Pathophysiology - E-Book: Ch 22, 23, 24, 25 Flashcards


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Pathophysiology - E-Book
Chapters 22-25
Subjects:
pathophysiology, medical, physiology, pathology
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1

A patient exhibiting respiratory distress as well as a tracheal shift should be evaluated for

pneumothorax.

2

A patient who reports an intestinal fistula also reports feeling “weak and dizzy” when she stands. While taking her blood pressure she becomes temporarily unresponsive but quickly regains consciousness when put into a supine position. What nursing interventions will the nurse implement before calling the physician?

Give her water or juice and some salty crackers and ask if she has had any diarrhea or vomiting.

3

Early manifestations of a developing metabolic acidosis include

headache.

4

Pneumocystitis is a term that refers to a

fungal pneumonia secondary to HIV

5

Clinical manifestations of moderate to severe hypokalemia include

muscle weakness and cardiac dysrhythmias.

6

Hypernatremia may be caused by

decreased antidiuretic hormone secretion

7

Respiratory acidosis may be caused by

hypoventilation.

8

What age group has a larger volume of extracellular fluid than intracellular fluid?

Infants

9

Diarrhea causes

metabolic acidosis.

10

Chronic bronchitis often leads to cor pulmonale because of

increased pulmonary vascular resistance.

11

Renal compensation for respiratory acidosis is evidenced by

elevated bicarbonate ion concentration.

12

A patient has been hospitalized several times in 6 months with severe ECV depletion and hypokalemia resulting from chronic laxative abuse. Which blood gas results should be relayed to the physician?

pH in high part of normal range, PaO2 normal, PaCO2 high, bicarbonate high

13

Asthma is categorized as a(n)

obstructive pulmonary disorder.

14

If an individual has a fully compensated metabolic acidosis, the blood pH is

in the normal range.

15

The arterial blood gas pH = 7.52, PaCO 2 = 30 mm Hg, HCO 3 = 24 mEq/L demonstrates

respiratory alkalosis.

16

The inward-pulling force of particles in the vascular fluid is called _____ pressure.

capillary osmotic

17

Croup is characterized by

a barking cough.

18

Which disorder is caused by inhalation of organic substances?

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis

19

The patient who requires the most careful monitoring for development of metabolic acidosis is a patient who

has had diarrhea for over a week.

20

Vomiting of stomach contents or continuous nasogastric suctioning may predispose to development of

metabolic acid deficit.

21

Widespread atelectasis, non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, and diffuse, fluffy alveolar infiltrates on chest radiograph are characteristic of

acute respiratory distress syndrome.

22

COPD leads to a barrel chest, because it causes

air trapping.

23

Empyema is defined as an

infection in the pleural space

24

Emphysema results from destruction of alveolar walls and capillaries, which is because of

release of proteolytic enzymes from immune cells.

25

Diarrhea and other lower intestinal fluid losses will contribute to

metabolic acidosis.

26

Accumulation of fluid in the pleural space is called

pleural effusion.

27

The primary cause of infant respiratory distress syndrome is

lack of surfactant.

28

When a parent of a toddler recently diagnosed with pneumococcal pneumonia asks why their child is so much sicker than a classmate was when they were diagnosed with pneumonia, the nurse replies

It sounds like your child has a case of bacterial pneumonia, while the classmate had viral pneumonia.

29

Two primary acid-base disorders that are present independently are referred to as

mixed acid-base imbalance.

30

A patient with flail chest will demonstrate

outward chest movement on expiration.

31

Individuals who have chronic bronchitis most often have

a productive cough.

32

The finding of ketones in the blood suggests that a person may have

metabolic acidosis.

33

Respiratory acidosis is associated with

increased carbonic acid

34

When a parent asks how they will know if their 2-month-old baby, who is throwing up and has frequent diarrhea, is dehydrated, the nurse’s best response is

“If the soft spot on the top of his head feels sunken in and his mouth is dry between his cheek and his gums, then he is probably dehydrated."

35

A person who experiences a panic attack and develops hyperventilation symptoms may experience

numbness and tingling in the extremities.

36

A restrictive respiratory disorder is characterized by

decreased residual volume.

37

Air that enters the pleural space during inspiration but is unable to exit during expiration creates a condition called

tension pneumothorax.

38

The body compensates for metabolic alkalosis by

hypoventilation.

39

The imbalance that occurs with oliguric renal failure is

hyperkalemia.

40

Total body water in older adults is

decreased because of increased adipose tissue and decreased muscle mass.

41

A major cause of treatment failure in tuberculosis is

noncompliance.

42

A patient with a productive cough and parenchymal infiltrates on x-ray is demonstrating symptomology of

bacterial pneumonia.

43

All obstructive pulmonary disorders are characterized by

resistance to airflow

44

Bacterial pneumonia leads to hypoxemia due to

accumulation of alveolar exudates.

45

Chronic occupational lung disease is characterized by

causation from long-term inhalation of inorganic material.

a latent period before symptoms occur.

a progressive cough and dyspnea with exercise.

possible negative chest x-ray when symptom-free.

46

Clinical manifestations of hyponatremia include

confusion, lethargy, coma, and perhaps seizures.

47

Clinical manifestations of pleural effusion include

dyspnea.

diminished breath sounds.

a tracheal shift, if large.

48

Effects of hypernatremia on the central nervous system typically include

confusion.

49

Excessive antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion can cause _____ concentration.

decreased serum sodium

50

Hypernatremia may be caused by

decreased antidiuretic hormone secretion.

51

Manifestations from sodium imbalances occur primarily due to

cellular fluid shifts.

52

Neuromuscular disorders impair lung function primarily due to

weak muscles of respiration.

53

The hallmark manifestation of acute respiratory distress

hypoxemia.

54

What is the most likely explanation for a diagnosis of hypernatremia in an elderly patient receiving tube feeding?

Inadequate water intake

55

A patient diagnosed with chronic compensated heart failure reports that, "My feet swell if I eat salt but I don't understand why" The nurse's best response is

"Salt holds water in your blood and makes more pressure against your blood vessels, so fluid leaks out into your tissues and makes them swell."

56

A person with acute hypoxemia may hyperventilate and develop

respiratory alkalosis.

57

After evaluation, a child's asthma is characterized as "extrinsic." This means that the asthma is

associated with specific allergic triggers.

58

Which pulmonary function test result is consistent with a diagnosis of asthma?

Reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)

59

What form of oral rehydration, bottled water or salty broth, is best suited for a patient who is demonstrating signs of clinical dehydration?

Salty soup, because it will provide some sodium to help hold the fluid in his blood vessels and interstitial fluid

60

Cystic fibrosis is associated with

bronchiectasis.

61

The ________ system compensates for metabolic acidosis and alkalosis.

respiratory

62

The process responsible for distribution of fluid between the interstitial and intracellular compartments is

osmosis.

63

Obstructive disorders are associated with

low expiratory flow rates.

64

The arterial blood gas pH = 7.52, PaCO2 = 30 mm Hg, HCO3 = 24 mEq/L demonstrates

respiratory alkalosis

65

Fully compensated respiratory acidosis is demonstrated by

pH 7.36, PaCO2 55, HCO3 36

66

Respiratory acidosis is associated with

increased carbonic acid

67

A person with acute hypoxemia may have hyperventilation and develop

respiratory alkalosis

68

The major buffer in the extracellular fluid is

bicarbonate

69

Renal compensation for respiratory acidosis is evidenced by

elevated bicarbonate ion concentration.

70

Uncompensated metabolic alkalosis would result in

increased pH, increased HCO3

71

Metabolic alkalosis is often accompanied by

hypokalemia

72

A 3 year old is diagnosed with starvation ketoacidosis. What signs and symptoms should you anticipate in your assessment?

Rapid, deep breathing, lethargy, abdominal pain

73

Osmoreceptors located in the hypothalamus control the release of:

Vasopressin (ADH)

74

Decreased neuromuscular excitability is often the result of

hypercalcemia and hypermagnesemia

75

Abnormalities in intracellular regulation of ensyme activity and cellular production of ATP are associated with

hypophosphatemia

76

The fraction of total body water (TBW) volume contained in the intracellular space in adults is

two-thirds

77

Clinical manifestations of severe symptomatic hypophosphatemia are cause by

deficiency of ATP

78

A person who overuses magnesium-aluminum antacids for a long period of time is likely to develop

hypophosphatemia

79

How do clinical conditions hat increase vascular permeability cause edema?

By allowing plasma proteins to leak into the interstitial fluid, which draws in excess fluid by increasing the interstitial fluid osmotic pressure

80

Which electrolyte imbalances cause increased neuromuscular excitability?

Hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia

81

Copious amounts of foul-smelling sputum are generally associated with

Bronchiectasis

82

Intrinsic asthma is associated with

Respiratory infections and psychological factors

83

What is true about epiglottitis?

Can be caused by bacteria
Usually caused by H.Influenza type B
Usually occurs in children
Characterized by pain with swallowing
MEDICAL EMERGENCY AND REQUIRES IMMEDIATE INTERVENTION

84

A major risk factor for the development of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) disease is

immunosuppression

85

The most definitive diagnostic method for active tuberculosis is acquired via

sputum culture.