Psychology Exam 2 Brandon Flashcards


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1

Cedric tells a new acquaintance that is “from Chicago” but when he learns that this man is also a Chicago native he corrects by listing he specific neighborhood in which he lives. This is called

audience design

2

Edward Thorndike’s ________ says that behaviors that are followed by consequences that are satisfying to the organism are more likely to be repeated.

law of effect

3

The recall of false autobiographical memories is known as

false memory syndrome

4

Pronouns like “I”, “me”, and “my” are used more often in ________ cultures.

individualistic

5

The ________ carries visual information from the retina to the brain.

optic nerve

6

Researchers ________ concluded that language determines thoughts.

Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf

7

Which of the following is an example of a variable interval reinforcement schedule?

checking your Facebook account at random times throughout the day

8

Baby Aiden is born with an ability to learn any and all languages, but will grow to have a difficult time discriminating between phonemes used in other languages besides his native English at around

12 months old

9

What are the three types of encoding?

semantic, acoustic, and visual

10

Amira came to the United States for college. She has near perfect English, but her roommates tease her when she accidentally asks, “did you shower yourself today?” instead of, “did you take a shower?” This is an example of incorrect ________ structure.

syntax

11

Wendy’s belief that rabbits are cute, fun, and intelligent animals is an example of a

natural concept

12

Kyle from Mississippi asks Brandon from Boston if he wants a “coke,” and Brandon says, “No thanks, I’ll have a Sprite instead,” even though Sprite cans were the only drinks Kyle had to offer. Brandon didn’t understand that Kyle refers to all sodas and soft drinks and cokes. This is due to differences in

lexicon

13

Which is an example of negative reinforcement?

buckling your seatbelt to remove the “beep, beep, beep” sound in your car

14

Which of the following sequences demonstrates the correct order of the components of language from the smallest component to the broadest?

phoneme, morpheme, syntax

15

Janelle gets a dollar from her mom every time she learns a song on the piano. This increases her desire to practice the piano and is an example of

positive reinforcement

16

Rylee has moved to a new city and is visiting the doctor for the first time. Even though she’s never been before, she goes to the check-in counter first and then waits patiently in the waiting room chairs. She does this because

she already has a concept for doctors offices and automatically applies that to the new office.

17

Hwan is extremely afraid of flying but is looking forward to a Spring Break trip to the coast with his friends. He decides that driving would be safer, so he convinces his roommate to cancel his flight to join him in the car. He is making this decision based on a/an

availability heuristic

18

According to research by Rosenblum, Miller, and Sanchez, watching (but not hearing) a person speak enables you to

recognize their voice.

19

When a previously learned behavior disappears because the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus, we call it ________.

extinction

20

If your memory of the home run you hit in the softball game becomes exaggerated to enhance your own performance, then you have fallen prey to a common memory tendency to distort your memories to fit your feelings about the world. This is called

bias

21

Leini is working on building a bookshelf in her backyard when she gets a terrible itch on her back. She gripes about not being able to reach it, and goes inside to look for a back-scratcher or a kitchen spoon. She could have just used the hammer she was holding in her hand, but she didn’t think of that. This is an example of

functional fixedness

22

Monthly paychecks are an example of which type of reinforcement schedule?

fixed interval

23

What is a major problem with intelligence tests mentioned in the text?

Some ethnic and socioeconomic groups perform better than others on IQ tests.

24

When trying to remember a list of words, a person may choose a word to which they “hang” their memories on. This type of mnemonic device is called the ________ technique.

peg word

25

The day Kim is in Nairobi she notices the honking, engine sounds, yelling, and other street noises. By the second day, however, she no longer notices these. Which of the following is the best explanation?

sensory adaptation

26

What is the basic sound unit of a language?

phoneme

27

Which is an example of operant conditioning?

giving yourself one piece of candy after you complete one math problem

28

Which is the faster technique for solving a problem?

heuristics

29

________ provide step-by-step instructions for solving a problem or performing a task.

Algorithms

30

Acquiring knowledge and skills through experience is called ________.

learning

31

You are trying to enter a prize drawing at the radio station but the lines are busy. You continue to call every 1-5 minutes hoping to get on the air. Which reinforcement schedule is this?

variable interval

32

The ________ shows that each generation tends to have a higher IQ than the last generation.

Flynn Effect

33

An IQ score of 70 would be described as

two standard deviations below the mean

34

Define originality.

having a low probability, unique

35

Learning that does not reveal itself until it is needed is called

latent learning

36

As people age, they hold on to their accumulated knowledge and memories and tend to increase in emotional intelligence. There is typically a decline, however, in their ability to see complex relationships and solve problems. This is a decline in ________ intelligence.

fluid

37

Someone who understands their own emotions, shows empathy, and understands social relationships and cues would have high ________ intelligence.

emotional

38

When Janet feels the wind blowing on her face this is an example of ________.

sensation

39

Pronoun drop is more likely to occur in ________ cultures.

collectivist

40

When questioning a victim about the perpetrator of a crime, the police should

be intentionally vague and provide opportunities for the victim to offer information.

41

In the movie “50 First Dates,” the main character wakes up each day not remembering the day before or having met her new boyfriend. She suffers from ________ amnesia.

anterograde

42

Which of the following is a description of the Remote Associates Test (RAT)

Participants are asked to come up with a word that is related to three seemingly unrelated words.

43

Gossip, making up 60-70% of conversations, is argued to be an important part of defining ________ in regulating the social world.

ingroups and outgroups

44

In order for something to be classified as creative, it should be original

useful, and surprising.

45

Before a memory makes it to long-term memory, it must first pass through ________ and short-term memory.

sensory

46

Ronaldo was on the state champion soccer team in high school and has fond memories of his experiences with the team. When his son asks Ronaldo about his old coach and what it was like to play on such a great team, Ronaldo remembers only a couple of things about the season, even though he spent hours everyday with the team. This is an example of

transience.

47

What happened when the participants were asked to draw the size of the hole?

they drew the hole smaller than the actual hole size if surrounded by larger circles.

48

A rat is placed in an environment where the floor gives the rat small electric shocks. The only way to get rid of the shocks is to press a lever in the corner of the box. The rat quickly learns to press the lever. This is an example of

negative reinforcement

49

Which sense pertains to body movement and awareness?

proprioception

50

Subliminal messaging

can mildly influence behavior.

51

Holly was sitting on her bed when she remembered she needed to call her mom about what to do for her grandma’s birthday. She got up and did a few dishes before calling her mom, but then she forgot why she had needed to call. She retraced her steps back to her bed, then suddenly rememberd the purpose of the call. This can be explained by the

encoding specificity principle.

52

This arrow is pointing to which part of the ear?

pinna

53

When H.M. had his hippocampus removed, he was

unable to form new semantic memories.

54

Long-term memories you have to consciously think about are

explicit memories

55

Sierra and her family are on vacation at the beach. They eat lasagna for dinner and then head out to the waves. Sierra tries boogie boarding and ends up swallowing a mouthful of salt water, which makes her sick to her stomach. The next time someone offers her lasagna, the thought of it makes Sierra feel sick. This is an example of a/an ________.

taste aversion

56

Henry is observing beetles for his biology project. They return to their nest at unpredictable intervals all day long, so Henry keeps a close watch all day. Which reinforcement schedule is this?

variable interval

57

Which type of reinforcers have innate reinforcing qualities that are not learned?

primary

58

Shaquallah suffered a head injury in a soccer game and can remember everything from her past, but can no longer make new memories. What type of amnesia does she have?

anterograde

59

The ________ says that memories are processed the same way that a computer processes information.

Atkinson-Shiffrin model

60

The units of language from the smallest unit to the largest are

phoneme, morpheme, syntax.

61

When Rosalie falls asleep at a park next to an elementary school, the ringing bell wakes her up. She immediately jumps to her feet and starts to pack up her bag because she has been conditioned to think the ringing bell signifies the end of class and the need to go somewhere else. When Rosalie was little, before ever attending school, the sound of a bell was a

neutral stimulus

62

Officially, insects are a class of invertebrates a three-part body (head, thorax and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae. This description is a

artificial concept

63

The loudness of a sound is determined by the ________ of sound waves.

amplitude

64

According to the principles of social learning theory, Claire is likely to demonstrate aggressive behavior if she

sees a character on t.v. get rewarded for being violent towards another character.

65

Which is the correct sequence that describes how sound reaches the brain?

pinna - auditory canal - tympanic membrane - ossicles - cochlea - auditory nerve

66

Janet was involved in a car accident when traveling with her mom at age 7. She remembers asking her mom a question, causing her mom to look backwards and hit the car in front of them. While talking about it with her mom, she says that it was, in fact, her brother who asked the question, but he had always blamed it on Janet. This is an example of the ________.

misinformation effect paradigm

67

This arrow is pointing to which part of the ear?

auditory canal

68

Confusing the source of information is called

misattribution

69

How could you design an experiment around the social learning theory?

determine how long it takes someone to master a complex yoga move by looking at someone else.

70

Fluid found in the part of the ear pictured here stimulate hair cells in the organ of Corti.

cochlea

71

At a football game, your friend from ten rows down yells at you to bring them some of your popcorn. At first you couldn’t understand what they were asking, but once you saw their mouth, you could make out the request. This is consistent with the

with the results of the Sumby and Pollack study on the audiovisual advantage.

72

Gabe was essentially fluent in French in elementary school when he lived in Canada, but then moved away until he got a job offer to work in Paris during his 20s. He picks it up again surprisingly fast. This is an example of ________, a means of retrieving information out of your long-term memory storage system.

relearning

73

Water, food, and sleep are examples of

primary reinforcers

74

According to the law of effect, behaviors that are followed by consequences that are satisfying to the organism are more likely

to be repeated

75

A stimulus presented below the absolute threshold is called

subliminal

76

Mariah is nervous about giving birth to her first baby, but takes a hypnobirthing class and becomes excited about the possibility of having a pain-free birth. The idea that Mariah can control her pain experience in consistent with the

motivation-decision model.

77

Rewarding successive approximations towards a target behavior is known as

shaping

78

This arrow is pointing to which part of the ear?

tympanic membrane

79

Samantha needs to remember a string of numbers, and does so by associating each set of numbers with the jersey numbers worn by her favorite football players. This is an example of ________ encoding.

semantic

80

________ was asked by the French government to develop an intelligence test to use on children to determine which ones might have difficulty in school.

Alfred Binet

81

Perception is

the way sensory information is organized, interpreted, and experienced.

82

The vibration of the ________ causes the ossicles to move.

auditory canal

83

How does someone who has never been to a Starbucks before know to order and pay at the counter and then wait for their food to be ready?

The individual already has a concept for casual dining restaurants and can apply this concept to Starbucks.

84

Grant and Reid are six-year old twins. They want to find a way to get the frisbee off of the room without asking for help, so Grant climbs a tree in order to push down a branch so that Reid can reach it. They wiggle the branch until it snaps, then use the branch with fan of leaves to sweep down the frisbee. Their solution relies on ________ intelligence.

creative

85

The first intelligence test, aimed to test for children who might struggle in school, was designed by

Alfred Binet

86

What is the function of this part of the ear?

aids in balance and movement

87

Punishment ________ the likelihood that a behavior will occur while reinforcement ________ the likelihood of a behavior.

decreases

increases

88

Which field of psychology includes the following concepts: figure-ground relationship, law of similarity, and proximity?

Gestalt

89

The fact that Elon can remember more words on his German test while taking the exam inside his classroom (instead of the testing center) can be explained by the

encoding specificity principle

90

Caroline met a new friend named Wendy. Wendy was wearing a green shirt, which reminded Caroline of Peter Pan, so Caroline plans to remember Peter Pan when she thinks about her new friend’s name. This is an example of

a mnemonic device.

91

Looking for evidence to back up the way you already feel about something is an example of

confirmation bias.

92

________ revised the Stanford-Binet Intelligence scale to include more subfields. There are now many offshoots of his original test, including the popular WAIS.

David Wechsler.

93

When the brain receives nociceptive signals from the body

they can be blocked by the brain’s descending pain modulatory system.

94

What has research shown about processing subliminal messages?

In laboratory settings, people can process and respond to information outside of their awareness.

95

An exceptionally clear recollection of an important event, such as 9/11, is a ________.

flashbulb memory

96

Susan is undergoing chemotherapy, which makes her feel nauseous. Now she feels nauseous the moment she walks into the doctor’s office. What is the unconditioned response in this situation?

nausea

97

Merkel’s disks and Ruffini corpuscles are examples of

mechanoreceptors.

98

The brain’s descending pain modulatory system

enabled Aron Ralston to be happy about cutting off his arm.

99

Matthias watched his older brother get arrested for selling drugs. He followed the steps of the modeling process to know that he doesn’t want to get involved with selling drugs himself. These steps are:

attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation.

100

The opponent-process theory is supported by

afterimages.

101

Destiny is excellent at working with shapes and models. Her dream job is to design for Lego one day. This exemplifies ________ intelligence.

spatial

102

Which is the independent variable in Jessica Witt’s study?

The size of the holes projected around the golf hole.

103

Colton is an average middle school student who has a good group of friends and enjoys practicing the drums and playing baseball. Despite this, he struggles with writing and has a hard time putting his thoughts on paper. Which learning disability does he have?

dysgraphia

104

Shianne tells the group of people at the table at her workshop that she’s from Salt Lake City. A young man replies that he is also from Salt Lake, so he askes Shianne what area she’s from. Shianne admits that she is really from Bountiful, which is north of Salt Lake City. The fact that she gives this additional information is an example of

audience design.

105

When a person or animal makes connections between stimuli or events that occur together, they are exemplifying ________ learning.

associational

106

Positive Reinforcement refers to a situation where ________.

a behavior is increased because something desirable was gained through engaging in the behavior

107

Internet search engines use ________ to show the appropriate results

algorithms

108

Based on changes in the weather, bears typically hibernate for half the year. This is an example of an innate behavior, known as a

instinct

109

Which sense pertains to balance?

the vestibular sense

110

How does a cochlear implant enable the deaf to hear?

It receives incoming sound information and directly stimulates the auditory nerve to transmit information to the brain.

111

Money is an example of which type of reinforcer?

secondary

112

Hearing aids are ineffective in treating

sensorineural hearing loss.

113

Which idea says that if you want to remember a piece of information, you should think about it more deeply and link it to other information?

levels of processing theory

114

H.M. was unable to form any new semantic memories because of the removal of his ________.

hippocampus

115

Jaxon sat down next to Harvey on the bus and immediately asked, “did you see Harper’s stats last night?” Because they share ________, Jaxon didn’t need to explain that he was talking about the baseball game.

common ground

116

Which of the following statements about eyewitness testimony is correct?

Eyewitness misidentification is the leading cause of wrongful convictions.

117

Kyle sees a flashing light in the distance. This is an example of

sensation

118

________ is confusing the source of information.

misattribution.

119

Memory of brief events, like the smell of french fries you pass on the way to the corner store, are stored in ________ memory.

sensory

120

Which part of the ear is most involved in motion and balance?

semicircular canal

121

It something is original, it is

unique.

122

The fact that Chinese speakers may be more likely to think about time on a vertical or a horizontal plane is an example of

linguistic determinism.

123

Jessica Witt’s study tested

how the perception of the size of a golf hole affects golfing performance.

124

Explicit memories include ________ and episodic memory.

semantic

125

Light energy with very low amplitude would be perceived as ________

dim

126

In the modeling process, you learn by watching someone else. Sophie learns by watching her older brother get in trouble for staying out too late that she should also not stay out late. Sophie learned this by following the steps of the modeling process, which are

attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation.

127

________ cues require only one eye.

monocular

128

Two-thirds of typical conversations are about ________.

gossip

129

Sean wants to teach his dog to turn the light on. What would be the best way to train his dog, utilizing the idea of shaping? might he do that using the concept of shaping?

reward his dog when the dog looks at the light switch, when she touches the lightswitch, when she pushes it, and when she turns it on by command

130

The most visible part of the ear is the

pinna

131

Reinforcement differs from punishment in that ________.

reinforcement is any outcome that leads to an increase in a behavior and punishment is an outcome that leads to a decrease in a behavior

132

The pervasive daily stress of poverty and resulting impact on brain development may explain

why children who live in poverty perform worse on intelligence tests.

133

Demarcus suffered a concussion in his first lacrosse match, causing him to forget everything that happened prior to the match. He has ________ amnesia.

retrograde

134

Bryson remembers nothing before his concussion happened, meaning he has ________ amnesia. If he were unable to learn new things, he would have ________ amnesia.

retrograde; anterograde

135

Which component of a classically conditioned behavior automatically elicits a reaction? For example, dimming the lights will cause the eyes to dilate.

unconditioned stimulus.

136

Rihanna has difficulty spelling words correctly while writing and mixes up letters within words and sentences. Which learning disability does she have?

dyslexia

137

If a sound wave has a high amplitude, it will

sound loud.

138

Oprah is known for her ability to understand others and help them feel comfortable. What type of intelligence does she have a lot of?

interpersonal

139

Mental sets occur

when you approach a problem the same way, even if it is ineffective.

140

Memory aids that help us organize information for encoding are called

mnemonic devices.

141

In the study with Little Albert, he was conditioned to fear a rabbit because it was paired with a frightening loud sound. In this example, what was the unconditioned stimulus?

the loud sound

142

Sven eats popcorn every time he goes to the movies. He goes to a new theatre with no concessions and finds that his mouth is watering for popcorn the entire time. In this example, what is the conditioned stimulus?

watching a movie

143

Kieran is attempting to condition a parrot to greet him when he enters the room. He repeatedly pairs his entry to the room with a treat for the parrot. Kieran can say that ________ has occurred as soon as the parrot greets him in response to his entry.

acquisition

144

Doing something and then being influenced by what happens as a consequence of the thing you did is the basic idea behind ________.

operant conditioning

145

Which of the following is an example of fixed ratio reinforcement schedule?

getting five bucks from your parents every time you learn 3 new songs on the violin

146

Napoleon works at the golf course. In addition to his salary, they told him he can get $10 for every bucket he fills with stray balls he finds scattered throughout the course. Which reinforcement schedule is this?

fixed ratio

147

The best example of a concept is a

prototype.

148

A bell curve relies on a ________ sample.

large

149

Tyler is learning to read and write but having a difficult time. He sometimes switches up the letters and words in the sentences and almost always writes his name backwards. Which learning disability does he have?

dyslexia

150

The average IQ score is

100

151

Multi-modal perception is the idea that

various sensory modalities are integrated.

152

What was the most important takeaway from Ivan Pavlov’s experiment with dogs?

Learning can occur when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.

153

The average IQ score is

100

154

Comparing which cell phone to buy and contrasting the different contracts that come with each purchase in an example of using ________ intelligence.

analytical

155

________ reinforcement is giving a reinforcer every time that a behavior is displayed.

continuous

156

London remembers a time when she was young when she got lost in a department store and couldn’t find her mom. When talking to her family about it, they corrected her memory and said that it was actually her sister who was lost, and that she had just been present. Over time, the source of her original memory became confused. This is an example of

misattribution.

157

While you may not notice the change in the music’s volume while at a party, you would definitely notice the change if you were trying to study in a quiet library. This supports the idea that the difference threshold is a constant fraction of the original stimulus, also known as

Weber’s law

158

What is the main idea of levels of processing theory?

If you want to remember a piece of information, you should think about it more deeply and link it to other information and memories to make it more meaningful.

159

According to the trichromatic theory of color vision, ________ in the retina are responsive to red, green, and blue.

cones

160

________ is the recall of false autobiographical memories.

false memory syndrome.

161

When rats had their ________ removed, they no longer experienced their fear memory.

amygdala

162

How did the perceived hole size affect the putting performance of participants?

participants putted better when they perceived the hole as larger.

163

Which is an example of a positive reinforcer?

being told “nice work!” after completing your homework

164

What did the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart suggest about intelligence? The findings from this study ________.

revealed a genetic component to intelligence

165

Episodic memories and semantic memories are both examples of ________ memory.

explicit

166

The findings from the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart suggested that

there is a genetic component to intelligence.

167

Smelling the lingering scent of the fish you reheated in the microwave is an example of

olfaction.

168

When the source of a memory is confused, like you think the storyline of a t.v. show you watched actually happened to you in real life, it is called

misattribution.

169

Mason has a cochlear implant. He is able to hear because the implant

receives incoming sound information and directly stimulates the auditory nerve to transmit information to the brain.

170

Jake and Jack are identical twins, but Jake was born almost 15 minutes before Jack. They also have two sisters, Deondra and Daphne, who are 3 years and 6 years younger than them. Who is most likely to have the same IQ score?

Jake and Jack

171

“Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally” (PEMDAS) is a popular way for math teachers to help their students remember the order of operations (Parentheses, Exponents, Multiplication and Division, Addition and Subtraction). This is an example of

a mnemonic device

172

Because Jackie has seen so many documentaries about shark attacks, she is afraid to swim in the ocean. Chris tries to convince her that she’s overreacting because more people actually die from bee stings than shark bites. Jackie’s belief is an example of the

availability heuristic.

173

Remembering ________ is a good example of episodic memory

your first day of school

174

Sierra turns off her car right before the last line of chorus of a popular song. Moments later while inside the store, she finds herself singing the last line. This exemplifies the gestalt principle of

closure

175

Olfactory receptor cells pick up odor molecules which get turned into electrical impulses that send messages to the brain via the ________.

olfactory bulb

176

Darkness will naturally cause your pupils to dilate, since they are opening up to let it more light from the surroundings. Light causes the pupil to contract. Knowing this, how could you design a classical conditioning experiment forcing the pupils to dilate?

Ring a bell directly before turning the lights off, twenty times in a row. Then ring the bell.

177

Lewis Termin did research on those with ________ IQs and found them to be well-adjusted adults.

high

178

Shelter, sex, and touch are examples of

primary reinforcers.

179

Students were asked about the speed of cars involved in an accident. When the verb was changed from “contacted” to “smashed”, ________.

students were more likely to report that there was broken glass involved in the accident

180

Which of the following is an example of a fixed interval reinforcement schedule?

Nikita taking her dog to the vet once a year

181

Demarco was good at every sport growing up, but decided to focus on just baseball and the discus once he got to college. What area of intelligence does he exemplify?

bodily kinesthetic

182

Which correctly describes the process of hearing?

pinna - auditory canal - tympanic membrane - ossicles - cochlea - auditory nerve

183

________ interference occurs when old information hinders the recall of newly learned information, while ________ interference happens when information learned more recently hinders the recall of older information.

proactive; retroactive

184

Jaimie doesn’t have much time before her class, and she still needs to find a ride to the airport, print off her assignment, and text her manager about changing her shift. Her best strategy for solving these problems will be to use

heuristics.

185

Illusions are valuable to psychologists because they are used to

explore what people experience and what parts of the brain are involved in perception

186

Raul can remember exactly where on the page in his textbook he saw a picture of a pie chart about the percentages of the U.S. population that say their favorite colors are either red, yellow, green, blue, or purple. This is an example of ________ encoding

visual

187

Sea turtles moving toward the ocean immediately after birth, and joeys moving to the mother’s pouch immediately after birth are examples of ________.

instincts

188

Learning how to operate new program on your computer would require ________ intelligence.

fluid

189

The basic idea behind observational learning is that

Learning can occur by watching others and modeling what they do or say.

190

Jonas loves working as a TA for his Physics professor and especially loves the excitement involved in solving problems. This exemplifies ________ intelligence.

logical–mathematical

191

If you walk through a busy crowd and feel a few different people bump and push past you as they walk by, which skin receptors would be activated?

mechanoreceptors

192

Austin has never met one of his work colleagues, having only interacted online or on the phone. He’s still able to pick out his coworker at a conference in a room full of people because of

the crossmodal relationship between auditory speech and visual information.

193

Amy studied German in high school but began studying French once in college. When she meets another German student, she can’t seem to find any German words to stay, and instead only remembers French. This is an example of ________ interference.

retroactive

194

When a memory fades over time, it is called

transience.

195

Participants in Daniel Simons’ and Christopher Chabris’ study were asked to watch people pass a basketball. Because they were focused on doing so, the didn’t see a gorilla walk across the screen. This phenomenon is called

inattentional blindness.

196

Mary Claire watches her father bake bread every Sunday afternoon. Eventually, she starts to join him in the kitchen and he shows her the ropes of how it’s done. After years of doing this together, Mary Claire decides she wants to open a bakery. This exemplifies

learning.

197

Children who live in poverty perform worse on intelligence tests because they________.

experience more pervasive daily stress, which affects how the brain functions and develops, thus causing a dip in IQ scores.

198

The processes used to encode, store, and retrieve information over time is known as

memory.

199

Pitch is determined by the ________ of sound waves.

frequency

200

________ fire in response to any potential tissue-damaging stimu

Nociceptors

201

What do paint, doll, and cat all have in common?

they all can combine with -house to form a word, and they are part of creativity test.

202

The idea that we perceive the world while utilizing a combination of senses is known as

multi-modal perception.

203

________ broke the constraints of ________, which emphasized that learning was the direct consequence of conditioning to stimuli.

Latent learning; behaviorism

204

When Martha first visits her Aunt and Uncle’s house, the smell of fish is overwhelming, but after an hour, she doesn’t even notice it’s there. What explains this

Sensory Adaptation

205

If you need to remember the names of all 50 states, the most recommended technique would be for you to

memorize five states at a time—group the information into a more manageable size.

206

Congenital deafness is

something someone is born with.

207

Ezra got a new phone number, but keeps giving out his old phone number on accident when people ask him. This is an example of ________ interference.

proactive

208

About 2% of the population have

IQs above 130.

209

Derek’s email log-in forced him to create a new password, but now when he logs on, he only remembers his old password. This is an example of ________ interference.

proactive

210

Which type of intelligence is sometimes called “street smarts”?

practical

211

The fact that the base of the basilar membrane responds best to high frequencies supports the ________ theory of hearing.

place

212

5-year-old Camille is learning about the food groups. Her prototype for a vegetable is most likely a

carrot.

213

Caleb uses the words “sofa” “soda” and “dinner” instead of “couch” “soft drink” and “supper.” When the others in the conversations use the same words, the people talking have adopted the same

lexicon.

214

Doug cannot find his keys, but cannot remember where. This is an example of

absentmindedness

215

Chinese speakers

may be more prone to think of time on a vertical or horizontal plane.

216

When Brad got into a minor car accident, he hopped right out of the car to assess the damage. He didn’t notice until later that night that he had a pretty serious cut on his leg. The fact that he didn’t notice is consisted with the

motivation-decision model

217

Anna is competing on Jeopardy!. She. can accurately judge the distance between her finger and the buzzer and knows just how hard to press because of

proprioception

218

Which is an example of a morpheme?

un

219

The “I knew it all along” phenomenon is known as

hindsight bias.

220

When Justin’s dog hears the sound of a car door slam outside, she excitedly runs to the door and barks. This is an example of

classical conditioning.

221

Most modern intelligence tests, such as the newly developed WISC-V, are based off of work done by

David Wechsler.

222

If your eyes see someone saying “ball” but the word you hear is “doll”, the struggle to make sense of that information in your brain is consistent with

the McGurk effect.

223

Which of the following is an example of operant conditioning?

when a rabbit goes to the bathroom in the litter box, she gets a piece of carrot

224

4-year old Jada is learning about animals. Her prototype for an amphibians is most likely a

frog.

225

You walk by the same billboard on the way to school each day, but have never actually looked at it. When asked to guess which billboard it was from a selection of billboards, you somehow identify the right one because

you subliminally processed the image.

226

________ is well known for his research on animals and pigeons. He even created an operant conditioning chamber designed to reward animals for specific behaviors.

B.F. Skinner

227

Because taste and smell have sensory receptors that respond to molecules, they are considered

chemical senses.

228

In Pavlov’s classic experiment with dogs, the unconditioned response is ________ and the conditioned response is ________.

salivation; salivation

229

Cillian can remember a great deal of numbers because he groups them all in sets of 3 and thinks of them as batting averages. He is using the technique of ________

chunking

230

Stickers on a sticker chart are an example of which type of reinforcer?

secondary

231

Anywhere between 30–70% of individuals with diagnosed cases of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) also have some sort of ________.

learning disability

232

Which linguist(s) proposed that the thoughts that an individual has are determined by the language that he or she uses?

Sapir and Whorf

233

Using the different images that each eye receives in order to perceive depth is called using ________ cues.

binocular

234

When surrounded by smaller circles, a center circle will appear ________ than if surrounded by larger circles.

larger

235

In order for ________ to occur, it is best if the interval between the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus is small, sometimes just a matter of seconds.

acquisition

236

Which is an example of classical conditioning?

being afraid of thunder and lightning because the last two times you were in a thunderstorm, there were also tornadoes.

237

Did you read the second “the” in the sentence in the image? You probably didn’t, because your brain doesn’t expect to have “the” a second time and skips over it so that the sentence works in the context of what you are familiar with. This is an example of

top-down processing

238

About 2% of the population have

IQs below 70.

239

Madison needs to wrap a present but doesn’t have any wrapping paper. She quickly searches the apartment and finds a brown grocery bag to use instead. This is an example of

divergent thinking.

240

Gillian’s kids struggle to get out the door in the morning for school, so she creates a sticker chart where they can put on a sticker each time they are ready to go before 7 a.m. Once they fill they chart, they’ll get a new bunk bed. This is an example of ________.

operant conditioning

241

Jason studies Spanish for three years, and then switches to Pashto. When asked to remember Spanish vocabulary he can’t, instead he can only remember Pashto vocabulary. This is an example of ________ interference.

retroactive

242

When Benito was five he cut his leg on some glass and needed stitches. Years later, his mother tells him the scar came from being bit by a dog. Now, when people ask about his scar he distinctly remembers the dog biting him. This is an example of the ________.

misinformation effect paradigm

243

Jackie wants her dog to bring her the mail each day after it’s dropped in through the mail slot. Instead of trying teach her do, Dodger, at at once, she begins by giving him treats each time he goes to the mail slot. This is an example of

shaping.

244

If you think baseball is boring and reluctantly agree to join your friend at the ballpark, chances are good you will be ready to go by the seventh inning stretch, even though it has been a high-scoring game. This is an example of

confirmation bias.

245

Auditory receptor cells are embedded within the ________, which is found in the ________.

basilar membrane; cochlea

246

Negative punishment refers to a situation where ________.

a behavior decreased because something desirable was eliminated through engaging in the behavior

247

While traveling to the Canada from his home in Europe, Gunther often asks people, “Excuse me, can you please the time tell me?” Even though people understand what he is asking and politely tell him the time, Gunther’s incorrect use of ________ threatens his attempts at communicating with others in a language that is foreign to him.

syntax

248

When pain signals get exaggerated, it is because of damage to the

peripheral or central nervous system.

249

Identical twins raised together and identical twins raised apart exhibit ________ between their IQ scores than siblings or fraternal twins raised together.

higher correlation

250

Braden has a pounding headache and is disoriented after riding a twisting roller coaster. What sense was impacted by the ride?

vestibular

251

Jimmy rides home from karate practice with his friend and his friend’s mom each Tuesday night. One night, his friend’s mom can’t come, and he needs to get a ride from someone else. He’s never driven the route before, but he’s able to explain exactly where to turn to get home. This is an example of

latent learning.

252

You are trying to describe the taste of a cheeseburger to your vegetarian friend. A good descriptor for the meaty, savory taste you experience would be

umami.

253

Who developed the idea that short-term memories get “filed away” in three different areas of the brain: a visuo-spatial area, a phonological loop for auditory memories, and an episodic buffer for multi-modal memories with storylines?

Baddeley and Hitch

254

Malik is memorizing some lines for his school play and struggles with, “Tut, I have lost myself; I am not here; This is not Romeo, he's some other where.” To practice, he writes it out emphasizing words with capital letters: “Tut, I have lost myself; I AM NOT HERE; This is not Romeo, he's some OTHER WHERE.” He is utilizing principles of ________ encoding.

visual

255

Zahara asks Blake how many times he ate pizza in the last week, and he’s quickly able to respond with “twice.” This is an example of

automatic processing.

256

The idea the color coded in pairs of black-white, yellow-blue, and green-red is the basic premise of the

opponent-process theory

257

Ivan Pavlov

established the principles of classical conditioning through his experiments with dogs.

258

When surrounded by larger circles, a center circle will appear ________ than if surrounded by smaller circles.

smaller

259

Jarren wants his dog to play dead when he says “bang, bang!” so he begins by giving him a treat each time that he crouches down after giving the command. Eventually he’ll get him to roll over and then to lay on his back with his legs outstretched. This is an example of

shaping.

260

Learning disabilities often affect children

with average to above-average intelligence

261

The meaty, savory taste you find in a steak activates your taste receptors for modosodium glutamate. This taste is described as

umami.

262

Which is the independent variable in Jessica Witt’s study?

The size of the holes projected around the golf hole.

263

Pain that results from damage to neurons of the peripheral or central nervous system is called

neuropathic pain.

264

Remembering ________ is a good example of episodic memory.

your 16th birthday party

265

Which type of memory is tested on a multiple choice test?

recognition

266

According to the Atkinson-Shiffrin model, ________.

memories are processed the same way that a computer processes information.

267

The words we use are called

lexicon.

268

Anna is telling Joy all about Maya’s recent engagement. Because they share ________, Anna assumes that Joy knows a little about Maya and George and doesn’t need to tell about who they are. If Anna were speaking to someone else, she may need to include more details.

common ground

269

Which of the following is an example of a reflex?

a newborn baby knowing how to nurse

270

Thinking about the meaning of a word and categorizing it into the context of other words you already know is an example of ________ encoding.

semantic

271

If you are in a crowded room at a noisy party having a conversation with an interesting new acquaintance, studies show that if you are looking at him while talking,

you are more likely to hear what he is saying.

272

Jessica Witt’s study tested

how perception affects performance

273

________ concepts are the ones we know through experience.

Natural

274

Using algorithms to solve problems can be compared to

following the instruction manual.

275

In classical conditioning, organisms learn to

associate events that repeatedly happen together.

276

The organ of Corti on the ________ within the ________ changes vibrations into impulses that travel to the auditory nerve

basilar membrane; cochlea

277

Esther has an ear for music and can play songs on the piano she has only heard once before. She has high ________ intelligence.

musical

278

Tammy and Sara both agree that dogs typically have four legs, a tail, and fur. Tammy thinks that dogs also tend to bite small children while Sara thinks they tend to be friendly. What explains the differences between what Tammy thinks and what Sara thinks?

Tammy and Sara have different concepts of dogs.

279

Strict followers of ________ believed that cognition did not have a role to play in learning, but ________ says otherwise.

behaviorism; latent learning

280

If co-witnesses of a crime are permitted to talk to each other, they are prone to contaminate each other’s memories. This is an example of

the misinformation effect.

281

Thinking outside of the box is considered

divergent thinking.

282

What are the three criteria that are used to determine whether an idea is creative?

originality, usefulness, surprise

283

What is wavelength?

the distance from one wave peak to the next

284

Jane writes a song to help her remember all of her terms for anatomy class. She is utilizing ________ encoding.

acoustic

285

Marissa’s mom is a hairdresser and Marissa spent countless hours afterschool just hanging out in the salon, but never learned how to cut or style hair. Later, when Marissa’s friend mentions she is looking for someone to do her hair for a wedding, Marissa says she can play with it a bit. Marissa surprises even herself by how wonderful the updo looks. This is an example of

latent learning.

286

Martha needs 3 eggs from the store, so she thinks of a shoe filled with 3 eggs. This is an example the ________ technique.

peg word

287

A sound’s purity is called its

timbre.

288

According to the trichromatic theory of color vision, cones in the retina are responsive to ________.

red, green, and blue

289

Miranda has to make a decision, but has a ton of information and not a lot of time. Which problem-solving strategy should she use

heuristics.

290

_______ is an example of a monocular cue.

Interposition

291

Which is the dependent variable in Jessica Witt’s study?

The size of the circle drawn by the participant and the number of successful putts.

292

Psychologists use illusions to

explore what people experience, what parts of the brain are involved in perception, and how to alter the illusion.

293

Tyler and Eric agree that spiders have eight legs, but Tyler thinks spiders are scary and gross, while Eric finds them nice and interesting. What explains the differences between what Tyler thinks and what Eric thinks?

Tyler and Eric have different concepts of spiders.

294

Arianna was an accomplished gymnast in her youth but hasn’t been to the gym for nearly 10 years. Despite this, with some prompting from her old coach, she’s able to do almost her entire uneven bar routine. This is an example of

procedural memory.

295

According to Gestalt psychology,

the whole is different from the sum of its parts.

296

Darnell was the subject for his in-class demonstration on classical conditioning. His teacher read through a list of random words, but each time she said the word, “pizza,” she squirted him in the face with a water bottle, which caused him to flinch. When talking about pizza later outside of class, he didn’t flinch, but then two days later, his friend from class said, “Hey Darnell, pizza!” and he flinched with fear. This is an example of ________.

spontaneous recovery