AP Biology Chapter 22 Practice Quiz

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1

With what other idea of his time was Cuvier's theory of catastrophism most in conflict?

a. the fixity of species

b. uniformitarianism

c. the scala naturae

d. island biogeography

Answer: B

2

Prior to the work of Lyell and Darwin, the prevailing belief was that Earth is _____.

a. millions of years old, and populations rapidly change

b. millions of years old, and populations are unchanging

c. a few thousand years old, and populations gradually change

d. a few thousand years old, and populations are unchanging

Answer: D

3

During a study session about evolution, one of your fellow students remarks, "The giraffe stretched its neck while reaching for higher leaves; its offspring inherited longer necks as a result." Which statement is most likely to be helpful in correcting this student's misconception?

a. Disuse of an organ may lead to its eventual disappearance.

b. Only favorable adaptations have survival value.

c. Spontaneous mutations can result in the appearance of new traits.

d. Characteristics acquired during an organism's life are generally not passed on through genes.

Answer: D

4

In the mid-1900s, the Soviet geneticist Lysenko believed that his winter wheat plants, exposed to increasingly colder temperatures, would eventually give rise to more cold-tolerant winter wheat. Lysenko's attempts in this regard were most in agreement with the ideas of _____.

a. Cuvier

b. Lamarck

c. Lyell

d. Darwin

Answer: B

5
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The following question refers to the figure below, which shows an outcrop of sedimentary rock whose strata are labeled A-D.

If x indicates the location of fossils of two closely related species, then fossils of their most-recent common ancestor are most likely to occur in which stratum?

a. D

b. B

c. C

d. A

Answer: C

6
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The following question refers to the evolutionary tree in the figure below.

The horizontal axis of the cladogram depicted below is a timeline that extends from 100,000 years ago to the present; the vertical axis represents nothing in particular. The labeled branch points on the tree (V-Z) represent various common ancestors. Let's say that only since 50,000 years ago has there been enough variation between the lineages depicted here to separate them into distinct species, and only the tips of the lineages on this tree represent distinct species. Which pair of scientists below would probably have agreed with the process that is depicted by this tree?

a. Wallace and Linnaeus

b. Lamarck and Wallace

c. Cuvier and Lamarck

d. Aristotle and Lyell

Answer: B

7

An adaptation is _____.

a. a trait that gives an organism a reproductive advantage in the current environment

b. an individual's attempt to conform to its environment

c. a trait that gives rise to a new species

d. the cause of natural selection

Answer: A

8

Charles Darwin _____.

a. was the first person to conclude that organisms evolve

b. proposed that unused parts of the body deteriorate

c. eagerly published his theory before it was well-developed

d. was the first to realize that fossils are remains of ancient organisms

e. proposed natural selection as the mechanism of evolution

Answer: E

9

From his observations of organisms in the Galapagos islands, Darwin reasoned that _____.

a. the shape of a bird's beak does not affect its ability to survive and reproduce

b. organisms had adapted to new environments, giving rise to new species

c. the organisms in the Galapagos had been specially created to thrive in that environment

d. all island species should be similar to each other

Answer: B

10

Which of the following observations led to Darwin's major inferences?

a. Members of a population vary in their heritable traits.

b. Body parts that are not used deteriorate over time.

c. Organisms only go extinct when catastrophes occur.

d. Although organisms can produce huge numbers of offspring, many of these offspring do not survive.

e. The first and fourth answers are correct.

Answer: E

11

Which one of the following researchers developed a theory of evolution that was very similar to Charles Darwin's?

a. Hutton

b. Lamarck

c. Cuvier

d. Lyell

e. Wallace

Answer: E

12

A group of small fish live in a lake with a uniformly light-brown sandy bottom. Most of the fish are light brown, but about 10% are mottled. This fish species is often prey for large birds that live on the shore. A construction company dumps a load of gravel in the bottom of the lake, giving it a mottled appearance. Which of these statements presents the most accurate prediction of what will happen to this fish population?

a. As the mottled fish are eaten, more will be produced to fill the gap.

b. The ratios will not change.

c. The proportion of mottled fish will increase over time.

d. There is no way to predict the result.

e. In two generations, all the fish will be mottled.

Answer: C

13

Which of the following scientists argued that variation among individuals allows evolution to occur?

a. Wallace

b. Aristotle

c. Linnaeus

d. Lamarck

Answer: A

14

Which of these conditions are always true of populations evolving due to natural selection?
Condition 1: The population must vary in traits that are heritable.
Condition 2: Some heritable traits must increase reproductive success.
Condition 3: Individuals pass on most traits that they acquire during their lifetime.

a. Conditions 2 and 3

b. Conditions 1 and 2

c. Condition 1 only

d. Condition 2 only

Answer: B

15

After the drought of 1977, researchers on the island of Daphne Major hypothesized that medium ground finches that had large, deep beaks, survived better than those with smaller beaks because they could more easily crack and eat the tough Tribulus cistoides fruits. If this hypothesis is correct, what would you expect to observe if a population of these medium ground finches colonizes a nearby island where Tribulus cistoides is the most abundant food for the next 1000 years? Assume that (1) even the survivors of the 1977 drought sometimes had difficulty cracking the tough T. cistoides fruits and would eat other seeds when offered a choice; and (2) food availability is the primary limit on finch fitness on this new island.

a. random fluctuations in beak size and shape

b. evolution of yet larger, deeper beaks over time

c. no change in beak size and shape

d. evolution of smaller, pointier beaks over time

Answer: B

16

Parasitic species tend to have simple morphologies. Which of the following statements best explains this observation?

a. Parasites do not live long enough to inherit acquired characteristics.

b. Parasites have not yet had time to progress, because they are young evolutionarily.

c. Parasites are lower organisms, and this is why they have simple morphologies.

d. Simple morphologies convey some advantage in most parasites.

Answer: D

17

Which of the following represents an idea that Darwin learned from the writings of Thomas Malthus?

a. Populations tend to increase at a faster rate than their food supply normally allows.

b. Earth changed over the years through a series of catastrophic upheavals.

c. The environment is responsible for natural selection.

d. Technological innovation in agricultural practices will permit exponential growth of the human population into the foreseeable future.

Answer: A

18

A biologist studied a population of squirrels for fifteen years. During that time, the population was never fewer than thirty squirrels and never more than forty-five. Her data showed that over half of the squirrels born did not survive to reproduce, because of both competition for food and predation. In a single generation, 90% of the squirrels that were born lived to reproduce, and the population increased to eighty. Which inference(s) about this most recent surge in the population size might be true?

a. The parental generation of squirrels developed better eyesight due to improved diet; the subsequent squirrel generation inherited better eyesight.

b. The number of predators that prey upon squirrels may have decreased.

c. The amount of available food may have increased and/or the predators that prey upon squirrels may have decreased.

d. The amount of available food may have increased.

Answer: C

19

Which of the following must exist in a population before natural selection can act upon that population?a. the population has predators

b. sexual reproduction

c. genetic variation among individuals

d. variation among individuals caused by environmental factors

Answer: C

20

Currently, two extant elephant species (X and Y) are classified in the genus Loxodonta, and a third species (Z) is placed in the genus Elephas. Thus, which statement should be true?

a. Species X and Y share a common ancestor that is alive today.

b. Species X and Y share a greater number of homologies with each other than either does with species Z.

c. Species X and Y are the result of artificial selection.

d. Species X and Y are not related to species Z.

Answer: B

21

In a hypothetical environment, fishes called pike-cichlids are visual predators of large, adult algae-eating fish (in other words, they locate their prey by sight). The population of algae-eaters experiences predatory pressure from pike-cichlids. Which of the following is least likely to occur in the algae-eater population in future generations?

a. selection for nocturnal algae-eaters (active only at night)

b. selection for larger female algae-eaters, bearing broods composed of more, and larger, young

c. selection for drab coloration of the algae-eaters

d. selection for algae-eaters that become sexually mature at smaller overall body sizes

Answer: B

22

Cotton-topped tamarins are small primates with tufts of long white hair on their heads. While studying these creatures, you notice that males with longer hair get more opportunities to mate and father more offspring. To test the hypothesis that having longer hair is adaptive in these males, you should _____.

a. look for evidence of hair in ancestors of tamarins

b. test whether other traits in these males are also adaptive

c. determine if hair length is heritable

d. test whether males with shaved heads are still able to mate

Answer: C

23

Which of the following is an example of the pattern of evolution? (Overview)

a. the inheritance of acquired characteristics

b. the fossil record of the evolution of modern cetaceans

c. heredity

d. descent with modification

e. natural selection

Answer: B

24

Varieties of Staphylococcus aureus that are resistant to the drug methicillin _____.

a. developed in response to the use of methicillin

b. already existed in the population before methicillin was developed

c. always have an advantage in every environment

d. were strongly selected for as methicillin became widely used to treat bacterial infections

e. The second and fourth answers are correct.

Answer: E

25

A challenge to traditional (pre-1860) ideas about species came from embryology, when it was discovered that _____.

a. all animals develop similar embryonic gills

b. mutations have a far more dramatic effect on embryos than on adult organisms

c. the more advanced the animal, the more slowly it develops

d. the embryological development of many plants and animals is almost identical

e. embryos of dissimilar organisms, such as sharks and humans, resemble each other

Answer: E

26

The theory of evolution through natural selection is considered a scientific theory because _____.

a. it is broad enough in scope to explain many observations

b. it is supported by a massive body of evidence from many disciplines

c. it is general enough to provide many testable hypotheses

d. All of the above are correct.

e. None of the above is correct.

Answer: D

27

Many crustaceans (for example, lobsters, shrimp, and crayfish) use their tails to swim, but crabs have reduced tails that curl under their shells and are not used in swimming. This is an example of _____.

a. convergent evolution

b. natural selection

c. a vestigial trait

d. a homologous structure

Answer: C

28

Researchers discovered that a new strain of bacteria that cause tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) taken from a dead patient has a point mutation in the rpoB gene that codes for part of the RNA polymerase enzyme. This mutant form of RNA polymerase does not function as well as the more common form of RNA polymerase. A commonly used antibiotic called rifampin does not affect the mutant rpoB bacteria.
A researcher mixes M. tuberculosis with and without the rpoB mutation and adds the bacteria to cell cultures. Half the cell cultures contain only standard nutrients, while the other half of the cell cultures contain rifampin and the standard nutrients. After many cell generations, the researcher finds that _____.

a. very few M. tuberculosis in the standard nutrient cell cultures carry the rpoB gene mutation, but almost all of the M. tuberculosis in the cell cultures with rifampin carry the rpoB mutation

b. almost all M. tuberculosis in the standard nutrient cell cultures carry the rpoB gene mutation, but very few of the M. tuberculosis in the cell cultures with rifampin carry the rpoB mutation

c. almost all of the M. tuberculosis in both types of cell cultures carry the rpoB mutation

d. very few M. tuberculosis in any of the cell cultures carry the rpoB gene mutation

Answer: A

29

Of the following anatomical structures, which is homologous to the bones in the wing of a bird?

a. bones in the flipper of a whale

b. bones in the hind limb of a kangaroo

c. chitinous struts in the wing of a butterfly

d. bony rays in the tail fin of a flying fish

Answer: A

30

Which of the following evidence most strongly supports the common origin of all life on Earth? All organisms _____.

a. All organisms _____.reproduce

b. show heritable variation

c. use essentially the same genetic code

d. require energy

Answer: C

31

Members of two different species possess a similar-looking structure that they use in a similar way to perform about the same function. Which of the following would suggest that the relationship more likely represents homology instead of convergent evolution?

a. The two species live at great distance from each other.

b. The structures in adult members of both species are similar in size.

c. Both species are well adapted to their particular environments.

d. The two species share many proteins in common, and the nucleotide sequences that code for these proteins are almost identical.

Answer: D

32

What must be true of any organ described as vestigial?

a. It must be analogous to some feature in an ancestor.

b. It need be neither homologous nor analogous to some feature in an ancestor.

c. It must be homologous to some feature in an ancestor.

d. It must be both homologous and analogous to some feature in an ancestor.

Answer: C

33

Pseudogenes are _____.

a. composed of RNA, rather than DNA

b. nonfunctional vestigial genes

c. the same things as introns

d. unrelated genes that code for the same gene product

Answer: B

34

The greatest number of endemic species is expected in environments that are _____.

a. easily reached and ecologically diverse

b. easily reached and show little ecological diversity

c. isolated and ecologically diverse

d. isolated and show little ecological diversity

Answer: D

35

About thirteen different species of finches inhabit the Galápagos Islands today, all descendants of a common ancestor from the South American mainland that arrived a few million years ago. Genetically, there are four distinct lineages, but the thirteen species are currently classified among three genera. The first lineage to diverge from the ancestral lineage was the warbler finch (genus Certhidea). Next to diverge was the vegetarian finch (genus Camarhynchus), followed by five tree finch species (also in genus Camarhynchus) and six ground finch species (genus Geospiza). If the six ground finch species have evolved most recently, then which of these is the most logical prediction?

a. They should be limited to the six islands that most recently emerged from the sea.

b. The chances of hybridization between two ground finch species should be less than the chances of hybridization between two tree finch species.

c. Their genomes should be more similar to each other than are the genomes of the five tree finch species.

d. They should share fewer anatomical homologies with each other than they share with the tree finches.

Answer: C

36
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Which species is most closely related to species W? The questions below refer to the following evolutionary tree, in which the horizontal axis represents time (present time is on the far right) and the vertical axis represents morphological change.

a. X is most closely related to species W.

b. V is most closely related to species W.

c. Y and Z are equally closely related to W.

d. It is not possible to say from this tree.

Answer: B

37
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Which of these is the extant (that is, living) species most closely related to species X? The questions below refer to the following evolutionary tree, in which the horizontal axis represents time (present time is on the far right) and the vertical axis represents morphological change.

a. V

b. W

c. Y

d. Z

Answer: A

38

Logically, which of these should cast the most doubt on the relationships depicted by an evolutionary tree?

a. Some of the organisms depicted by the tree had lived in different habitats.

b. The skeletal remains of the organisms depicted by the tree were incomplete (in other words, some bones were missing).

c. Relationships between DNA sequences among the species did not match relationships between skeletal patterns.

d. Transitional fossils had not been found.

Answer: C

39
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Modern cetaceans, the taxonomic group that includes whales, dolphins, and porpoises, evolved from land mammals. However, it has only been within the past few decades that transitional fossils have been found that have shed light on cetacean hindlimb reduction. DNA data suggest that cetaceans are most closely related to Hippos, which are even-toed ungulates. Other even-toed ungulates include deer, pigs, camels, and cows. Which statement describes most accurately how the early cetacean, Pakicetus, fossil ankle bones shown in the figure supports the hypothesis that cetaceans are closely related to even-toed ungulates?

a. The two humps on the bottom end of the Pakicetus ankle bone is a distinguishing feature shared with other even-toed ungulates.

b. This demonstrates that the early cetaceans had ankles 50 million years ago.

c. The Pakicetus ankle bone is most similar to other mammal ankles, suggesting a relationship between other mammals and cetaceans.

d. The Pakicetus ankle bone suggests that Pakicetus most likely evolved from pigs.

Answer: A

40

Georges Cuvier ________________.

a. strongly influenced Darwin's thinking

b. noted that the older the stratum, the most dissimilar its fossils were to current life-forms

c. incorporated that the same geologic processes are operating today as in the past, and at the same rate

d. stated that an organism could pass its acquired traits in its life to its offspring

Answer: B

41

Charles Lyell _________________.

a. strongly influenced Darwin's thinking

b. noted that the older the stratum, the most dissimilar its fossils were to current life-forms

c. incorporated that the same geologic processes are operating today as in the past, and at the same rate

d. stated that an organism could pass its acquired traits in its life to its offspring

Answer: C

42

Artificial selection is the result of

a. inherited characteristics of organisms that enhance their survival and reproduction in specific environments.

b. a process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.

c. descent of modification, a phrase that summarized Lamarck's view of life.

d. humans modifying other species over many generations by selecting and breeding individuals that possess desired traits.

Answer: D

43

Homology is

a. a similarity that functions differently resulting from common ancestry.

b. a difference that functions differently resulting from common ancestry.

c. the result of humans modifying other species over many generations by selecting and breeding individuals that possess desired traits.

d. an inherited characteristic of organisms that enhances their survival and reproduction in specific environments.

Answer: A

44

Vestigial structures are

a. a similarity that functions differently resulting from common ancestry.

b. features that are no longer present in a current form of an organism, but the organism's ancestors benefitted from this specific function.

c. features that are still present in a current form of an organism, and the organism's ancestors benefitted from this specific function.

d. an inherited characteristic of organisms that enhances their survival and reproduction in specific environments.

Answer: B

45

Tetrapods ________________.

a. consist of two-limbed animals, such as frogs, turtles, humans, and birds

b. consist of three-limbed animals, such as birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles

c. consist of four-limbed animals, such as birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles

d. consist of two-limbed animals, such as birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles

Answer: C

46

Distantly related organisms can resemble one another because of convergent evolution:

a. a similarity that functions differently resulting from common ancestry.

b. the independent evolution of similar features in different lineages.

c. the result of humans modifying other species over many generations by selecting and breeding individuals that possess desired traits.

d. an inherited characteristic of organisms that enhances their survival and reproduction in specific environments.

Answer: B

47

Which of the following is NOT an observation or inference on which natural selection is based?

a. There is heritable variation among individuals.

b. Poorly adapted individuals never produce offspring.

c. Species produce more offspring than the environment can support.

d. Only a fraction of an individual's offspring may survive.

Answer: B

48

Which of the following observations helped Darwin shape his concept of descent with modification?

a. Species diversity declines farther from the equator.

b. Fewer species live on islands than on the nearest continents.

c. Birds live on islands located far from the mainland than the birds' maximum nonstop flight distance.

d. South American temperate plants are more similar to the tropical plants of South America than to the temperate plants of Europe.

Answer: D

49

Within six months of effectively using methicillin to treat S. aureus infections in a community, all new S. aureus infections were caused by MRSA. How can this best be explained?

a. A patient must have become infected with MRSA from another community.

b. In response to the drug, S. aureus began making drug-resistant versions of the protein targeted by the drug.

c. Some drug-resistant bacteria were present at the start of treatment, and natural selection increased their frequency.

d. S. aureus evolved to resist vaccines.

Answer: C

50

The upper forelimbs of humans and bats have fairly similar skeletal structures, whereas the corresponding bones in whales data suggest that all three kinds of organisms diverged from a common ancestor at about the same time. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for these data?

a. Forelimb evolution was adaptive in people and bats, but not in whales.

b. Natural selection in an aquatic environment resulted in significant changes to whale forelimb anatomy.

c. Genes mutate faster in whales than in humans or bats.

d. Whales are not properly classified as mammals.

Answer: B

51

DNA sequences in many human genes are very similar to the sequences of corresponding genes in chimpanzees. The most likely explanation for this result is that

a. humans and chimpanzees share a relatively recent common ancestor.

b. humans evolved from chimpanzees.

c. chimpanzees evolved from humans.

d. convergent evolution led to the DNA similarities.

Answer: A