Exercise 41A: Urinalysis

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created 9 years ago by jncanf
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pg. 627 - pg. 628
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1

WHAT IS THE NORMAL VOLUME OF URINE EXCRETED IN A 24-HOUR PERIOD?

1.0 - 1.8 LITERS

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ASSUMING NORMAL CONDITIONS, NOTE WHETHER EACH OF THE FOLLOWING SUBSTANCES WOULD BE (A) IN GREATER RELATIVE CONCENTRATION IN THE URINE THAN IN THE GLOMERULAR FILTRATE, (B) IN LESSER CONCENTRATION IN THE URINE THAN IN THE GLOMERULAR FILTRATE, OR (C) ABSENT FROM BOTH THE URINE AND THE GLOMERULAR FILTRATE.
1. WATER
2. PHOSPHATE IONS
3. SULFATE IONS
4. POTASSIUM IONS
5. SODIUM IONS

1. B
2. A
3. A
4. A
5. B

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ASSUMING NORMAL CONDITIONS, NOTE WHETHER EACH OF THE FOLLOWING SUBSTANCES WOULD BE (A) IN GREATER RELATIVE CONCENTRATION IN THE URINE THAN IN THE GLOMERULAR FILTRATE, (B) IN LESSER CONCENTRATION IN THE URINE THAN IN THE GLOMERULAR FILTRATE, OR (C) ABSENT FROM BOTH THE URINE AND THE GLOMERULAR FILTRATE.
6. AMINO ACID
7. GLUCOSE
8. ALBUMIN
9. RED BLOOD CELLS
10. UREA

6. B
7. B
8. C
9. C
10. A

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ASSUMING NORMAL CONDITIONS, NOTE WHETHER EACH OF THE FOLLOWING SUBSTANCES WOULD BE (A) IN GREATER RELATIVE CONCENTRATION IN THE URINE THAN IN THE GLOMERULAR FILTRATE, (B) IN LESSER CONCENTRATION IN THE URINE THAN IN THE GLOMERULAR FILTRATE, OR (C) ABSENT FROM BOTH THE URINE AND THE GLOMERULAR FILTRATE.
11. URIC ACID
12. CREATININE
13. PUS (WBCs)
14. NITRITES

11. A
12. A
13. C
14. C

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EXPLAIN WHY URINALYSIS IS A ROUTINE PART OF ANY GOOD PHYSICAL EXAMINATION

FINDING ABNORMAL CONSTITUENTS IN THE URINE MAY INDICATE PATHOLOGY

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WHAT SUBSTANCE IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE NORMAL YELLOW COLOR OF URINE?

UROCHROME

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WHICH HAS A GREATER SPECIFIC GRAVITY: 1 mL OF URINE OR 1 mL OF DISTILLED WATER? EXPLAIN YOUR ANSWER.

URINE; BECAUSE IT CONTAINS DISSOLVED SOLUTES, WHICH ARE NOT FOUND IN DISTILLED WATER AND ADD TO THE DENSITY OF THE SAMPLE.

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EXPLAIN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE COLOR, SPECIFIC GRAVITY, AND VOLUME OF URINE.

GENERALLY, THE SMALLER THE VOLUME, THE GREATER THE SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND THE DEEPER THE COLOR.

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A MICROSCOPE EXAMINATION OF URINE MAY REVEAL THE PRESENCE OF CERTAIN ABNORMAL URINARY CONSTITUENTS. NAME THREE CONSTITUENTS THAT MIGHT BE PRESENT IF A URINARY TRACT INFECTION EXISTS.

WBCs (PUS), RBCs, AND CASTS

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HOW DOES A URINARY TRACT INFECTION INFLUENCE URINE pH?

ALKALINE

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HOW DOES STARVATION INFLUENCE URINE pH?

ACID

12

ALL URINE SPECIMENS BECOME ALKALINE AND CLOUDY ON STANDING AT ROOM TEMPERATURE. EXPLAIN WHY?

BACTERIAL METABOLISM COMPONENTS

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PRESENCE OF ERYTHROCYTES IN THE URINE

HEMATURIA

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PRESENCE OF HEMAGLOBIN IN THE URINE

HEMOGLOBINURIA

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PRESENCE OF GLUCOSE IN THE URINE

GLYCOSURIA

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PRESENCE OF ALBUMIN IN THE URINE

ALBUMINURIA

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PRESENCE OF KETONE BODIES (ACETONE AND OTHERS) IN THE URINE

KETONURIA

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PRESENCE OF PUS (WHITE BLOOD CELLS) IN THE URINE

PYURIA

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WHAT ARE RENAL CALCULI, AND WHAT CONDITIONS FAVOR THEIR FORMATION.

THEY ARE KIDNEY STONES; URINARY RETENTION, URINARY TRACT INFECTION, AND ALKALINE URINE.

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GLUCOSE AND ALBUMIN ARE BOTH NORMALLY ABSENT IN THE URINE, BUT THE REASON FOR THEIR EXCLUSION DIFFERS. EXPLAIN THE REASON FOR THE ABSENCE OF GLUCOSE.

GLUCOSE IS COMPLETELY REABSORBED (UNLESS PRESENT IN THE BLOOD IN EXCESSIVE LEVELS)

21

EXPLAIN THE REASON FOR THE ABSENCE OF ALBUMIN.

IT IS TOO LARGE TO PASS THROUGH THE FILTRATION MEMBRANE.

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THE PRESENCE OF ABNORMAL CONSTITUENTS OR CONDITIONS IN URINE MAY BE ASSOCIATED WITH DISEASE, DISORDERS, AND OTHER CAUSES LISTED IN THE KEY. SELECT AND LIST ALL CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH EACH NUMBERED ITEM.

1. LOW SPECIFIC GRAVITY
2. HIGH SPECIFIC GRAVITY
3. GLUCOSE
4. ALBUMIN
5. BLOOD CELLS

1. B. DIABETES INSIPIDUS
2. I. KIDNEY STONES, C. DIABETES MELLITUS, K. PYELONEPHRITIS. AND F. GONORRHEA
3. C. DIABETES MELLITUS, D. EATING A 5-LB BOX OF SWEETS FOR LUNCH
4. E. GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, J. PREGNANCY, EXERTION
5. I. KIDNEY STONES, A. CYSTITIS (INFLAMMATION OF THE BLADDER)

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THE PRESENCE OF ABNORMAL CONSTITUENTS OR CONDITIONS IN URINE MAY BE ASSOCIATED WITH DISEASE, DISORDERS, AND OTHER CAUSES LISTED IN THE KEY. SELECT AND LIST ALL CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH EACH NUMBERED ITEM.

6. HEMOGLOBIN
7. BILIRUBIN
8. KETONE BODIES
9. CASTS
10. PUS

6. G. HEMOLYTIC ANEMIAS
7. H. HEPATITIS, CIRRHOSIS OF THE LIVER
8. C. DIABETES MELLITUS, L. STARVATION
9. E. GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, K. PYELONEPHRITIS
10. K. PYELONEPHRITIS, F. GONORRHEA, A. CYSTITIS (INFLAMMATION OF THE BLADDER)

24

NAME THE THREE MAJOR NITROGENOUS WASTES FOUND IN THE URINE.

UREA, URIC ACID, AND CREATININE

25

EXPLAIN THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ORGANIZED AND UNORGANIZED SEDIMENTS.

ORGANIZED SEDIMENTS ARE SUBSTANCES THAT FORM CRYSTALS OR PRECIPITATE FROM SOLUTION AND UNORGANIZED SEDIMENTS ARE CELLULAR ELEMENTS (WBC, RBC, ETC.)

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