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1

Thomas Jefferson’s vision for the future of the United States included which of the following ideas?

  • a. Expansion of the institution of slavery to the West
  • b. Industrialized urban centers at the forefront of the Industrial Revolution
  • c. Western territories populated by independent yeomen farm families
  • d. A rejection of scientific farming in favor of agricultural traditionalism

C

2

Why was Toussaint L’Ouverture a significant figure in the 1790s?

  • a. L’Ouverture solicited a loan and bribe from American diplomats in France.
  • b. He led black Haitians in their fight to seize control of Saint-Domingue.
  • c. L’Ouverture became the first president of the new French Republic.
  • d. The leader negotiated with John Jay to create the terms of the Jay Treaty.

B

3

Why did Thomas Jefferson call his election to the presidency the “Revolution of 1800”?

  • a. He removed Federalists and installed all new government officials.
  • b. The government changed peacefully despite bitter partisan conflict and foreign crisis.
  • c. He subsequently filled the Supreme Court with Republican judges.
  • d. There was no true majority, so the Supreme Court determined his victory.

B

4

Who led the conservative Senecas, who condemned assimilation and demanded a return to ancestral customs?

  • a. Tenskwatawa, “The Prophet”
  • b. Lalawethika
  • c. Tecumseh
  • d. Chief Red Jacket

D

5

In 1801, Jefferson responded to the Barbary States; threats against American shipping by

  • a. “showing the flag” through a token bombardment of the Barbary States but, in the end, continuing to pay the same tribute.
  • b. ordering a naval bombardment and the landing of U.S. Marines, who destroyed the Barbary States’ capacity to harass American shipping.
  • c. refusing tribute payments, retaliating against renewed Barbary attacks, then working out a diplomatic solution involving much lower tribute payments.
  • d. announcing that it was too expensive to maintain the navy that the Federalists had built to deal with this threat and that it would be cheaper to pay a higher tribute.

C

6

Which of the following phrases describes the federal judiciary at the time Thomas Jefferson became president in 1801?

  • a. Understaffed and lacking direction
  • b. Sympathetic to the Republican Party
  • c. Packed with hostile Federalists
  • d. Dominated by impartial judges

C

7

Why was the decision in the case Marbury v. Madison (1803) of great importance in American history?

  • a. It marked the first occasion on which the Supreme Court declared that it had the power to rule national laws unconstitutional.
  • b. It marked the onset of a period of frequent declarations by the Supreme Court that laws enacted by the Republican-dominated Congress were unconstitutional.
  • c. In refusing to uphold Marbury’s right to his commission, Chief Justice Marshall established an implicit political alliance with President Jefferson.
  • d. President Jefferson used the public backlash against this decision to purge the federal judiciary of Federalists and to attempt to impeach Chief Justice Marshall.

A

8

Jefferson’s administration demonstrated its disagreement with Hamilton’s philosophy by

  • a. reducing the protective tariff.
  • b. abolishing the national bank.
  • c. ending the excise tax.
  • d. implementing the Embargo Act.

C

9

Why was Pinckney’s Treaty of 1795 significant?

  • a. The treaty opened the Mississippi River and New Orleans to American trade
  • b. Through this treaty, Jefferson and Madison negotiated the Louisiana Purchase.
  • c. Through this treaty, the English stopped arming the Indians around the Great Lakes.
  • d. The treaty lowered the price of western lands, making them affordable to farmers.

A

10

Which of the following statements characterizes federal land price policies in the Northwest Territory during 1790–1820?

  • a. Jeffersonian Republicans passed laws that made it easier for farm families to buy land.
  • b. The Federalist administrations dropped the minimum price per acre in order to encourage speculators to purchase larger tracts of land.
  • c. Jeffersonian Republicans doubled the price per acre to discourage speculators from buying up most of the federal land.
  • d. Jeffersonian Republicans raised the price to $2 per acre and the minimum purchase requirement to 320 acres.

A

11

Why did Thomas Jefferson decide to attempt to purchase New Orleans in 1801?

  • a. Napoleon Bonaparte had announced a plan to establish a French empire in North America.
  • b. He feared that racial violence in Haiti would spread to the American continent via French New Orleans.
  • c. Spain refused to allow American farmers to ship their products through the port, in violation of the Pinckney Treaty.
  • d. Great Britain wanted to use the port as a military staging point for its conquest of French and Spanish islands in the Caribbean.

C

12

Which of the following describes Jefferson’s approach to the opportunity to purchase Louisiana in 1802?

  • a. In keeping with his strict constructionist view of the Constitution, Jefferson jumped on the opportunity.
  • b. Unsure of the extent of his presidential powers, Jefferson procrastinated until Congress forced him to act.
  • c. The opportunity led Jefferson to revise his view of the presidential powers granted by the Constitution.
  • d. Jefferson delayed so that he could obtain a constitutional amendment allowing presidential land purchases.

C

13

Which of the following took place in response to the Jefferson administration’s purchase of Louisiana?

  • a. Southern Federalists conspired with Aaron Burr and General James Wilkinson to capture the region and establish it as a separate nation.
  • b. Some New England Federalists devised a plan to secede from the Union and establish a northern confederacy.
  • c. Many Native Americans poured into the region.
  • d. Most Federalists became Republicans.

B

14

What was the immediate cause of the illegal duel in which Vice President Aaron Burr killed Alexander Hamilton in 1804?

  • a. Hamilton’s decision to support Jefferson and oppose Burr in the 1800 election
  • b. Hamilton’s affair with Burr’s wife
  • c. Burr’s accusation that Hamilton was leading a Federalist secession plot
  • d. Hamilton’s accusation that Burr was aiding a plot to destroy the Union

D

15

Why did Thomas Jefferson dispatch the Lewis and Clark expedition in 1804?

  • a. He asked them to identify areas into which the Ohio and New York Indian tribes could be relocated.
  • b. Jefferson hoped to establish an effective American claim to the Louisiana Territory.
  • c. The president needed to lay the groundwork for establishing Indian schools in the region.
  • d. He wanted a report on the physical features and the plant and animal life of the Louisiana Territory.

D

16

As a result of the Embargo Act of 1807, the American economy

  • a. suffered considerably less damage than did the economies of both France and Britain.
  • b. suffered little damage because northeastern merchants smuggled their goods out through Canada.
  • c. fell into a slump and the American gross national product dropped by 5 percent.
  • d. suffered little damage because American merchants ordered their ships to trade only between neutral ports.

C

17

The prophet Tenskwatawa was historically significant for which of the following activities?

  • a. He urged Native Americans to assimilate and adopt the superior technology of westerners.
  • b. Tenskwatawa urged Indian peoples to work together and to shun the ways of Americans.
  • c. He signed a peace treaty with Indiana’s governor to allow his people to live on a large reservation.
  • d. Tenskwatawa led a coalition of Indians to resettle in Canada under British protection.

B

18

Which region of the Union was known for its support of the declaration of war on England in 1812?

  • a. Western and southern states
  • b. Middle Atlantic states
  • c. New England states
  • d. Maritime states

A

19

Which of the following statements describes the Federalists’ response to the War of 1812?

  • a. Almost all Federalists supported the war out of patriotism and a desire to acquire eastern Canada from Britain.
  • b. Most Federalists reluctantly supported the war because public opinion favored it and they wanted to win in the upcoming midterm elections.
  • c. Most Federalists strongly opposed the war and some in Massachusetts met to consider amending the Constitution to prevent future such wars.
  • d. Federalists, such as Daniel Webster, welcomed the high tariff brought by the war because it would help New England industries.

C

20

Why was the American victory at the Battle of New Orleans in 1815 significant?

  • a. It restored national pride and made Andrew Jackson an American hero.
  • b. The battle persuaded British diplomats finally to sign the peace treaty.
  • c. The battle revealed that most American soldiers did not accept the peace treaty.
  • d. It showed that American guerilla fighters could still defeat the British troops.

A

21

Which of the following was an outcome of the postwar election of 1818?

  • a. The Federalists exploited voters’ discontent with the economic downturn and the War of 1812, making strong gains in the House and regaining control of the Senate.
  • b. Federalists were soundly beaten, with the Republicans winning margins of approximately five to one in both the Senate and House of Representatives.
  • c. Federalists and Republicans officially disbanded their parties, announcing that “the time for partisan politics had ended.”
  • d. Federalist Governor Morris of New York astonished the country by announcing himself an enthusiastic Republican and winning election to the Senate.

B

22

In which of the following actions did President James Madison contradict the traditional philosophy of Republicans?

  • a. Approving the Judiciary Act of 1801
  • b. Supporting the creation of the Second Bank of the United States
  • c. Cutting the federal budget significantly
  • d. Endorsing and signing Henry Clay’s Bonus Bill

B

23

Which of the following factors made the critical contribution to the Federalist Party’s downfall?

  • a. The adoption of many of their policies by Republicans
  • b. Their failure to pay off the national debt
  • c. Washington’s principle of neutrality
  • d. The establishment of a national bank

A

24

John Marshall’s decisions upheld the principle of

  • a. the supremacy of national laws over state laws.
  • b. states’ rights.
  • c. social welfare.
  • d. limited government.

A

25

Which of the following cases is properly paired with its corresponding decision?

  • a. Fletcher v. Peck—states may not tax federal institutions
  • b. Dartmouth College v. Woodward—judicial review
  • c. McCullough v. Maryland—sanctity of contract
  • d. Gibbons v. Ogden—national government controls interstate commerce

D

26

Which of the following stipulations was included in the Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819?

  • a. Britain agreed to limit its naval forces in the Great Lakes.
  • b. Britain reimbursed American shippers for wartime damages.
  • c. The 49th parallel became the border between Canada and the United States.
  • d. Spain ceded Florida to the United States.

D

27

Which of the following was true of the “Era of Good Feeling”?

  • a. There was an absence of economic debate in this period.
  • b. Americans embraced state loyalties rather than national ones.
  • c. It saw a rise in nationalism and an end to sectionalism.
  • d. There was apparent political harmony.

D

28

“[T]he twelve thousand Americans who flooded into Louisiana in the decade after 1803 almost overwhelmed New Orleans’s baffling patterns of race, language, law and culture. Jefferson . . . had always assumed that the Creoles would be displaced, assimilated, or marginalized by English-speaking settlers—and they might have been except for the aftermath of the Haitian and French Revolutions. Between May 1809 and January 1810, New Orleans welcomed ten thousand French-speaking refugees . . . whose arrival made the city even more Caribbean. . . . Controversies over race, religion, law, language, and culture . . . worked . . . along the vulnerable fault lines of nineteenth century American society and government. By 1818–1819 when treaties . . . drew the final boundaries of the Louisiana Purchase, the second half of our national history was well underway.”

— Jon Kukla, historian, A Wilderness So Immense:

The Louisiana Purchase and the Destiny of America, 2003

Which of the following was the most direct effect of the developments described in the excerpt?

  • a. The emergence of secessionist schemes in the United States
  • b. France’s defeat of the Haitian Revolution
  • c. The consolidation of Federalists’ power
  • d. The Industrial Revolution

A

29

“[T]he twelve thousand Americans who flooded into Louisiana in the decade after 1803 almost overwhelmed New Orleans’s baffling patterns of race, language, law and culture. Jefferson . . . had always assumed that the Creoles would be displaced, assimilated, or marginalized by English-speaking settlers—and they might have been except for the aftermath of the Haitian and French Revolutions. Between May 1809 and January 1810, New Orleans welcomed ten thousand French-speaking refugees . . . whose arrival made the city even more Caribbean. . . . Controversies over race, religion, law, language, and culture . . . worked . . . along the vulnerable fault lines of nineteenth century American society and government. By 1818–1819 when treaties . . . drew the final boundaries of the Louisiana Purchase, the second half of our national history was well underway.”

— Jon Kukla, historian, A Wilderness So Immense:

The Louisiana Purchase and the Destiny of America, 2003

The excerpt best reflects which of the following trends in the history of the United States?

  • a. America’s conflicted relationship with Great Britain
  • b. America’s enthusiasm about the French Revolution
  • c. Americans’ disagreements over the institution of slavery
  • d. Americans’ westward migration in pursuit of land

D

30

“[T]he twelve thousand Americans who flooded into Louisiana in the decade after 1803 almost overwhelmed New Orleans’s baffling patterns of race, language, law and culture. Jefferson . . . had always assumed that the Creoles would be displaced, assimilated, or marginalized by English-speaking settlers—and they might have been except for the aftermath of the Haitian and French Revolutions. Between May 1809 and January 1810, New Orleans welcomed ten thousand French-speaking refugees . . . whose arrival made the city even more Caribbean. . . . Controversies over race, religion, law, language, and culture . . . worked . . . along the vulnerable fault lines of nineteenth century American society and government. By 1818–1819 when treaties . . . drew the final boundaries of the Louisiana Purchase, the second half of our national history was well underway.”

— Jon Kukla, historian, A Wilderness So Immense:

The Louisiana Purchase and the Destiny of America, 2003

The developments described in the excerpt most strongly suggest which of the following about that period of American history?

  • a. The policies of the United States extended republican institutions into vast new territories.
  • b. The spread of American culture to the West soon eradicated French and Spanish customs.
  • c. Republicans’ relations with Native Americans were friendlier than those of Federalist leaders.
  • d. The growth of the United States complicated the construction of an American identity.

D

31

Who is considered the first real politician, partly because he created the first statewide political machine?

  • a. Martin Van Buren
  • b. Andrew Jackson
  • c. Alexander Hamilton
  • d. John Quincy Adams

A

32

The power of elected officials to grant government jobs to party members in return for their loyalty is known as which of the following systems?

  • a. Caucusing
  • b. Patronage
  • c. Nepotism
  • d. The Whig System

B

33

Correctly match the candidate in the 1824 presidential election with his description.

  • a. Adams—choice of the Republican caucus in Congress
  • b. Crawford—Speaker of the House of Representatives
  • c. Jackson—popular War of 1812 hero
  • d. Calhoun—Secretary of the Treasury in the Monroe administration

C

34

What did the Twelfth Amendment to the Constitution specify should be done in an election like the election of 1824, in which no presidential candidate received a majority of the electoral votes?

  • a. The House of Representatives decides the outcome.
  • b. The candidate with the most electoral votes wins.
  • c. Congress appoints a special bipartisan commission.
  • d. The Supreme Court intervenes to determine the winner.

A

35

Which of the following statements describes events surrounding the election of 1824?

  • a. It was the first time a presidential election was decided by the House of Representatives.
  • b. The Republican candidate William Crawford died from a stroke in the midst of the campaign.
  • c. The disputed outcome led to extended rioting in several large southern cities.
  • d. John Quincy Adams became president even though Andrew Jackson had more popular votes.

B

36

As president, John Quincy Adams supported which of the following policies?

  • a. The implementation of lower tariffs on imported products.
  • b. A suspension on “internal improvements” by the federal government.
  • c. Strict limits on the powers of the federal government.
  • d. A national bank to promote a uniform currency and to control credit.

D

37

What was the outcome of President John Quincy Adams’ support of the Creeks in their treaty negotiations with the state of Georgia?

  • a. A large reservation in central Georgia was set aside for the Creeks.
  • b. The Georgia state legislature called for his impeachment.
  • c. Georgia’s governor attacked him as a “public enemy” and “ally of the savages.”
  • d. His New England supporters deserted his bid for reelection.

C

38

Andrew Jackson and his supporters won the election in 1828 in part by

  • a. calling themselves Democrats to portray a more egalitarian image.
  • b. promising to expand and extend Clay’s American System.
  • c. branding his opponent as “Old Hickory” to emphasize his old-fashioned political style.
  • d. repudiating the growing authority of political powers.

A

39

Which of the following elements defined the Democrats under Andrew Jackson?

  • a. Treatment of the national bank
  • b. Consideration for Native Americans
  • c. Support for average Americans
  • d. Views on patronage

C

40

How did President Andrew Jackson change the federal system of office holding?

  • a. Jackson wrested the power of appointment from state legislatures and Congress.
  • b. Jackson introduced the principle of rotation in office to discourage long tenure.
  • c. He created a civil service system that awarded federal positions on the basis of merit.
  • d. He established a formula for bipartisan staffing of federal offices and the cabinet.

B

41

In 1832, a South Carolina state convention committed which of the following actions?

  • a. Threatened to impeach Jackson for his unconstitutional actions
  • b. Declared that the state had decided to secede from the Union
  • c. Ordered the state militia to arrest customs officials and to impound their collections
  • d. Declared the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 null and void within the state

D

42

The 1832 Ordinance of Nullification was based on which of the following beliefs?

  • a. States had the right to determine which congressional laws they would enforce.
  • b. States can neither bring suit against nor tax a federal institution.
  • c. Only the president has the right to rule an act of Congress invalid.
  • d. The people are the ultimate source of power for the national government.

A

43

The South Carolina Exposition and Protest, written by John C. Calhoun, bore a similarity to the argument made by which of the following people?

  • a. George Washington in his farewell address
  • b. Jefferson and Madison in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
  • c. Thomas Paine in Common Sense
  • d. John Marshall in Marbury v. Madison

B

44

How did Andrew Jackson respond to South Carolina’s claimed right of nullification in 1832?

  • a. He asked Congress for a Force Bill authorizing him to use the military to suppress any act of nullification.
  • b. He pulled federal troops and navy ships out of forts and ports in South Carolina where they might have provoked an attack by the South Carolina militia.
  • c. Jackson asked Congress to raise the tariff rates even higher if South Carolina did not stop its threats.
  • d. Jackson asked Congress to prepare a bill to expel South Carolina from the Union if it did not stop its threats.

A

45

In the aftermath of the nullification crisis, President Jackson responded to southern concerns about the tariff by

  • a. persuading Congress to pass a new tariff that gradually reduced duties.
  • b. insisting that he had won the conflict and disregarding the issue.
  • c. insisting that high protective tariffs were in the national interest.
  • d. attempting unsuccessfully to have Congress repeal the Tariff of 1832.

A

46

Which of the following was the primary function of the Second Bank of the United States?

  • a. To keep the economy in equilibrium by raising or lowering interest rates in response to changes in the capitalist business cycle
  • b. To serve as a clearinghouse for foreign investments and currency in order to raise the country’s international economic standing
  • c. To make a profit for the federal government through judicious loans to the country’s most promising entrepreneurs
  • d. To stabilize the nation’s money supply by forcing state banks to convert their paper money periodically into gold and silver coin

D

47

Which of the following statements characterizes the Second Bank of the United States in the 1830s?

  • a. Eastern entrepreneurs and bankers opposed the Second Bank because it strove to limit their plans for national economic development.
  • b. Most Americans welcomed the Second Bank’s policy of forcing unsound western banks to close.
  • c. Its cautious monetary policy pleased bankers, creditors, and East Coast entrepreneurs, who funded economic development.
  • d. Jackson’s opponents in Congress knew he opposed the Second Bank and attempted to stall a vote on its charter until he left office.

C

48

Why did Andrew Jackson veto the bill to recharter the Second Bank of the United States in 1832?

  • a. French aristocrats had invested heavily in the bank and he objected to their influence.
  • b. His opponents in Congress, most of whom supported the Second Bank, had tried to embarrass him politically.
  • c. One of his major congressional opponents, Daniel Webster, directed the Boston branch of the bank.
  • d. He thought it interfered with the rights of states and the liberties of the people

D

49

Which of the following arguments did President Jackson offer as a justification for destroying the Second Bank of the United States?

  • a. It had not been able to influence credit in a satisfactory manner.
  • b. It was a monopoly that benefited only a few owners, some of whom were foreigners.
  • c. The bank had not been successful at stabilizing the currency.
  • d. The U.S. government was forced to play too large a role in managing the bank.

B

50

Which of the following statements describes Jackson’s veto of the bill rechartering the Second Bank of the United States in 1832?

  • a. The action was unpopular and surprised most Americans, who thought the issue had been resolved.
  • b. Jackson staked his presidency on the veto, declaring that he would resign if Congress passed the bill over his veto.
  • c. Andrew Jackson vetoed the bill for his own reasons and without offering any reason or explanation to the public.
  • d. It was a popular move, blending constitutional arguments, an appeal to patriotism, and class rhetoric.

D

51

Which of the following statements characterizes Andrew Jackson’s intentions toward Native Americans during his presidency?

  • a. Jackson intended to force Native Americans to comply with federal treaties, even when they ran counter to the national interest.
  • b. Jackson meant to remove all Native Americans east of the Mississippi, even those who had adapted to white society.
  • c. He sought better relations with the “civilized” Indians of the Old Southwest, encouraging them to continue their adaptation to white ways.
  • d. He planned to encourage missionaries to convert the tribes east of the Mississippi River to Christianity and white culture.

B

52

The Trail of Tears was the direct consequence of which of the following government actions?

  • a. Indian Removal Act of 1830
  • b. Worcester v. Georgia
  • c. The Louisiana Purchase
  • d. The Bad Axe Massacre

A

53

In the U.S. Supreme Court case of Worcester v. Georgia (1832), John Marshall and the Court majority issued a decision that

  • a. sanctioned the stationing of federal troops on tribal lands.
  • b. upheld Georgia’s rights to Cherokee lands.
  • c. declared the 1830 Indian Removal Act unconstitutional.
  • d. upheld Indian nations’ political authority in their communities.

D

54

In the landmark case of Charles River Bridge Co. v. Warren Bridge Co. (1837), Chief Justice Roger B. Taney and the U.S. Supreme Court did which of the following?

  • a. Ruled that the city of New York could use its “police power” to inspect new immigrants’ health
  • b. Reaffirmed John Marshall’s interpretation of the contract clause in the U.S. Constitution
  • c. Upheld the protected legal position of existing state-chartered monopolies
  • d. Encouraged competitive enterprise, opening the way for legislatures to charter railroad companies

D

55

In which of the following ways was Chief Justice Roger Taney different from his predecessor, John Marshall?

  • a. Taney was a more avid believer in the sanctity of contracts.
  • b. Unlike Marshall, Taney had a nationalistic interpretation of the commerce clause.
  • c. Marshall was nationally oriented while Taney favored states’ rights.
  • d. Marshall was a Democrat while Taney was a Whig.

C

56

Which of the following statements describes the impact of the Jacksonian-era constitutional revolution on the states?

  • a. The power of state governments to regulate business was enhanced.
  • b. Between 1830 and 1860, twenty states revised their charters and enhanced democracy.
  • c. States began to pass their own tariff laws and print their own currency.
  • d. The “commonwealth” philosophy of economic development was strengthened.

B

57

President Martin Van Buren responded to the Panic of 1837 by

  • a. instituting an extensive public works program.
  • b. depositing government gold and silver from private banks.
  • c. adopting a hands-off, limited-government stance
  • d. revoking Andrew Jackson’s Specie Circular of 1836.

C

58

“Since . . . cultural and political movements failed to achieve a binding national unity, a militant campaign of whiteness rapidly emerged as [Andrew] Jackson’s principal safeguard of white American identity. . . . In the national culture . . . racial mixture rapidly moved to a central focus of public concern because it was the only thing the great majority of white Americans genuinely agreed on—that mixture was wrong. Racial unity had always been important, but now racial purity became the elixir of national salvation. National consciousness was now shaped not just by fearfulness about the ‘blackness’ of Indians, but especially about the mixed bloods. They were not only ‘black,’ they were ‘black hearted’ in their . . . attitudes towards whites, and they threatened to pollute whites’ bloodstream by intermixture.”

— Thomas Ingersoll, historian, To Intermix with Our White Brothers:

Indian Mixed Bloods in the United States from Earliest Times to the Indian Removals, 2005

The ideas described in this excerpt differ most significantly from those held by which of the following groups from earlier periods in American history?

  • a. White slave owners in the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century South
  • b. Puritan settlers in seventeenth-century Massachusetts Bay
  • c. Spanish settlers in Mexico in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
  • d. English settlers in Jamestown in the early seventeenth century

C

59

“Since . . . cultural and political movements failed to achieve a binding national unity, a militant campaign of whiteness rapidly emerged as [Andrew] Jackson’s principal safeguard of white American identity. . . . In the national culture . . . racial mixture rapidly moved to a central focus of public concern because it was the only thing the great majority of white Americans genuinely agreed on—that mixture was wrong. Racial unity had always been important, but now racial purity became the elixir of national salvation. National consciousness was now shaped not just by fearfulness about the ‘blackness’ of Indians, but especially about the mixed bloods. They were not only ‘black,’ they were ‘black hearted’ in their . . . attitudes towards whites, and they threatened to pollute whites’ bloodstream by intermixture.”

— Thomas Ingersoll, historian, To Intermix with Our White Brothers:

Indian Mixed Bloods in the United States from Earliest Times to the Indian Removals, 2005

Which of the following nineteenth-century groups would have been most likely to oppose the ideas described in the excerpt?

  • a. Whites living on the frontier
  • b. Northern evangelical Protestants
  • c. Democratic working men
  • d. Southern cotton planters

D

60

“Since . . . cultural and political movements failed to achieve a binding national unity, a militant campaign of whiteness rapidly emerged as [Andrew] Jackson’s principal safeguard of white American identity. . . . In the national culture . . . racial mixture rapidly moved to a central focus of public concern because it was the only thing the great majority of white Americans genuinely agreed on—that mixture was wrong. Racial unity had always been important, but now racial purity became the elixir of national salvation. National consciousness was now shaped not just by fearfulness about the ‘blackness’ of Indians, but especially about the mixed bloods. They were not only ‘black,’ they were ‘black hearted’ in their . . . attitudes towards whites, and they threatened to pollute whites’ bloodstream by intermixture.”

— Thomas Ingersoll, historian, To Intermix with Our White Brothers:

Indian Mixed Bloods in the United States from Earliest Times to the Indian Removals, 2005

The point of view illustrated by the excerpt was most likely a reaction to which of the following developments occurring in the United States at that time?

  • a. The Democratic Party’s efforts to retain the presidency in the 1834 election
  • b. Seminoles’ intermarriage with runaway slaves who had settled in Florida
  • c. Cherokees’ adoption of whites’ economic and political practices and beliefs
  • d. The Bad Axe Massacre, in which Indians killed thousands of white settlers

C