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1

President Wilson broke diplomatic relations with Germany when
a. the Zimmermann note was intercepted and made public.
b. Germany announced that it would wage unrestricted submarine warfare in the Atlantic.
c. news was received that a revolutionary movement had overthrown the czarist regime in
Russia.
d. Germany rejected Wilson's Fourteen Points for peace.
e. it appeared that the German army would take Paris.

b

2

The Zimmermann note involved a proposed secret agreement between
a. Britain and France.
b. Russia and Germany.
c. Germany and Mexico.
d. Mexico and France.
e. Germany and Canada.

c

3

The United States declared war on Germany
a. in response to demands by American munitions makers.
b. because it appeared that France was about to surrender.
c. because Wall Street bankers demanded it.
d. after Mexico signed an alliance with Germany.
e. after German U-boats sank four unarmed American merchant vessels.

e

4

President Woodrow Wilson persuaded the American people to enter World War I by
a. appealing to America's tradition of intervention in Europe.
b. convincing the public of the need to make the world safe from the German submarine.
c. declaring it a crusade to "make the world safe for democracy"
d. demonstrating how American national security would be threatened by a German victory.
e. insisting that the war would be fought primarily by the navy.

c

5

President Wilson viewed America's entry into World War I as an opportunity for the United States to
a. reestablish the balance of power in European diplomacy.
b. become a dominant global great power.
c. rebuild its dangerously small military and naval forces.
d. establish a permanent military presence in Europe.
e. shape a new international order based on the ideals of democracy.

e

6

Which one of the following was not among Wilson's Fourteen Points, upon which he based America's
idealistic foreign policy in World War I?
a. Reduction of armaments
b. An international guarantee of freedom of religion

c. Abolition of secret treaties
d. A new international organization to guarantee collective security
e. The principle of national self-determination for subject peoples

b

7

The major problem for George Creel and his Committee on Public Information was that
a. he oversold Wilson's ideals and led Americans and the world to expect too much.
b. he relied too much on formal laws and police power to gain compliance with the war
effort.
c. the entertainment industry was not willing to go along with the propaganda campaign.
d. Wilson had a poor public image with European publics.
e. the public was skeptical of government propaganda.

a

8

Match each civilian administrator below with the World War I mobilization agency that he directed.
A. George Creel 1. War Industries Board
B. Herbert Hoover 2. Committee on Public Information
C. Bernard Baruch 3. Food Administration
D. William Howard Taft 4. National War Labor Board
a. A-4, B-1, C-3, D-2
b. A-2, B-4, C-1, D-3
c. A-3, B-2, C-l, D-4
d. A-2, B-3, C-1, D-4
e. A-1, B-2, C-4, D-3

d

9

When the United States entered World War I, it was
a. well prepared thanks to the foresight of Woodrow Wilson.
b. well prepared militarily but not industrially.
c. well prepared for land combat but not for naval warfare.
d. well prepared industrially but not militarily.
e. poorly prepared to leap into global war.

e

10

During World I, civil liberties in America were
a. threatened by President Wilson but protected by the courts.
b. limited, but no one was actually imprisoned for his or her convictions.
c. violated mostly in the western United States.
d. protected for everyone except German Americans.
e. severely damaged by the pressures for loyalty and conformity.

e

11

Although German-Americans were generally loyal citizens, during the war they were subjected to all
of the following except
a. rumors that they were spying and sabotaging the U.S.
b. violent attacks such as tarring, feathering, beatings and lynchings.
c. deportation back to Germany.
d. German books were removed from libraries and German courses cancelled.

e. renaming German foods; sauerkraut became liberty cabbage.

c

12

Prosecutions under the Espionage Act (1917) and the Sedition Act (1918) can be characterized in all of
the following ways except
a. antiwar socialists and labor leaders were visibly targeted.
b. 1,900 Americans were prosecuted under these laws.
c. the laws meant that any criticism of the government could be censored and punished.
d. the Supreme Court ruled that they were unconstitutional violations of free speech.
e. after the war, President Harding issued pardons to many of those prosecuted, including
labor leader Eugene Debs.

d

13

Two constitutional amendments, adopted in part because of World War I, were the Eighteenth, which
dealt with ____, and the Nineteenth, whose subject was ____.
a. prohibition; an income tax
b. direct election of senators; woman suffrage
c. prohibition; woman suffrage
d. an income tax; direct election of senators
e. women suffrage; prohibition

c

14

In adopting the Nineteenth Amendment, giving women the right to vote, the United States was
a. taking a progressive step considerably ahead of other nations.
b. also asserting that women had a right to equal pay and to child care services.
c. overcoming the strong hostility to women's suffrage within state governments.
d. following the path already taken by other wartime governments like Britain and Germany.
e. fulfilling one of Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points.

d

15

Women's participation in the war effort contributed greatly to the fact that they
a. became a large, permanent part of the American workforce.
b. finally received the right to vote.
c. were allowed to join the air force.
d. organized the National Women's party.
e. All of these

b

16

In the decade after the war, feminists
a. pressed for more laws to protect women workers and end child labor.
b. sought full economic and political equality.
c. wanted more opportunities for women in the paid workforce.
d. made getting women into political office a top priority.
e. None of these

a

17

Congress's passage of the Sheppard-Towner Maternity Act demonstrated that the federal government
a. was beginning to address the issue of equal treatment of mothers in the workplace.
b. was prepared to take substantial steps toward federally funded child care.
c. was completely hostile to mothers working outside the home.

d. supported pregnancy and maternity-leave benefits for women.
e. was willing to benefit and support women primarily in their role as mothers.

e

18

During World War I, the government's treatment of labor could be best described as
a. fair.
b. strict and financially unrewarding.
c. extremely brutal.
d. so good that the right to form unions was finally granted.
e. decent for native Americans but harsh for ethnic groups.

a

19

The two groups who suffered most from the violation of civil liberties during World War I were
a. Catholics and atheists.
b. Irish Americans and Japanese Americans.
c. African Americans and Latinos.
d. labor unions and women's groups.
e. German Americans and social radicals.

e

20

Grievances of labor during and shortly after World War I include all of the following except
a. the inability to gain the right to organize.
b. war-spawned inflation.
c. suppression of the American Federation of Labor.
d. violence against workers by employers.
e. the use of African Americans as strikebreakers.

c

21

The enormous nationwide steel strike of 1919 resulted in
a. the eight-hour workday.
b. a takeover of the steelworkers' union by American Communists.
c. somewhat higher wages but no recognition of the steel union.
d. a grievous setback for labor that crippled the union movement for a decade.
e. general strikes of all workers that essentially shut down Seattle and Pittsburgh.

d

22

The movement of tens of thousands of Southern blacks north during World War I resulted in
a. better race relations in the South.
b. racial violence in the North.
c. fewer blacks willing to be used as strikebreakers.
d. a new black middle class.
e. All of these

b

23

Most wartime mobilization agencies primarily relied on ____ to prepare the economy for war.
a. congressional legislation
b. voluntary compliance
c. presidential edict
d. court decisions
e. business trade organizations

b

24

World War I was the first time that
a. African Americans served in the military.
b. women were admitted to the armed forces.
c. the military was desegregated.
d. the U.S. government employed a draft.
e. None of these

b

25

Two examples of forceful federal government action to organize the nation for war were
a. the conscription of certain essential wartime workers.
b. federal rationing of food and other essential goods needed for the war.
c. the government's takeover of the railroads and imposition of nationwide daylight savings
time.
d. strict government controls on the amount of coal and oil that civilians could use.
e. the use of the U.S. Army to break labor strikes.

c

26

Most of the money raised to finance World War I came from
a. confiscation of German property.
b. income taxes.
c. tariffs.
d. sale of armaments to Britain and France.
e. loans from the American public.

e

27

The United States used all of the following methods to support the war effort except
a. forcing some people to buy war bonds.
b. having heatless Mondays to conserve fuel.
c. establishing government control of wages.
d. seizing enemy merchant vessels trapped in American harbors.
e. restricting the manufacture of beer.

c

28

The World War I military draft
a. generally worked fairly and effectively to provide military manpower.
b. caused widespread resistance and riots.
c. permitted men to purchase substitutes to go in their place.
d. included women as well as men.
e. was not as fair as the Civil War draft.

a

29

When the United States entered the war in 1917, most Americans did not believe that
a. the navy was obligated to defend freedom of the seas.
b. it would be necessary to continue making loans to the Allies.
c. the United States would have to ship war materiel to the Allies.
d. mobilization for war should be largely voluntary.
e. it would be necessary to send a large American army to Europe.

e

30

Despite reluctance by both the president and Congress, the United States resorted to forced
conscription in 1917 because
a. there was no other way to raise the vast American army that would have to be sent to
Europe.
b. it was the most effective way to destroy the opposition to the war.
c. all the Allied and Central powers had already enacted conscription.
d. it seemed like the most fair way of determining who would serve.
e. they were unwilling to accept female volunteers in the military.

a

31

The conscription law during World War I differed from the Civil War draft especially because it
a. exempted men older that thirty-five and younger than twenty-one from service.
b. drafted women as well as men.
c. drafted men for the navy and air force as well as the army.
d. contained no provisions for hiring a substitute or purchasing an exemption.
e. contained no provision for conscientious objection.

d

32

For German military strategists, the entry of the United States into the war meant that
a. they would no longer be able to use their submarine weapon effectively.
b. they would have to defeat France and Britain before a large American force arrived in
Europe.
c. they would have to continue to fight on the second front in Russia.
d. the war would become one of swift movements rather than stalemated trench warfare.
e. they would have to switch from an offensive to a defensive strategy.

b

33

The Germans gained an immense military advantage in the first months of 1918 because
a. they had discovered how to use the tank and poison gas effectively.
b. the Austrian army was able to switch from the Italian front to the western front.
c. the Bolsheviks took Russia out of the war allowing German troops to move to the western
front.
d. they had seized the two key strategic points of Verdun and Ypres.
e. their brilliant generals Hindenburg and Ludendorff has taken effective control of the
German government.

c

34

The two major battles of World War I in which United States forces engaged were
a. Ypres and the Ardennes Forest.
b. Verdun and the Somme.
c. Gallipoli and Locarno.
d. Jutland and Trafalgar.
e. St. Mihiel and the Meuse-Argonne Offensive.

e

35

Russia's withdrawal from World War I in 1918 resulted in
a. a communist takeover of that country.
b. the United States' entry into the war.

c. the release of hundreds of thousands of German troops for deployment on the front in
France.
d. Germany's surrender to the Allies.
e. a setback for the idea of a "war for democracy"

c

36

The Second Battle of the Marne was significant because it
a. was the first time American troops saw action in France.
b. forced the Kaiser to abdicate.
c. was the first time American troops fought by themselves.
d. saw the first use of combat aircraft.
e. marked the beginning of a German withdrawal that was never reversed.

e

37

Before Woodrow Wilson would agree to an armistice ending World War I fighting, he demanded that
a. Germany remove its army from the large territories it had taken from Russia.
b. Germany pledge never again to wage aggressive warfare.
c. the German government pay for war damages.
d. the German kaiser be forced from power.
e. Germany accept guilt for the war.

d

38

The United States' main contributions to the Allied victory in World War I included all of the
following except
a. battlefield victories.
b. foodstuffs.
c. oil.
d. munitions.
e. financial credit.

a

39

Which of these is NOT a true statement about black soldiers during World War I?
a. Most black troops were denied combat duty.
b. Black soldiers were more likely to serve in combat than white soldiers.
c. Black soldiers typically served as laborers and stevedores.
d. Blacks served in segregated units in the military.
e. Mothers of slain black soldiers in 1930 were invited to visit their sons' graves in
segregated travel arrangements.

b

40

The Germans were heavily demoralized by
a. the United States' military performance.
b. their defeat at the Battle of Meuse-Argonne.
c. the United States' unlimited troop reserves.
d. Russia's entry into the war.
e. American propaganda.

c

41

The chief difference between Woodrow Wilson and the parliamentary statesmen at the Paris peace
table was that Wilson

a. lacked their popularity in Europe.
b. did not command a legislative majority at home.
c. brought some of his political opponents with him.
d. refused to play politics with the peace powers.
e. was not popular with his own people.

b

42

Woodrow Wilson's ultimate goal at the Paris Peace Conference was to
a. stop the spread of communism.
b. blame no one for starting the war.
c. force Germany to pay reparations for the war.
d. establish the League of Nations.
e. destroy the Austrian and Russian empires.

d

43

At the Paris Peace Conference, Wilson sought all of the following goals except
a. preventing a seizure of territory by the victors.
b. an end to the European colonial empires in Africa and Asia.
c. a world parliament of nations to provide collective security.
d. national self-determination for smaller European nations.
e. free trade and freedom of the seas.

b

44

Opposition to the League of Nations by many United States senators during the Paris Peace
Conference
a. gave Allied leaders in Paris a stronger bargaining position.
b. resulted in the League's being left out of the final draft of the treaty.
c. led to an abandonment of the Monroe Doctrine.
d. reinforced Germany's unwillingness to sign the treaty.
e. forced Wilson to weaken the League idea.

a

45

After the Treaty of Versailles had been signed, Woodrow Wilson
a. remained a popular leader.
b. was condemned by both disillusioned liberals and frustrated nationalists and imperialists.
c. was more popular in Europe than in the United States.
d. realized that he had made too many compromises.
e. planned a shrewd strategy for gaining Senate approval.

b

46

In the United States, the most controversial aspect of the Treaty of Versailles was the
a. principle of self-determination for smaller nations in Europe and elsewhere.
b. severe reparations that Germany would have to pay.
c. permanent U.S. alliance with France.
d. provision for trusteeship of former German colonies.
e. League of Nations.

e

47

Senator Henry Cabot Lodge effectively stalled the Treaty of Versailles by
a. reading the entire treaty aloud and holding extended hearings where opponents could

speak.
b. loading it down with numerous crippling amendments.
c. insisting that a treaty of this magnitude should not be ratified until the 1920 election.
d. requiring that Wilson submit numerous reports explaining how the League of Nations
would work.
e. mobilizing liberal intellectual opinion against the treaty.

a

48

Senate opponents of the League of Nations, as proposed in the Treaty of Versailles, argued that it
a. failed to provide enough German financial reparations to the United States.
b. violated Wilson's own Fourteen Points.
c. robbed Congress of its war-declaring powers.
d. isolated the United States from postwar world affairs.
e. was not fair enough to oppressed colonial peoples.

c

49

In Congress, the most reliable support for Wilson's position on the League of Nations came from
a. Henry Cabot Lodge.
b. pro-league Republicans.
c. the irreconcilables.
d. Midwestern senators.
e. Democrats.

e

50

The Senate likely would have accepted American participation in the League of Nations if Wilson had
a. stuck to the principles of his own Fourteen Points.
b. guaranteed that American troops would never be used in League peacemaking operations.
c. actively campaigned for support from the American public.
d. been willing to compromise with League opponents in Congress.
e. run for re-election.

d

51

Republican isolationists successfully turned Warren Harding's 1920 presidential victory into a
a. mandate for international arms reduction.
b. victory for idealism and social tolerance.
c. guarantee of U.S. military withdrawal from Latin America.
d. crusade against Bolshevik communism.
e. death sentence for the League of Nations.

e

52

During the course of World War I
a. American wages approximately doubled.
b. American prices approximately doubled.
c. only a handful of labor strikes occurred in the United States.
d. American farm production declined.
e. women lost ground in the workforce.

b