Lecture Special senses/ what did you learn Flashcards


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1

which of the following is a characteristic of the lens?

  • The lens of the human eye has a concave shape.
  • In a healthy eye, the lens will be opaque.
  • The lens focuses light on the retina.
  • The lens is vascularized.
  • The lens focuses light on the retina.
2

Which of the following is the basic taste quality responsible for the "beef taste" of steak?

  • bitter
  • sweet
  • metal ions
  • umami

Umami

3

Which middle ear ossicle is attached to, and transmits vibratory motion to, the oval window?

  • incus
  • stapes
  • malleus

stapes

4

* An essential part of the maculae involved in static equilibrium is (are) the ________.

  • scala media
  • spiral organ
  • otoliths
  • cupula

otoliths

5

If retinal detachment occurs in the macula lutea, one can predict that there would be a significant loss of ______.

  • color vision
  • dim-light vision
  • vision of objects in the peripheral regions of the
  • visual field
  • all of the listed responses are correct

color vision

6

What is the main function of the rods in the eye?

  • color vision
  • depth perception
  • accommodation for near vision
  • vision in dim light

vision in dim light

7

the receptor organ for hearing is the ______.

  • oval window
  • spiral organ (of Corti)
  • crista ampullaris
  • modiolus
  • spiral organ (of Corti)
8

Mixed cranial nerves containing both motor and sensory fibers include all except which of the following?

  • olfactory
  • facial
  • oculomotor
  • trigeminal

olfactory

9

Farsightedness is more properly called ________.

  • myopia
  • presbyopia
  • hypopia
  • hyperopia
  • hyperopia
10

The final step in perceiving sound is __________.

A. the tympanic membrane vibrates

B. the auditory cortex is stimulated

C. the cochlear hair cells are stimulated

D. the cochlear nerve is stimulated

B. the auditory cortex is stimulated

11

Receptors for hearing are located in the ________.

A. tympanic membrane

B. cochlea

C. semicircular canals

D. vestibule

B. cochlea

12

The blind spot of the eye is where ________.

A. more rods than cones are found

B. the macula lutea is located

C. only cones occur

D. the optic nerve leaves the eye

D. the optic nerve leaves the eye

13

Which cranial nerve transmits information about our sense of equilibrium?

a) optic
b) vagus
c) abducens
d) vestibulocochlear

d) vestibulocochlear

14

There are three layers of neurons in the retina. The axons of which of these neuron layers form the optic nerves?

a) bipolar cells
b) ganglion cells
c) rod cells
d) cone cells

b) ganglion cells

15

Light passes through the following structures in which order?

a) cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor
b) aqueous humor, cornea, lens, vitreous humor
c) vitreous humor, lens, aqueous humor, cornea
d) cornea, vitreous humor, lens, aqueous humor

a) cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor

16

Infrasonic frequencies below ___ Hz are not detected by the human ear, whereas ultrasonic frequencies above ___ Hz are inaudible vibrations

A. 5; 20
B. 10; 10,000
C. 20; 20,000
D. 5; 200,000
E. 100; 100,000

C. 20; 20,000

17

Which of these is most vulnerable to irreversible damage caused by a very loud noise?

A. the ossicles
B. cochlear hair cells
C. the tympanic membrane
D. fibers of the cochlear nerve
E. the tectorial membrane

B. cochlear hair cells

18

The visible colored portion of the eye is the __________.

a) cornea
b) pupil
c) iris
d) sclera

c) iris

19

Most taste buds are located __________.

a) in the pharynx
b) in the soft palate
c) on the inner surface of the cheeks
d) on the tongue

d) on the tongue

20

Which of the following cranial nerves carries only sensory information?

A. abducens

B. trigeminal

C. olfactory

D. oculomotor

C. olfactory

21

The receptor for static equilibrium is the ________.

A. cochlear duct

B. utricle

C. macula

D. semicircular canals

C. macula

22

Motion sickness seems to ________.

a) respond best to medication taken after salivation and pallor begins

b) respond best to medication that "boosts" vestibular inputs

c) result from mismatch between visual and vestibular inputs

d) result om activation of nausea centers in the brain stem

c) result from mismatch between visual and vestibular inputs

23

The sensation of loudness or the volume of a sound is detected by ________.

A) greater movement of the basilar membrane resulting in greater deflection of the hair cells
B) vibration along a greater length of the basilar membrane, stimulating a greater number of hair cells
C) faster vibration of the basilar membrane resulting in a higher frequency of hair cell stimulation
D) high volume sounds can travel all the way the apex of the scala vestibule with enough energy remaining to deflect hair cells

A) greater movement of the basilar membrane resulting in greater deflection of the hair cells

24

Dancers will use a technique called "spotting" when they perform spins of the body. By holding their head and eyes on a fixed point in front of them as their body spins they reduce the amount of head spinning and this prevents dizziness. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for why this works?

A) When the eyes send a static vision of stability to the brain, it is tricked into believing the body is still and therefore dizziness will not occur.

B) This helps keep the motions detected by the eyes congruent (aligned) with the motions sensed by the vestibular apparatus.

C) This will help to reduce the lateral flection of the head and will prevent hyper polarization or depolarization of the hair cells in the macula.

D) Reducing the inertia of head spin will reduce the flow of endolymph that deflects the hair cells of the crista ampullaris.

D) Reducing the inertia of head spin will reduce the flow of endolymph that deflects the hair cells of the crista ampullaris.

25

Which of the following structures is not part of the external ear?

A) pinna
B) external acoustic meatus
C) tympanic membrane
D) pharyngotympanic tube

D) pharyngotympanic tube

26

Tom is a 45-year-old male that has lost his ability to hear high frequency sounds. The most likely explanation for this would be ________.

A) a perforated tympanic membrane
B) middle ear infection
C) damage to the hair cells near the oval window in the cochlear duct
D) an overgrowth of bony tissue, fusing the ossicles together

C) damage to the hair cells near the oval window in the cochlear duct

27

A patient has a loss of hearing in only one ear. Which of the following is likely to be a result?

A) The patient will have a loss of balance with dizziness and vertigo.
B) The patient will have increased sensitivity to sound in the unaffected ear.
C) The patient will not be able to track objects with the eye on the same side as the hearing loss.
D) The patient will not be able to localize the origin of sounds.

D) The patient will not be able to localize the origin of sounds.

28

* Labyrinthitis is a medical condition often caused by viral infection, resulting in swelling and inflammation of the membranous labyrinth. Which of the following symptoms would you most associate with the condition of labyrinthitis?

A) auditory hallucination
B) loss of balance and dizziness
C) loss of hearing
D) ringing in the ears (tinnitus)

B) loss of balance and dizziness

29

If you shine a light into one eye both pupils will constrict. The best explanation for this is ________.

A) sensory input from the retinas of both eyes converges at the optic chiasm and information from each eye is delivered to both the left and right sides of the brain
B) a small portion of light always enters the other eye
C) information from one eye is directly and immediately transferred to the other eye to maintain alignment of the eyes
D) this in fact does not occur and information from both eyes is always separated

A) sensory input from the retinas of both eyes converges at the optic chiasm and information from each eye is delivered to both the left and right sides of the brain

30

What structure regulates the amount of light passing to the visual receptors of the eye?

a) cornea

b) iris

c) lens

d) pupil

b) iris

31

Ordinarily, it is not possible to transplant tissues from one person to another, yet corneas can be transplanted without tissue rejection. This is because the cornea ________.

a) has no nerve supply

b) is not a living tissue

c) does not contain connective tissue

d) has no blood supply

d) has no blood supply

32

Problems in balance may follow trauma to which nerve

A. accessory

B. abducens

C. trigeminal

D. vestibulocochlear

D. vestibulocochlear

33

Which of the following is NOT an accessory structure of the eye?

  • eyelid
  • extrinsic eye muscles
  • lacrimal apparatus
  • conjunctiva
  • retina
  • retina
34

Which accessory eye structures function to produce the tears that cleanse and protect the eye?

A) conjunctiva
B) ceruminous glands
C) lacrimal glands
D) tarsal glands

C) lacrimal glands

35

What part of the eye constitutes the blind spot?

A) fovea centralis
B) optic disc
C) ora serrata
D) macula lutea

B) optic disc

36

Olfactory cells and taste buds are normally stimulated by ________.

A) stretching of the receptor cells
B) the movement of otoliths
C) movement of a cupula
D) substances in solution

D) substances in solution

37

Bitter taste is elicited by ________.

  • hydrogen ions
  • acids
  • alkaloids
  • metal ions
  • alkaloids
38

If you shine a light into one eye both pupils will constrict. The best explanation for this is ________.

A) sensory input from the retinas of both eyes converges at the optic chiasm and information from each eye is delivered to both the left and right sides of the brain
B) a small portion of light always enters the other eye
C) information from one eye is directly and immediately transferred to the other eye to maintain alignment of the eyes
D) this in fact does not occur and information from both eyes is always separated

A) sensory input from the retinas of both eyes converges at the optic chiasm and information from each eye is delivered to both the left and right sides of the brain

39

Overlap in the visual fields of our eyes ________.

A) allows us to subconsciously estimate the distance of objects based on the different angles the image strikes our two retinas
B) gives us higher visual acuity for small detail by doubling the number of photoreceptors that are being stimulated
C) is essentially a waste of brain processing for what is essentially the same image
D) leaves a blind spot anterior to the nose and in the lateral fields of vision

A) allows us to subconsciously estimate the distance of objects based on the different angles the image strikes our two retinas

40

Color vision has much greater resolution than night vision (vision that is mostly in shades of gray). Which of the following is the best explanation for why this is so?

A) A single cone photoreceptor often connects to a single bipolar cell and a single ganglion cell while as many as 100 rods will converge to a single ganglion cell.
B) A larger proportion of the brain's visual cortex is active during the day when our cone photo receptors are most active.
C) There are many more cone photoreceptors in the eye than rod photoreceptors.
D) There are several types of cone photoreceptors, each of which enrich the clarity and resolution of vision.

A) A single cone photoreceptor often connects to a single bipolar cell and a single ganglion cell while as many as 100 rods will converge to a single ganglion cell.

41

Select the statement below that is not true with regards to the process of light adaptation.

A) The activity of rods is reduced by rapid bleaching of rhodopsin.
B) Visual acuity is diminished.
C) Rhodopsin is uncoupled from light transduction.
D) Retinal sensitivity decreases.

B) Visual acuity is diminished.

42

Seventy percent of all sensory receptors are located in the ________.

  • ear
  • skin
  • mouth
  • eye
  • eye
43

Photoreceptors are modified neurons. However, they differ from most neurons in the fact that ________.

A) photoreceptors are sensitive to energy changes in the external environment
B) photoreceptors do not have fluctuations in membrane potential
C) photoreceptors will hyperpolarize when stimulated
D) photoreceptors do not release neurotransmitters

C) photoreceptors will hyperpolarize when stimulated

44

What term means that the lens can change shape so that the eye can focus on items either close at hand or far away?

a) refraction
b) accommodation
c) constriction
d) convergence

b) accommodation

45

There are __________ auditory ossicles in the ear.

  • 3
  • 2
  • 5
  • 6

3

46

If the optic chiasma is destroyed but the rest of the visual pathway to the brain is not damages, the result would be _____

a) loss of depth perception
b) loss of peripheral vision on both the far right and far left sides of the visual field
c) inability to focus on objects in the center of the visual field
d) loss of three-dimensional vision in the central region of the visual field.

b) loss of peripheral vision on both the far right and far left sides of the visual field

47

The boundary between the external and middle ear is the ____

a) mastoid antrum
b) external acoustic meatus
c) vestibule
d) tympanic membrane

d) tympanic membrane

48

Where are the equilibrium receptors located?

a) in the semicircular canals and in the vestibule of the ear
b) in the semicircular canals, in the spiral organ of Corti, and in the vestibule of the ear
c) only in the semicircular canals of the ear
d) only in the vestibule of the ear

a) in the semicircular canals and in the vestibule of the ear

49

Ceruminous glands are ____

a) modified apocrine sweat glands
b) modified taste buds
c) glands found in the lateral corners of your eye
d) saliva glands found at the base of the tongue

a) modified apocrine sweat glands

50

Which structure in the eye provides nutrition to all eye layers?

a) ciliary body
b) vitreous humor
c) choroid
d) cornea

c) choroid

51

Which photoreceptors respond to very dim light?

a) rods

b) macula

c) retina

d) cornea

a) rods

52

Nerve fibers from the medial aspect of each eye ________.

A) go to the superior colliculus only
B) pass posteriorly without crossing over at the chiasma
C) divide at the chiasma, with some crossing and some not crossing
D) cross over to the opposite side at the chiasma

D) cross over to the opposite side at the chiasma

53

* The oval window is connected directly to which passageway?

A) scala vestibuli
B) external acoustic meatus
C) pharyngotympanic tube
D) scala tympani

A) scala vestibuli

54

The major function of the conjunctiva is to:

a) lubricate the eyelids so they do not stick together.
b) produce sweat to cool the eyelids.
c) produce tears to lubricate the eyes.
d) produce mucus to prevent the eyes from drying out.

d) produce mucus to prevent the eyes from drying out.

55

As sound levels increase in the spiral organ (of Corti), ________.

A) outer hair cells stiffen the basilar membrane
B) outer hair cells bend the cilia away from the kinocilium
C) inner hair cells stiffen the basilar membrane
D) inner hair cells bend the cilia away from the kinocilium

A) outer hair cells stiffen the basilar membrane

56

What prevents the eyelids from sticking together when the eyes close?

A) lacrimal fluid
B) ciliary gland secretions
C) tarsal gland secretions
D) conjunctival fluid

C) tarsal gland secretions

57

The first "way station" in the visual pathway from the eye, after there has been partial crossover of the fibers in the optic chiasma, is the ________.

A) superior colliculi
B) lateral geniculate body of the thalamus
C) visual cortex
D) temporal lobe

B) lateral geniculate body of the thalamus

58

Which of the following is a role of the vitreous humor?

a) It carries away metabolic waste of retinal cells.
b) It supplies oxygen to the cornea.
c) It supplies nutrients to the lens of the eye.
d) It supports the posterior surface of the lens.

d) It supports the posterior surface of the lens.

59

Even though we have two eyes, why do we normally see only one image?

a) Only one eye views an image at a time.
b) One eye processes close images. The other eye processes images at a distance.
c) Information from each eye goes to both hemispheres for processing.
d) Only the dominant eye (which corresponds to the dominant hand) is used in vision.

c) Information from each eye goes to both hemispheres for processing.

60

Ringing in the ears is called:

a) otitis externa.
b) otosclerosis.
c) Meniere's syndrome.
d) tinnitus.

d) tinnitus.

61

Which ear ossicle connects to the inner ear?

a) incus
b) malleus
c) anvil
d) stapes

d) stapes

62

Which of the following is the best explanation for why night vision is fuzzy and indistinct?

A) Rods contain a single kind of visual pigment.
B) Cones come in three types, each sensitive to different wavelengths of light.
C) The foveae are densely packed with cones.
D) As many as 100 cones may converge on one ganglion cell.

C) The foveae are densely packed with cones.

63

Which of the following is the best explanation of why it is difficult to discriminate the color of an object at night?

A) Rods contain a single kind of visual pigment.
B) Cones come in three types, each sensitive to different wavelengths of light.
C) The foveae are densely packed with cones.
D) As many as 100 cones may converge on one ganglion cell.

A) Rods contain a single kind of visual pigment.

64

Nutrients are delivered and waste products are carried away from the cells of the posterior segment of the eye by blood vessels. However, the cells in the cornea and lens (in the anterior segment) are avascular. Which is the best explanation for how these cells are maintained?

A) These cells, like the cells of the corneal layer of the integument are not living cells.
B) The nutrients and waste products of the anterior segment diffuse into and through the vitreous humor of the posterior segment.
C) The aqueous humor is continuously replenished and flows from the ciliary process to drain in the scleral venous sinus.
D) The metabolic activity of these cells is very low. They produce little waste and need few nutrients.

C) The aqueous humor is continuously replenished and flows from the ciliary process to drain in the scleral venous sinus.

65

* Which of the following describes a response of the eye to sympathetic stimulation?

  1. pupil constriction
  2. ciliary muscle contraction
  3. pupil dilation
  4. ciliary muscle relaxation

3. pupil dilation

66

* The elasticity of the lens decreases with age leading to which of the following?

a) less light getting to the retina and diminished visual acuity

b) lowered accommodation of the pupillary reflex, and blurry vision

c) a clouding of the lens known as a cataract

d) less lens accommodation

d) less lens accommodation

67

* What is the graded potential generated in a special sensory receptor called?

a) a local potential

b) a sensory potential

c) a receptor potential

d) an action potential

c) a receptor potential

68

* What is the order of cells in the retina from back (furthest from pupil) to front (closest to pupil)?

a) ganglion - photoreceptor (rod or cone) - bipolar

b) photoreceptor (rod or cone) - ganglion - bipolar

c) ganglion - bipolar - photoreceptor (rod or cone)

d) photoreceptor (rod or cone) - bipolar - ganglion

d) photoreceptor (rod or cone) - bipolar - ganglion

69

* Adjustment to close-range vision involves all of the following except:

a) change in lens curvature

b) light adaptation

c) eye convergence

d) constriction of the pupil

b) light adaptation

70

* The blind spot of the eye is caused by:

a) more rods than cones within the retina

b) an absence of photoreceptors where the optic nerve leaves the eye

c) an absence of cones in the foveae

d) the macula lutea interrupting nerve pathways

b) an absence of photoreceptors where the optic nerve leaves the eye

71

* What is the main function of the rods in the eye?

a) accommodation for near vision

b) depth perception

c) color vision

d) vision in dim light

d) vision in dim light

72

* In a person who is color-blind, which of the following would you most expect to see?

a) an inability to regenerate cis-retinal after bleaching

b) a loss of functions in the rods of their retina

c) a loss of their peripheral vision

d) absence of green or red cones in their foveae

d) absence of green or red cones in their foveae

73

* Where does visual processing lead to conscious sensation?

a) cerebellum

b) occipital lobe of the cortex

c) temporal lobe of the cortex

d) thalamus

b) occipital lobe of the cortex

74

* Which cells are responsible for photopic and color vision, but do not function at night?

a) ganglion cells

b) cones

c) rods

d) bipolar cells

b) cones

75

* Which of the following is true about photoreceptors?

a) Rods and cones function together in bright light, but only rods function in dim light.

b) Rods absorb light over a large part of the visual spectrum but provide only gray tone vision.

c) Three types of color-sensitive photoreceptors exist: red, green, and yellow.

d) In dim light, images are focused directly on the rods in the fovea centralis.

b) Rods absorb light over a large part of the visual spectrum but provide only gray tone vision.

76

* Humans can distinguish several million colors but have cones sensitive to only three (sometimes four) wavelengths of light. What is the best explanation for why we see so many colors?

  • Shades of color are purely psychological and learned by association
  • .Color perception is dependent on the millions of rods as well as cones
  • .Colors are added and enhanced in the primary visual cortex of the brain
  • .Activation of various combinations of the three cone types.

.Activation of various combinations of the three cone types.

77

* Which of these is true of dark adaptation?

a) is much faster than light adaptation

b) results in inhibition of rod function

c) involves accumulation of rhodopsin

d) primarily involves improvement of visual acuity

c) involves accumulation of rhodopsin

78

* What are the only retinal cells that produce action potentials?

a) horizontal cells

b) cones

c) ganglion cells

d) bipolar cells rods

c) ganglion cells

79

* Why is it difficult to determine the color of an object at night?

a) As many as 100 cones may converge on one ganglion cell.

b) The fovea is densely packed with cones.

c) At night more rods are stimulated than cones.

d) Cones come in three types, each sensitive to different wavelengths of light.

c) At night more rods are stimulated than cones.

80

* Which of the following is most responsible for our ability to see color?

a) Cones come in three types, each sensitive to different wavelengths of light.

b) As many as 100 cones may converge on one ganglion cell.

c) The foveae are densely packed with cones.

d) Rods contain a single kind of visual pigment.

a) Cones come in three types, each sensitive to different wavelengths of light.

81

* Which of these is true of overlap in the visual fields of our eyes?

a) leaves a blind spot in the lateral field of vision

b) gives us higher visual acuity by doubling the number of photoreceptors being stimulated

c) enables us to estimate the distance of objects

d) results in redundant processing for what is essentially the same image

c) enables us to estimate the distance of objects

82

* Which of these statements about olfaction is true?

a) Some of the sensation of olfaction is actually temperature.

b) Substances must be volatile and hydrophobic in order to activate olfactory receptors.

c) Olfactory receptors bind a single type of chemical.

d) Thousands of olfactory receptor types humans enable us to smell complex odors.

a) Some of the sensation of olfaction is actually temperature.

83

* Which best describes the function of olfactory hairs?

a) help move air through nasal passages

b) trap inhaled particulates before air reaches lungs

c) help transport mucus toward nasopharynx

d) increase surface area of neurons receptive to airborne chemicals

d) increase surface area of neurons receptive to airborne chemicals

84

* Which of the following is not a characteristic of olfactory receptor cells?

a) They are chemoreceptors.

b) They have a short life span of about 60 days.

c) They are ciliated.

d) They are unipolar neurons.

d) They are unipolar neurons.

85

* Humans can smell as many as 10,000 different odors but have significantly fewer types of olfactory receptors. Which of the following is the best explanation for why humans can distinguish so many smells?

a) Taste receptors refine the subtlety of what we smell.

b) Olfactory pathways connect to the limbic system where memories are formed and the brain mixes new sensory information with old memories.

c) Each smell is a combination of a variety of chemicals that stimulate different combinations of olfactory receptor cells.

d) Some of the smells we detect are partially real and partially olfactory hallucination, in which the brain fills in missing information.

c) Each smell is a combination of a variety of chemicals that stimulate different combinations of olfactory receptor cells.

86

* Which of the following types of neurons are replaced throughout adult life?

a) olfactory receptor cells

b) auditory outer and inner hair cells

c) retinal ganglion cells

d) retinal bipolar cells

a) olfactory receptor cells

87

* Which of the following taste sensations is incorrectly matched to the chemicals that produce it?

a) sweet-carbohydrates

b) salty-metal ions

c) bitter-strong bases (opposite of acid)

d) sour-acids

c) bitter-strong bases (opposite of acid)

88

* Which of the following types of receptors are located in the mouth?

a) chemoreceptors only

b) chemoreceptors, thermoreceptors, and nociceptors only

c) thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, and nociceptors only

d) chemoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, and nociceptors

d) chemoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, and nociceptors

89

* Which of these taste bitter?

a) metal ions

b) hydrogen ions

c) alkaloids

d) acids

c) alkaloids

90

* Which of these has the most taste buds in an adult?

a) walls of the mouth cavity

b) vallate papillae

c) fungiform papillae

d) filiform papillae

b) vallate papillae

91

* Which of the following is true about gustatory receptors?

a) In order for a chemical to be sensed, it must be hydrophobic.

b) An action potential is created in gustatory epithelial cells in response to chemical stimuli.

c) Gustatory hairs propel mucus to prevent clogging of taste pores.

d) Complete adaptation occurs within five minutes.

d) Complete adaptation occurs within five minutes.

92

* Where are receptors for hearing located?

a) vestibule

b) cochlea

c) semicircular canals

d) tympanic membrane

b) cochlea

93

* Which structure acts as a transducer in the spiral organ?

a) macula sacculi

b) inner hair cell

c) outer hair cell

d) macula utriculi

b) inner hair cell

94

* A 100 dB sound (loud volume) of 150 Hz (low pitch) would cause the basilar membrane to vibrate __________, ___________the oval window.

a) strongly/ close to

b) strongly/ far from

c) weakly/ close to

d) weakly/ far from

b) strongly/ far from

95

* Which movement of ions produces excitatory post synaptic potentials (EPSPs) in cochlea hair cells?

a) Exit of K+

b) Exit of Ca2+

c) Influx of Na+

d) Influx of K+ and Ca2+

d) Influx of K+ and Ca2+

96

* What frequency range can be detected by the human ear?

a) 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz

b) 5 Hz to 200,000 Hz

c) 10 Hz to 10,000 Hz

d) 5 Hz to 20 Hz

a) 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz

97

* Select the correct statement about equilibrium.

a) Due to dynamic equilibrium, movement can be perceived if rotation continues at a constant rate.

b) The weight of endolymph against the maculae is responsible for static equilibrium.

c) The crista ampullaris responds to angular acceleration.

d) Hair cells involved in both static and dynamic equilibrium only hyperpolarize, resulting in a decreased rate of impulse transmission.

c) The crista ampullaris responds to angular acceleration.

98

* What is the crista ampullaris associated with?

a) angular acceleration

b) gravity

c) linear acceleration

d) high-pitched sounds

a) angular acceleration

99

* What senses vertical acceleration in an elevator?

a) hair cells of the ampulla

b) hair cells of the macula utriculi

c) hair cells of the macula sacculi

d) hair cells of the tectorial membrane

c) hair cells of the macula sacculi