1-Name and describe five types of production tasks that Pro Tools can be used for.
Audio - recording audio, stores as digital file
MIDI - records the performance data
Notation/score - writing music through MIDI score editing window
Mixing/ Automation - panning, signal routing, effects, dynamics
Video/ Post Production - can import video
1-What is the frequency range of human hearing?
20 Hz - 20 kHz
1-What does the frequency of a sound wave affect in terms of how we perceive the sound? How is frequency measured?
How high or low a sound is.
1-What does the amplitude of the sound wave affect? How is amplitude measured?
Intensity or loudness of the sound
1-How does the sample rate of a system relate to the frequency of audio it can capture? What is the name of the law that specifies the relationship between sample rate and audio frequency?
Sample rate needs to capture the frequency 2 times
1-How does the bit depth of a system relate to the dynamic range of audio it can capture? How can you estimate the dynamic range of a system?
The more bit depth, the greater the dynamic range
Every bit =6 dB so multiply the bit depth by 6
1-What are some common digital connections available on Pro Tools audio interfaces? What type of connector jack does each use? (See “Recording in Digital Format” on page 15.)
AES/EBU - XLR cables
S/PDIF - RCA and Coaxial
1-Name some audio interfaces that are compatible with standard Pro Tools software. (See “Audio Interface Options” beginning on page 16.)
Windows - Any one with an ASIO driver
Mac - Any one with a Core Audio driver
1-Name some Avid audio interfaces that are compatible with Pro Tools | Ultimate software.
HD MADI, MTRX, MTRX studio, HD Omni, HD I/O
2-Name some of the folders and files that Pro Tools creates as part of the session hierarchy. Where is the session file (.ptx) stored?
2-What is the WaveCache.wfm file used for? What happens if the WaveCache file gets deleted or goes missing?
Used to store the sessions waveforms.
It will take longer to load
2-Where are audio files stored in the session hierarchy?
Audio files are stored separately in the audio files folder
2-Where are Pro Tools’ MIDI files normally stored?
In the session folder
2-Which components should you turn on first when powering up a Pro Tools system? Which component should you turn on last?
1st - Anything that needs external power
Last - Audio monitoring device
2-What type of processing does the Hardware Buffer Size affect? What type of processing does it not affect?
Affects - Host based processing
Does NOT affect - DSP processing
2-What kinds of commands can be found under the Pro Tools View menu? How does the View menu differ from the Window menu?
Things that affect the display in widows, tracks, and clips
View affects parts of a window; window affects entire windows
2-What kinds of commands can be found under the Pro Tools Options menu? How does the Options menu differ from the Setup menu
Commands that toggle functions on/off
options toggle on and off where setup affects options to hardware and software
2-Which main Pro Tools window displays audio waveforms and can be used to work directly with audio, MIDI, and video files on tracks?
2-Which Pro Tools window provides access to Pan controls and Volume Faders for each track?
B. Track and Clips lists
C. Edit tools
D. Transport controls
A. Insert Selector
B. Sends Selector
C. Input Selector
D. Output Selector
F. Volume Fader
A. Transport Controls
C. MIDI controls
3-What icon is used for the Zoomer tool in the Edit window? How can you use this tool to quickly zoom out, filling the Edit window with the longest track in the session?
It is a magnify glass
Double click on the zoomer tool
3-Which Edit tool is represented by a hand icon? What is this tool used for?
For arranging or positioning clips
3-Which tool is active when the Trim, Selector, and Grabber icons are all selected (highlighted in blue) in the Edit window toolbar?
The smart tool
3-What are the four Edit modes in Pro Tools? How can you switch between them?
Slip, Shuffle, Grid, and Spot
3-Why should you use caution when editing synchronized material in Shuffle mode? When is Shuffle mode useful?
Because it can cause timing issues
It is useful when editing dialog
3-How does editing a clip in Slip mode affect the timing of other clips on the track?
It does not affect the timing of the other tracks
3-When is it helpful to work in Spot mode? When it is helpful to work in Grid mode?
Spot - When you want to place it in a specific place - Dialog box appears
Grid - When you want it to align to the grid based intervals - helpful when needing precise timing.
3-What are some ways to set the Main Time Scale in Pro Tools?
View > Main Counter
From the Main Time scale pop up menu(down arrow next to main counter)
Click on its name on the ruler
3-What are the two types of Rulers available in Pro Tools? What is the difference between them?
Time Based and Conductor
Time base measures time in various ways. Conductor contains events that map out locations, changes, and characteristics.
3-What are some ways to hide Rulers that you do not need displayed in a session?
View > rulers to unselect
Alt click on ruler name
3-Which Pro Tools windows provide access to MIDI controls, such as Wait for Note, Metronome, and MIDI Merge?
3-What is the purpose of the Metronome button in the MIDI Controls area? What kind of track must be added to a session for the Metronome button to work?
To provide an audible beat for your musicians
Need a click track
3-What are the two states or modes available for controlling the current session tempo? How can you switch between these modes?
Tempo map mode and manual tempo mode
Switch by clicking the tempo ruler enable button - When active it is in tempo map mode
3-What is displayed by the Tempo field in the MIDI Controls area? What are some ways to set the session tempo using this field?
The current tempo based on the cursor location
You can enter the tempo manually or tap the tempo by pressing T or using a MIDI controller
A - Wait for note
B - Metronome
C - MIDI Merge
D - Tempo Ruler
4-What are some actions that can be initiated from the Dashboard?
create a session or project
create a session or project from template
open a session of project
4-What is the difference between a session and a project in Pro Tools?
Session is on the local drive
Project is collaborative and is saved on the cloud
4-What is required to create a project document? What are some reasons you might want to create a project instead of a session?
Prevent loss of session if something bad happens to your computer
Ability to access at different locations
Ability to collaborate with people
4-What are some available options for parameter settings in the Dashboard?
4-What audio file types are supported in Pro Tools? What is the default file type?
BWF(WAV) and AIFF
WAV is the default
4-What is the maximum sample rate supported in Pro Tools? What is the maximum bit depth?
Sample rate - 192 kHz
Bit Depth - 32 bit floating
4-What menu command lets you add tracks to your session? What keyboard shortcut can you use to access this command?
Ctrl, Shift, N
4-How many tracks can you add to a session at one time?
4-Describe some primary track types that are available in Pro Tools. Describe the two types of Folder tracks.
Audio – Used to import, record, and edit audio signals as waveforms
- MIDI – Used to import, record, and edit MIDI & controller data (no audio signal flow)
- Instrument – Combine the functions of MIDI tracks and Aux Input tracks
- Video – Used to add or import video (Pro Tools | Ultimate required for multiple Video tracks)
- Aux Input – Used for effects returns, submixes, and routing live audio (or generating audio from a virtual instrument receiving MIDI input)
- VCA Master – Used to control tracks in a Mix group
- Master Fader – Used to control hardware output levels and bus path levels
- Basic Folder – Used to organize sets of tracks into a collapsible collection
- Routing Folder – Used like a Basic Folder with the added routing functionality of an Aux Input track
4-Which timebase do Audio tracks use by default? Which timebase do MIDI and Instrument tracks use by default?
Audio - Sample based
MIDI - Tick based
4-What happens to the audio and MIDI data on a track when the track gets deleted from your session? Can the Track > Delete command be undone?
The MIDI and Audio stays in the clip list.
No it cannot be undone
4-Name the two types of cursors available in the Edit window. What is the difference between them?
playback cursor and edit cursor
Playback - Solid blinking line that moves with playback
Edit - Blinking line on the track when you use the selector tool
4-Which tool can be used to set the playback point by clicking directly on a track?
4-What is the Playback Cursor Locator used for? Where will the Playback Cursor Locator appear (in what Ruler)?
It is used to find the playback location when it goes off the screen
It appears in the main time base ruler
4-What is the purpose of the Save As command? Which session will be open after completing the Save As command—the original or the renamed copy?
Save as makes a copy of the session and closes the original so that you can work in the copy. It is useful when wanting to save to a new location or to experiment without affecting the original copy.
4-What is the purpose of the Save As New Version command? What type of Pro Tools document does this command apply to?
To save a copy of a project similar to Save as
Only applies to Projects
4-How can you open a session after locating it in a Workspace browser?
Double click on it
5-How much disk space is consumed per minute by a mono track at a sample rate of 44.1 kHz and a bit depth of 16-bit? What happens to disk space consumption if the sample rate is doubled to 88.2 kHz with the same bit depth?
It is doubled - 10MB
5-How can you monitor the storage space available on your system to determine the amount of record time remaining for each mounted drive?
In the Disk Usage window
5-How can you create a click track for a session? What kind of track is used for a click track?
Track>Create Click Track
5-What window(s) can you use to record-enable an Audio track?
Edit or Mix
5-What selector can you use to route a signal from an input on your audio interface to a track for recording?
Audio Input Path Selector
5-How can you adjust the input level going to a record-enabled track? Can you use the Volume Fader to achieve a strong signal going to disk?
Adjust source volume, Microphone placement, Modify signal strength on audio interface
5-How can you place a session in Record Ready mode after record-enabling a track? What modifiers/shortcuts are available to initiate recording without first entering Record Ready mode?
Click record button in transport window or...
Ctrl space or....
5-Where are recorded audio files stored for Pro Tools sessions?
Clips list and tracks playlist
5-What term is used to describe an unedited audio file in Pro Tools? What term is used to describe the smaller, edited pieces of the original sound file?
Whole file clips
5-What types of clips are represented by boldface text in the Clip List? What type is represented by normal (plain) text?
Bold face is Whole file clips
normal is subset clips
5-How do track names affect the default names of the audio files you record in Pro Tools?
The audio files are named the track names and then there is an underscore and the take number. The dash will be the edit number in subset clips
5-Describe two ways to rename an audio file after recording into Pro Tools.
Dbl click on the file or clip(Grabber tool) in edit window or in clip list
Rt click on file or clip in edit window or clip list
5-How would you go about removing unwanted audio from the Clip List without deleting the files from disk?
CTRL click or click on down arrow on the clip and push CLEAR and the REMOVE
5-How would you go about deleting unused whole-file clips to erase them from your storage drive? Can this action be undone?
CTRL click or click on down arrow on the clip and push DELETE
6-What audio file formats can be imported to Pro Tools without requiring conversion?
WAV and AIFF
6-What condition would cause a file in one of Pro Tools’ native formats to require conversion on import?
If the sample rate was not the same
6-Name some common audio file formats that Pro Tools can convert on import.
6-What are some video file formats that can be imported by Pro Tools?
Quicktime and AVID MXF
6-What is the difference between split stereo and interleaved stereo? Which is/are supported for importing into Pro Tools?
Split - Audio files are split into mono files for right and left
Interleaved - Combined into a single file
Both are supported
6-What is the difference between the Add button in the Import Audio dialog box and the Copy button? Which button will force-copy the files into your session’s Audio Files folder?
Add - adds the audio without copying it to the audio file folder. If sample rate is not the same then clip will not play back at correct speed or pitch
Copy - Will copy files into audio file folder - also will change to convert if sample rate does not match.
6-What happens when you use the Workspace browser to import audio that is not compatible with your session’s parameters (audio that requires conversion)? What happens when you import audio that does not require conversion?
It will automatically convert and copy audio files
If no conversion is necessary then they will be referenced and not copied.
6-What steps are required to conduct a search for an audio file using the Workspace browser?
ADVANCED SEARCH(magnify with +)
SEARCH - KIND
6-How would you go about importing a QuickTime movie file to Pro Tools while simultaneously importing the audio embedded in the file?
If you want Audio then click the import audio box
6-How many video files can be associated with a standard Pro Tools session at once?