1) When consumers examine products, they often compare an observed
price to an internal price they remember. This is known as a(n)
Page Ref: 387
2) ________ price refers to what the consumers feel the product
C) Usual discounted
E) Maximum retail
3) While shopping at the mall, Jane was asked by one of the sales
representatives at the cosmetics counter to try out a new lipstick
that her company was test marketing. The company representative asks
her how much she would be willing to pay for the lipstick. After
trying it out, Jane is of the opinion that $5 is just the right price
for it. What type of a reference price is Jane using?
A) usual discounted price
B) fair price
C) maximum retail price
D) last price paid
E) historical competitor price
Page Ref: 387
4) The reservation price or the maximum that most consumers would pay
for a given product is known as the ________ price.
A) expected future
B) usual discounted
E) historical competitor
Page Ref: 387
5) A company decided to conduct a market survey for its new MP3
player which it had priced at $150. However, in the survey, 95 percent
of the participants said that the maximum they would pay for the MP3
player is $100. This is an example of which of the following possible
consumer reference prices?
A) historical competitor price
B) expected future price
C) usual discounted price
D) upper-bound price
E) last price paid
6) The minimum price that most consumers would pay for a given
product is known as the ________ price.
A) everyday low
B) usual discounted
7) A company has developed the prototype of a mobile phone which it
plans to launch in the next few months. The phone comes equipped with
the most advanced technological features. As part of its test
marketing efforts, it allows customers to examine and use the
prototype and also gathers feedback regarding product features and
price. The results of this test marketing effort show that customers
are willing to pay at least $500, considering the phone's various
features. As such, the company has found out about the customers'
A) last paid price
B) expected future price
C) lower-bound price
D) upper-bound price
E) typical price
8) Many consumers are willing to pay $100 for a perfume that contains $10 worth of scent because the perfume is from a well-known brand. What kind of a pricing is the company depending on? A) going-rate pricing B) image pricing C) market-skimming pricing D) target pricing E) markup pricing
9) Pricing cues such as sale signs and prices that end in 9 are more influential ________. A) when customers have substantial knowledge about prices B) when customers purchase the particular item regularly C) when product quality is standardized D) when product designs vary over time E) when prices do not vary from time to time Page Ref: 388
10) Which of the following is the first step in setting a pricing policy? A) selecting a pricing method B) selecting the pricing objective C) determining demand D) estimating cost E) analyzing competitors' costs, prices, and offers Page Ref: 389
11) After determining its pricing objectives, what is the next logical step a firm should take in setting its pricing policy? A) It should analyze its competitors' costs, prices, and offers. B) It should select its pricing method. C) It should select its final price. D) It should determine the demand for its product. E) It should estimate the cost of its product. Page Ref: 389
12) A firm that is plagued with overcapacity, intense competition, or changing wants would do better if it pursues ________ as its major objective.
A) market skimming
B) product-quality leadership
D) profit maximization
E) market penetration
13) After estimating the demand and costs associated with alternative prices, a company has chosen to price its product in such a way that it gains the highest rate of return on its investment. The company is looking to ________.
A) maximize its market share
B) skim the market
C) become a product-quality leader
D) survive in the market
E) maximize its current profit Page Ref: 389
14) Companies who believe that a higher sales volume leads to lower unit costs and higher long-run profits are attempting to ________. A) maximize their market share B) skim the market C) become a product-quality leader D) merely survive in the market E) maximize their current profits
15) A company that is looking to maximize its market share would do well to follow ________ pricing. A) markup B) market-penetration C) market-skimming D) survival E) target-return
16) A market-penetration pricing strategy is most suitable when _______. A) a low price slows down market growth B) production and distribution costs fall with accumulated production experience C) a high price dissuades potential competitors from entering the market D) the market is characterized by inelastic demand E) a low price encourages actual competition
17) When a company introduces a product at a very high price and then gradually drops the price over time, it is pursuing a ________ strategy. A) market-penetration pricing B) market-skimming pricing C) value-pricing D) switching cost E) loss-leader pricing Page Ref: 390
18) When Apple introduced its iPhone, it was priced at $599. This allowed Apple to earn the maximum amount of revenue from the various segments of the market. Two months after the introduction, the price has come down to $399. What kind of a pricing did Apple adopt? A) loss-leader pricing B) market-penetration pricing C) market-skimming pricing D) target-return pricing E) value pricing Page Ref: 390
19) Market skimming pricing makes sense under all the following conditions, EXCEPT ________. A) if a sufficient number of buyers have a high current demand B) if the unit costs of producing a small volume are high enough to cancel the advantage of charging what the traffic will bear C) if the high initial price does not attract more competitors to the market D) if consumers are likely to delay buying the product until its price drops E) if the high price communicates the image of a superior product
20) Companies that aim to ________ strive to be affordable luxuries. A) survive in the market B) partially recover their costs C) maximize their market share D) pursue value pricing E) be product-quality leaders
21) Starbucks, Aveda, and BMW have been able to position themselves within their categories by combining quality, luxury, and premium prices with an intensely loyal customer base. These companies are employing a ________ strategy.
D) market share maximization
E) product-quality leadership
22) The first step in estimating demand is to ________.
A) analyze competitors' cost
B) select a pricing method
C) understand what affects price sensitivity
D) calculate fixed costs
E) decipher the experience curve
23) Consumers are less price sensitive ________.
A) to high cost items
B) when they frequently change their buying habits
C) when there are more substitutes
D) when there are more competitors
E) when they do not readily notice higher prices Page Ref: 390-391
24) Consumers are less price sensitive when ________.
A) price is only a small part of the total cost spent on the product over its lifetime
B) they perceive the higher prices to be unjustified
C) they change their buying habits regularly
D) there are many substitutes and competitors in the market
E) they are buying high-cost items
25) If demand hardly changes with a small change in price, the demand is said to be ________.
E) unit elastic
26) If demand changes considerably, with a small change in price, the demand is said to be ________.
A) unit elastic
E) strained Page Ref: 392
27) If consumers were largely indifferent to a $0.5 increase in the price of a gallon of milk, the price rise is said to fall within customers' ________.
A) price indifference band
B) experience curve
C) arm's-length price
D) learning curve
E) net price index Page Ref: 392
28) Which of the following is true regarding price elasticity? A) The higher the elasticity, the lesser is the volume growth resulting from a 1 percent price reduction. B) Within the price indifference band, price changes have little or no effect on demand. C) If demand is elastic, sellers will consider increasing the price. D) Price elasticity does not depend on magnitude and direction of the contemplated price change. E) When demand is inelastic, sellers should lower prices in order to increase total revenue.
29) Costs that do not vary with production levels or sales revenue are known as ________. A) overhead costs B) variable costs C) average costs D) opportunity costs E) total costs Page Ref: 393
30) A company must make payments each month for rent, heat, interest, and salaries. These are ________.
A) total costs
B) fixed costs
C) variable costs
D) opportunity costs
E) target costs Page Ref: 393
31) Costs that differ directly with the level of production are known as ________.
A) fixed costs
B) overhead costs
C) opportunity costs
D) target costs
E) variable costs Page Ref: 393
32) ________ consist of the sum of the fixed and variable costs for any given level of production. A) Total costs B) Average costs C) Opportunity costs D) Learning costs E) Target costs
33) ________ is the cost per unit at that level of production. A) Target cost B) Average cost C) Marginal cost D) Opportunity cost E) Fixed cost
34) The decline in the average cost of production with accumulated production experience is called the ________. A) demand curve B) supply chain C) learning curve D) value chain E) indifference curve
35) Experience-curve pricing ________. A) assumes competitors are weak followers B) allows products to project a high quality image C) is applicable only to manufacturing costs D) focuses on reducing fixed costs E) is generally risk-free Page Ref: 394
36) Deducting the desired profit margin from the price at which a product will sell, given its appeal and competitors' prices, is known as ________. A) overhead costing B) target costing C) activity based costing D) benefit analysis E) estimate costing Page Ref: 394
37) Competitors are most likely to react to a price change, when ________. A) the firm has a weak value proposition B) the firm enjoys a monopoly C) there are few competing firms D) the product is heterogeneous E) buyers have limited information
38) Which of the following is the most elementary pricing method? A) value pricing B) going-rate pricing C) markup pricing D) target-return pricing E) perceived-value pricing
39) Despite its weaknesses, markup pricing remains popular for which of the following reasons? A) Sellers can determine demand much more easily than they can estimate costs. B) By tying the price to cost, the pricing task becomes more sophisticated. C) When all firms in the industry use markup pricing, price competition flourishes. D) Sellers take advantage of buyers when the latter's demand becomes acute. E) Many people feel that cost-plus pricing is fairer to both buyers and sellers.
40) A manufacturer has invested $750,000 in a new product and wants to set a price to earn a 15 percent ROI. The cost per unit is $18 and the company expects to sell 50,000 units in the first year. Calculate the company's target-return price for this product. A) $20.25 B) $18.23 C) $18.10 D) $20.70 E) $25.50
41) An umbrella manufacturing company's fixed costs are $275,000. The variable cost per unit is $5 and each umbrella is sold at $10. How many units should the firm sell in order to break even? A) 18000 B) 5500 C) 27500 D) 55000 E) 1819
42) ________ pricing takes into account a host of inputs, such as the buyer's image of the product performance, the channel deliverables, the warranty quality, customer support, and attributes such as the supplier's reputation, trustworthiness, and esteem. A) Perceived-value B) Value C) Going-rate D) Auction-type E) Markup
43) The key to perceived-value pricing is to ________. A) reengineer the company's operations B) deliver more unique value than competitors C) adopt subtle marketing tactics compared to competitors D) deliver more value but at a lower cost E) invest heavily in advertising in order to convey superior value
44) ________ pricing is a matter of reengineering the company's operations to become a low-cost producer without sacrificing quality. A) Value B) Going-rate C) Auction-type D) Markup E) Perceived-value
45) A retailer who holds on to a(n) ________ policy charges a constant low price with little or no price promotions and special sales. A) everyday low pricing B) high-low pricing C) low cost D) going-rate pricing E) auction-type pricing
46) Matt's retail store offers all its products at $2 lesser than its competitors throughout the year. The store never runs any promotional campaigns or offers any additional special discounts. Matt's retail store is following a(n) ________. A) auction-type pricing policy B) target-plus pricing policy C) everyday low pricing policy D) high-low pricing policy E) going-rate pricing policy
47) Everyday low pricing is most suitable if ________. A) consumers are willing to perform activities such as clip coupons to avail of discounts B) consumers tend to associate price with quality C) customers are insensitive to changes in price D) the cost of conducting frequent sales and promotions is high E) consumers have sufficient time to find the best prices
48) In ________, the firm bases its price largely on competitor's prices. A) going-rate pricing B) auction-type pricing C) markup pricing D) target-return pricing E) perceived-value pricing
49) Which of the following auctions is characterized by one seller and many buyers? A) Walrasian auctions B) ascending bid auctions C) closed auctions D) sealed-bid auctions E) reverse auctions
50) In which of the following auctions does the auctioneer first announce a high price for a product and then slowly decreases the price until a bidder accepts? A) a Dutch auction with one buyer and many sellers B) an English auction with one seller and many buyers C) an ascending bid auction D) a sealed-bid auction E) a Dutch auction with one seller and many buyers
51) In a(n) ________, the buyer announces something he or she wants to buy, and potential sellers compete to offer the lowest price.
A) Dutch auction with one buyer and many sellers
B) English auction with one buyer and many sellers
C) English auction with one seller and many buyers
D) sealed-bid auction
E) ascending auction
52) ________ let would-be suppliers submit only one bid; they cannot know the other bids.
A) Descending bid auctions
B) Sealed-bid auctions
C) English auctions
D) Dutch auctions
E) Reverse auctions
Easy 53) In which of the following forms of countertrade do buyers and sellers directly exchange goods, with no money and no third party is involved?
A) buyback arrangements
D) sealed bids
E) compensation deals
Easy 54) A Japanese firm is ready to sell its recent technological innovation to the U.S. government. But it has asked for 80 percent in cash and the rest in mica. The Japanese firm is looking to enter into a(n) ________ with the U.S. government.
A) functional discount
B) compensation deal
C) buyback arrangement
D) offset agreement
E) barter deal
55) Armac Ltd., is a sluice-box manufacturer based in China. A sluice-box is used for gold prospecting. Armac is interested in selling a few of its machines to an American mining company, but it wants 95 percent of the machines' price in gold and the rest in ores recovered by using the machines. This is an example of a ________.
A) buyback arrangement
B) functional discount
C) barter deal
D) compensation deal
E) sealed bid
56) ROC Engineering, a Chinese shipbuilding company, agrees to build a fleet of submarines for the Sri Lankan navy, for which it will be paid in the local Sri Lankan currency. As per the agreement, ROC must also spend a substantial amount of the money it generates through this deal within the country. In accordance with the contract, ROC buys Sri Lankan tea at a reduced rate. This is an example of which of the following forms of countertrade?
A) descending bid
D) compensation deal
E) buyback arrangement
57) ________ are offered by a manufacturer to trade-channel members if they will perform certain functions, such as selling, storing, and record keeping.
A) Consumer promotions
B) Quantity discounts
C) Functional discounts
D) Seasonal discounts
E) Trade-in allowances
58) When hotels, motels, and airlines offer discounts in slow selling periods, they are said to be offering ________.
A) trade discounts
B) quantity discounts
C) functional discounts
D) seasonal discounts
E) trade-in allowances
59) A(n) ________ is an extra payment designed to gain reseller participation in special programs. A) seasonal discount B) allowance C) discount D) quantity discount E) functional discount
60) ________ are granted for turning in old item when buying a new one. A) Promotional allowances B) Quantity discounts C) Functional discounts D) Seasonal discounts E) Trade-in allowances
61) ________ reward dealers for participating in advertising and sales support programs. A) Functional discounts B) Trade discounts C) Promotional allowances D) Rebates E) Quantity discounts
62) When supermarkets and department stores drop the price on well-known brands to stimulate store traffic, they are said to be following ________.
A) value pricing
B) loss-leader pricing
C) special event pricing
D) high-low pricing
E) everyday low pricing
63) When Alan bought his car, the bank gave him 24 months to repay his car loan. But when Alan made a request to increase the time frame to 36 months, the bank granted the extension. The bank was willing to offer Alan a ________.
A) longer payment term
B) warranty contract
C) service contract
D) special customer price
E) special event price
64) In ________, the seller charges a separate price to each customer depending on the intensity of his or her demand. A) second-degree price discrimination B) third-degree price discrimination C) psychological discounting D) special-customer pricing E) first-degree price discrimination
65) In second-degree price discrimination, the seller charges ________. A) less to buyers of larger volumes B) different prices depending on the season, day, or hour C) a separate price to each customer depending on the intensity of his or her demand D) different prices for different versions of the same product E) different prices for the same product depending on the channel through which it is sold
66) In ________, the seller charges different amounts to different classes of buyers. A) perceived value pricing B) third-degree price discrimination C) first-degree price discrimination D) second-degree price discrimination E) psychological discounting
67) When museums charge a lower admission fee to students and senior citizens, then this form of price discrimination is known as ________. A) location pricing B) channel pricing C) customer-segment pricing D) special-customer pricing E) loss-leader pricing
68) Madame Tussaud's wax museum is a popular tourist attraction in London. The museum charges higher entry rates for tourists compared to locals. This form of price discrimination is known as ________. A) customer-segment pricing B) image pricing C) location pricing D) special customer pricing E) special event pricing
69) When Coca-Cola carries a different price depending on whether the consumer purchases it in a fine restaurant, a fast-food restaurant, or a vending machine, then this form of price discrimination is known as ________.
A) product-form pricing
B) loss-leader pricing
C) special event pricing
D) channel pricing
E) location pricing
70) The price of tickets to the opera vary depending on where the person would like to be seated-in the gallery or in the stalls. This is an example of ________. A) channel pricing B) time pricing C) image pricing D) product-form pricing E) location pricing
71) When hotels drop their rates on the weekends, then this form of price discrimination is known as ________. A) channel pricing B) image pricing C) product-form pricing D) time pricing E) location pricing
72) The airline and hospitality industries use ________, by which they offer discounted but limited early purchases, higher-priced late purchases, and the lowest rates on unsold inventory just before it expires. A) special-customer pricing B) yield pricing C) cash rebates D) location pricing E) customer-segment pricing
73) ________ refers to selling below cost with the intention of destroying competition. A) Bid rigging B) Loss-leader pricing C) Predatory pricing D) Price discrimination E) Price penetration
74) For price discrimination to work ________. A) the market must be segmentable and the segments must show similar intensities of demand B) members in the lower-price segment must be able to resell the product to the higher-price segment C) competitors must be able to undersell the firm in the higher-price segment D) the practice must not breed customer resentment and ill will E) the extra revenue derived from price discrimination must not exceed the cost of segmenting and policing the market
75) A low price buys market share but not market loyalty. The same customers will shift to any lower-priced product that may come along. This is called the ________.
A) low-price trap
B) relative-market-share trap
C) shallow-pockets trap
D) target-market-share trap
E) fragile-market-share trap
76) When higher-priced competitors match the lower prices but have longer staying power because of deeper cash reserves, it leads to a(n) ________.
A) low-quality trap
B) fragile-market-share trap
C) price war trap
D) escalator trap
E) shallow-pockets trap
77) A company does not set a final price until the product is finished or delivered. This is known as ________.
A) delayed quotation pricing
B) an escalator clause
C) special-event pricing
D) time pricing
E) the shallow-pockets trap
78) When a company requires the customers to pay today's price and all or part of any inflation increase that takes place before delivery, it is known as ________.
A) special-customer pricing
B) an escalator clause
C) delayed quotation pricing
E) time pricing
79) When a company maintains its price but removes or prices separately one or more elements that were part of the former offer, such as free delivery or installation, it is known as ________.
D) reverse discounting
E) delayed quotation pricing
80) In markets that are characterized by products that are highly homogeneous, how should a firm react to a competitor's reduction in price?
A) shrink the amount of the product available
B) substitute expensive materials or ingredients
C) reduce product features
D) reduce product services
E) augment the product