The Cardiovascular System: Measuring Blood Pressure
Blood flow is generated by the __________________.
Blood pressure results when that flow encounters ___________ from the vessel walls.
1. "Beating" of the heart or the heart muscles contracting.
Blood pressure is expressed in _______ of mercury and is written as __________.
2. mmHg (millimeters of mercury)
Blood flows in layers within the lumen of blood vessels with the layers in the middle of the lumen flowing fastest. This is known as _________ flow.
Blood pressure fluctuates with each heartbeat. The pulse you feel in your wrist is a ____________ created by the contracting heart ejecting blood.
blood flow (representation of the heart rate)
The maximum pressure exerted by blood against the artery wall is known as _______ pressure (SP) and is the result of ventricular __________.
Normal SP is about ______ mmHg.
What does the Dicrotic notch represent?
Usually used as a marker for the end of systole or ejection period but its actually a small downward deflection in the arterial pulse or pressure contour immediately following the closure of the semilunar valves.
___________ pressure (DP) is the lowest pressure in the artery and is a result of ventricular _______________.
Normal DP is about_____mmHg.
Pulse Pressure (PP) is the difference between _________ pressure and _______ pressure.
Mean arterial pressure (MAP) is the calculated average pressure in the arteries. it is the closer to the diastolic pressure because the heart spends more time in ___________________.
Write the equation for mean arterial pressure:__________________.
1. Diastole (relaxation)
2. MAP= DP + 1/3(SP-DP)
When taking blood pressure, inflate the cuff so that blood flow is _________ in the blood vessel.
Open the valve slowly, releasing the pressure. The first sound you hear through the stethoscope is recorded as the ____________ pressure. The sounds you hear are due to the ___________________ of the blood. When you don't hear any sounds, this is recorded as the____________ prssure.
1. Stopped (trapped)
3. Turbulant flow
Calculate PP, given SP= 130 mmHg and DP= 70 mmHg.
PP= 60 mmHg
Caluculate MAP, given SP=130 mmHg and DP= 70 mmHg.
MAP= DP + 1/3(SP-DP)
MAP= 70 + 1/3(130-70)
MAP= 70 + 1/3(60)
MAP= 70 + 20
MAP= 90 mmHg