ACTH indicates a primary adrenal insufficiency?

No change in serum glucocorticoid level

72

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (adrenogenital syndrome) results from

blocked cortisol production.

73

The pain associated with chronic pancreatitis is generally described as ________ in nature.

steady and boring

74

What indicator is most helpful in evaluating long term blood glucose management in patients with diabetes mellitus?

glycosylated hemoglobin levels

75

Which are clinical findings usually associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus

Polyuris, Polydipsia, Polyphaga

76

An increase in ADH secretion occurs in response to

dehydration

77

Surgical removal of a gland may result in

hyposecretion.

78

The finding of hypotension, rigid abdomen, and absent bowel sounds in a patient with pancreatitis

indicates peritonitis with substantial risk for sepsis and shock

79

It is true that gallstones are

more common in women.

80

What effect would adrenocortical insufficiency have on an individual’s response to surgical stress?

More prone to hypotension

81

Clinical manifestations of Graves disease may include

tremor

82

The formation of active vitamin D

is impaired in renal failure.

83

The signs and symptoms of adrenocortical hormone excess may occur from either a primary or secondary disorder. A symptom associated with primary Cushing syndrome is

hyperglycemia.

84

Dumping syndrome is commonly seen after __________ procedures.

gastric bypass

85

Diabetes insipidus is a condition that

results from inadequate ADH secretion.

86

The most common causes of prehepatic jaundice are ________ and ineffective erythropoiesis.

hemolysis

87

Aldosterone secretion is regulated by the presence of ________ in the circulation.

angiotensin II