A patient who is scheduled for a right breast biopsy asks the nurse the difference between a benign tumor and a malignant tumor. Which answer by the nurse is correct?
A) Benign tumors do not cause damage to other tissues.
B) Benign tumors are likely to recur in the same location.
C) Malignant tumors may spread to other tissues or organs.
D) Malignant cells reproduce more rapidly than normal cells.
The nurse is caring for a patient receiving intravesical bladder chemotherapy. The nurse should monitor for which adverse effect?
The nurse is caring for a patient who smokes 2 packs/day. To reduce the patients risk of lung cancer, which action by the nurse is best?
A) Teach the patient about the seven warning signs of cancer.
B) Plan to monitor the patients carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level.
C) Discuss the risks associated with cigarettes during every patient encounter.
D) Teach the patient about the use of annual chest x-rays for lung cancer screening.
The nurse should include which food choice when providing dietary teaching for a patient scheduled to receive external beam radiation for abdominal cancer?
A) Fresh fruit salad
B) Roasted chicken
C) Whole wheat toast
D) Cream of potato soup
During a routine health examination, a 40-year-old patient tells the nurse about a family history of colon cancer. Which action should the nurse take next?
A) Teach the patient about the need for a colonoscopy at age 50.
B) Teach the patient how to do home testing for fecal occult blood.
C) Obtain more information from the patient about the family history.
D) Schedule a sigmoidoscopy to provide baseline data about the patient.
A patient who is diagnosed with cervical cancer that is classified as Tis, N0, M0 asks the nurse what the letters and numbers mean. Which response by the nurse is most appropriate?
A) The cancer involves only the cervix.
B) The cancer cells look almost like normal cells.
C) Further testing is needed to determine the spread of the cancer.
D) It is difficult to determine the original site of the cervical cancer
The nurse teaches a patient who is scheduled for a prostate needle biopsy about the procedure. Which statement, if made by the patient, indicates that teaching was effective?
A) The biopsy will remove the cancer in my prostate gland.
B) The biopsy will determine how much longer I have to live.
C) The biopsy will help decide the treatment for my enlarged prostate.
D) The biopsy will indicate whether the cancer has spread to other organs.
The nurse teaches a postmenopausal patient with stage III breast cancer about the expected outcomes of cancer treatment. Which patient statement indicates that the teaching has been effective?
A) After cancer has not recurred for 5 years, it is considered cured.
B) The cancer will be cured if the entire tumor is surgically removed.
C) Cancer is never considered cured, but the tumor can be controlled with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation.
D) I will need to have follow-up examinations for many years after I have treatment before I can be considered cured.
A patient with a large stomach tumor that is attached to the liver is scheduled to have a debulking procedure. Which information should the nurse teach the patient about the outcome of this procedure?
A) Pain will be relieved by cutting sensory nerves in the stomach.
B) Relief of pressure in the stomach will promote better nutrition.
C) Tumor growth will be controlled by the removal of malignant tissue.
D) Tumor size will decrease and this will improve the effects of other therapy.
External-beam radiation is planned for a patient with cervical cancer. What instructions should the nurse give to the patient to prevent complications from the effects of the radiation?
A) Test all stools for the presence of blood
B) Maintain a high-residue, high-fiber diet.
C) Clean the perianal area carefully after every bowel movement.
D) Inspect the mouth and throat daily for the appearance of thrush.
A patient with Hodgkins lymphoma who is undergoing external radiation therapy tells the nurse, I am so tired I can hardly get out of bed in the morning. Which intervention should the nurse add to the plan of care?
A) Minimize activity until the treatment is completed.
B) Establish time to take a short walk almost every day.
C) Consult with a psychiatrist for treatment of depression.
D) Arrange for delivery of a hospital bed to the patients home.
The nurse is caring for a patient with colon cancer who is scheduled for external radiation therapy to the abdomen. Which information obtained by the nurse would indicate a need for patient teaching?
A) The patient swims a mile 3 days a week.
B) The patient snacks frequently during the day.
C) The patient showers everyday with a mild soap.
D) The patient has a history of dental caries with amalgam fillings.
A patient undergoing external radiation has developed a dry desquamation of the skin in the treatment area. The nurse teaches the patient about management of the skin reaction. Which statement, if made by the patient, indicates the teaching was effective?
A) I can buy some aloe vera gel to use on the area.
B) I will expose the treatment area to a sun lamp daily.
C) I can use ice packs to relieve itching in the treatment area.
D) I will scrub the area with warm water to remove the scales.
A patient with metastatic cancer of the colon experiences severe vomiting following each administration of chemotherapy. Which action, if taken by the nurse, is most appropriate?
A) Have the patient eat large meals when nausea is not present.
B) Offer dry crackers and carbonated fluids during chemotherapy.
C) Administer prescribed antiemetics 1 hour before the treatments.
D) Give the patient two ounces of a citrus fruit beverage during treatments.
The nurse administers an IV vesicant chemotherapeutic agent to a patient. Which action ismost important for the nurse to take?
A) Infuse the medication over a short period of time.
B) Stop the infusion if swelling is observed at the site.
C) Administer the chemotherapy through a small-bore catheter.
D) Hold the medication unless a central venous line is available.
A chemotherapy drug that causes alopecia is prescribed for a patient. Which action should the nurse take to maintain the patients self-esteem?
A) Tell the patient to limit social contacts until regrowth of the hair occurs.
B) Encourage the patient to purchase a wig or hat and wear it once hair loss begins.
C) Teach the patient to gently wash hair with a mild shampoo to minimize hair loss.
D) Inform the patient that hair usually grows back once the chemotherapy is complete.
A patient who has ovarian cancer is crying and tells the nurse, My husband rarely visits. He just doesn't care. The husband indicates to the nurse that he never knows what to say to help his wife. Which nursing diagnosis is most appropriate for the nurse to add to the plan of care?
A) Compromised family coping related to disruption in lifestyle
B) Impaired home maintenance related to perceived role changes
C) Risk for caregiver role strain related to burdens of caregiving responsibilities
D) Dysfunctional family processes related to effect of illness on family members
A patient receiving head and neck radiation for larynx cancer has ulcerations over the oral mucosa and tongue and thick, ropey saliva. Which instructions should the nurse give to this patient?
A) Remove food debris from the teeth and oral mucosa with a stiff toothbrush.
B) Use cotton-tipped applicators dipped in hydrogen peroxide to clean the teeth.
C) Gargle and rinse the mouth several times a day with an antiseptic mouthwash.
D) Rinse the mouth before and after each meal and at bedtime with a saline solution
A patient has been assigned the nursing diagnosis of imbalanced nutrition: less than body requirements related to painful oral ulcers. Which nursing action will be most effective in improving oral intake?
A) Offer the patient frequent small snacks between meals.
B) Assist the patient to choose favorite foods from the menu.
C) Provide teaching about the importance of nutritional intake.
D) Apply the ordered anesthetic gel to oral lesions before meals.
A widowed mother of four school-age children is hospitalized with metastatic ovarian cancer. The patient is crying and tells the nurse that she does not know what will happen to her children when she dies. Which response by the nurse is most appropriate?
A) Why don't we talk about the options you have for the care of your children?
B) I'm sure you have friends that will take the children when you cant care for them.
C) For now you need to concentrate on getting well and not worrying about your children.
D) Many patients with cancer live for a long time, so there is still time to plan for your children
A patient who has severe pain associated with terminal pancreatic cancer is being cared for at home by family members. Which finding by the nurse indicates that teaching regarding pain management has been effective?
A) The patient uses the ordered opioid pain medication whenever the pain is greater than 5 (0 to 10 scale).
B) The patient agrees to take the medications by the IV route in order to improve analgesic effectiveness.
C) The patient takes opioids around the clock on a regular schedule and uses additional doses when breakthrough pain occurs.
D) The patient states that nonopioid analgesics may be used when the maximal dose of the opioid is reached without adequate pain relief.
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is used as adjuvant therapy for a patient with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Which information should the nurse include when explaining the purpose of this therapy to the patient?
A) IL-2 enhances the immunologic response to tumor cells.
B) IL-2 stimulates malignant cells in the resting phase to enter mitosis.
C) IL-2 prevents the bone marrow depression caused by chemotherapy.
D) IL-2 protects normal cells from the harmful effects of chemotherapy.
The home health nurse cares for a patient who has been receiving interferon therapy for treatment of cancer. Which statement by the patient indicates a need for further assessment?
A) I have frequent muscle aches and pains.
B) I rarely have the energy to get out of bed.
C) I experience chills after I inject the interferon.
D) I take acetaminophen (Tylenol) every 4 hours.
A patient with leukemia is considering whether to have hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The nurse will include which information in the patients teaching plan?
A) Transplant of the donated cells is painful because of the nerves in the tissue lining the bone.
B) Donor bone marrow cells are transplanted through an incision into the sternum or hip bone.
C) The transplant procedure takes place in a sterile operating room to minimize the risk for infection.
D) Hospitalization will be required for several weeks after the stem cell transplant procedure is performed.
The nurse teaches a patient with cancer of the liver about high-protein, high-calorie diet choices. Which snack choice by the patient indicates that the teaching has been effective?
A) Lime sherbet
B) Blueberry yogurt
C) Cream cheese bagel
D) Fresh strawberries and bananas
A patient with cancer has a nursing diagnosis of imbalanced nutrition: less than body requirements related to altered taste sensation. Which nursing action is most appropriate?
A) Add strained baby meats to foods such as casseroles.
B) Teach the patient about foods that are high in nutrition.
C) Avoid giving the patient foods that are strongly disliked.
D) Add extra spice to enhance the flavor of foods that are served.
During the teaching session for a patient who has a new diagnosis of acute leukemia the patient is restless and is looking away, never making eye contact. After teaching about the complications associated with chemotherapy, the patient asks the nurse to repeat all of the information. Based on this assessment, which nursing diagnosis is most appropriate for the patient?
A) Risk for ineffective adherence to treatment related to denial of need for chemotherapy
B) Acute confusion related to infiltration of leukemia cells into the central nervous system
C) Risk for ineffective health maintenance related to anxiety about new leukemia diagnosis
D) Deficient knowledge: chemotherapy related to a lack of interest in learning about treatment
A hospitalized patient who has received chemotherapy for leukemia develops neutropenia. Which observation by the nurse would indicate a need for further teaching?
A) The patient ambulates several times a day in the room.
B) The patients visitors bring in some fresh peaches from home.
C) The patient cleans with a warm washcloth after having a stool.
D) The patient uses soap and shampoo to shower every other day.
The nurse is caring for a patient who has been diagnosed with stage I cancer of the colon. When assessing the need for psychologic support, which question by the nurse will provide the most information?
A) How long ago were you diagnosed with this cancer?
B) Do you have any concerns about body image changes?
C) Can you tell me what has been helpful to you in the past when coping with stressful events?
D) Are you familiar with the stages of emotional adjustment to a diagnosis like cancer of the colon?
The nurse assesses a patient who is receiving interleukin-2. Which finding should the nurse report immediately to the health care provider?
A) Generalized muscle aches
B) Complaints of nausea and anorexia
C) Oral temperature of 100.6 F (38.1 C)
D) Crackles heard at the lower scapular border
The nurse obtains information about a hospitalized patient who is receiving chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. Which information about the patient alerts the nurse to discuss a possible change in therapy with the health care provider?
A) Poor oral intake
B) Frequent loose stools
C) Complaints of nausea and vomiting
D) Increase in carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
The nurse reviews the laboratory results of a patient who is receiving chemotherapy. Which laboratory result is most important to report to the health care provider?
A) Hematocrit of 30%
B) Platelets of 95,000/L
C) Hemoglobin of 10 g/L
D) White blood cell (WBC) count of 2700/L
When caring for a patient who is pancytopenic, which action by unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) indicates a need for the nurse to intervene?
A) The UAP assists the patient to use dental floss after eating.
B) The UAP adds baking soda to the patients saline oral rinses.
C) The UAP puts fluoride toothpaste on the patients toothbrush.
D) The UAP has the patient rinse after meals with a saline solution.
The nurse supervises the care of a patient with a temporary radioactive cervical implant. Which action by unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP), if observed by the nurse, would require an intervention?
A) The UAP flushes the toilet once after emptying the patients bedpan.
B) The UAP stands by the patients bed for 30 minutes talking with the patient.
C) The UAP places the patients bedding in the laundry container in the hallway.
D) The UAP gives the patient an alcohol-containing mouthwash to use for oral care.
The nurse receives change-of-shift report on the oncology unit. Which patient should the nurse assess first?
A) 35-year-old patient who has wet desquamation associated with abdominal radiation
B) 42-year-old patient who is sobbing after receiving a new diagnosis of ovarian cancer
C) 24-year-old patient who received neck radiation and has blood oozing from the neck
D) 56-year-old patient who developed a new pericardial friction rub after chest radiation
Which action should the nurse take when caring for a patient who is receiving chemotherapy and complains of problems with concentration?
A) Teach the patient to rest the brain by avoiding new activities.
B) Teach that chemo-brain is a short-term effect of chemotherapy.
C) Report patient symptoms immediately to the health care provider.
D) Suggest use of a daily planner and encourage adequate rest and sleep.
The nurse assesses a patient with non-Hodgkins lymphoma who is receiving an infusion of rituximab (Rituxan). Which assessment finding would require the most rapid action by the nurse?
A) Shortness of breath
B) Temperature 100.2 F (37.9 C)
C) Shivering and complaint of chills
D) Generalized muscle aches and pains
A patient who is being treated for stage IV lung cancer tells the nurse about new-onset back pain. Which action should the nurse take first?
A) Give the patient the prescribed PRN opioid.
B) Assess for sensation and strength in the legs.
C) Notify the health care provider about the symptoms.
D) Teach the patient how to use relaxation to reduce pain.
The nurse is caring for a patient with left-sided lung cancer. Which finding would be most important for the nurse to report to the health care provider?
A) Hematocrit 32%
B) Pain with deep inspiration
C) Serum sodium 126 mEq/L
D) Decreased breath sounds on left side
An older adult patient who has colorectal cancer is receiving IV fluids at 175 mL/hour in conjunction with the prescribed chemotherapy. Which finding by the nurse is most important to report to the health care provider?
A) Patient complains of severe fatigue.
B) Patient needs to void every hour during the day.
C) Patient takes only 50% of meals and refuses snacks.
D) Patient has audible crackles to the midline posterior chest.
After change-of-shift report on the oncology unit, which patient should the nurse assess first?
A) Patient who has a platelet count of 82,000/L after chemotherapy
B) Patient who has xerostomia after receiving head and neck radiation
C) Patient who is neutropenic and has a temperature of 100.5 F (38.1 C)
D) Patient who is worried about getting the prescribed long-acting opioid on time