Psychology Exam 1 Brandon Flashcards


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1

a correlation coefficient can indicate

the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables

2

a little girl a the local elementary school is writing symphonies for full orchestra at age 7. youre curious to know about the child's personality and other psychological qualities. which type of study would you conduct?

a case study

3

A psychologist who is interested in finding out about the lives and experiences of blended multi-racial families wants to know how such individuals are viewed by their families, friends, and co-workers and how they view themselves. He conducts a series of structured interviews with the various individuals and asks specific questions based on ideas he has that he thinks will be important for understanding this particular life experience. What type of study is this?

case study

4

A researcher investigates the effects of room temperature on test performance as measured by participants test scores. In this experiment, the dependent variable is ________.

test performance

5

Briggs is interested in whether there is a difference in the way males and females carry objects such as backpacks and computer cases, so she sets up a hidden camera on the main mall of the college and videotapes students at various times throughout the day. What type of study is this?

naturalistic observation

6

If a researcher found a correlation coefficient of -.85 between amount of exercise and weight, this would indicate that the more people exercise, the ________ they weigh.

less

7

If the experimenter knows who is in the experimental and control groups and treats them accordingly, she runs the risk of ________.

experimenter bias

8

If you receive a telephone call from someone asking that you explain your preferences for certain kinds of products, you are the subject of a ________.

survey

9

When a researcher has reason to believe that something other than the manipulation of the independent variable has caused a change in the dependent variable, the researcher must look for a(n) ________ as an explanation.

cofounding variable

10

When both the researchers and the participants do not know which conditions the participants are assigned to, the research design is known as ________.

double blind

11

A correlation coefficient of .90 indicates a ________ relationship between two variables.

strong positive

12

As the researcher doing an experiment on performance and sleep habits, Eliza doesn’t want to know which group of participants is in the experimental group getting only 4 hours of sleep each night. Eliza should conduct a

double-blind study

13

Chelsea wants to know if the room temperature in the testing center affects participants test scores. In this experiment, the independent variable is ________.

room temperature

14

Comparing the population in two different states to examine the prevalence of depression is an example of

cross-sectional research

15

Correlation means all of the following EXCEPT that

one variable causes another

16

Correlation means that

two variables are related

17

Examining household sizes during the early 1900s by reading census reports is an example of

archival research

18

Following a group of kindergarteners every other year until they graduate and evaluating their performance is an example of

longitudinal research

19

Heather is conducting a study on music and memory. She plays different types of music while students memorize lists of words, then tests them again on their retention after 1 hour, 1 day, and 1 week. In this example, which is the independent variable?

the type of music

20

High rates of attrition are particularly problematic for ________ research.

longitudinal research

21

If a researcher wants to understand if eating more bananas causes increased irritability, what type of study should they perform?

correlational

22

If there is a negative relationship between the temperature and coat sales, it is safe to say that

when the temperature goes up, coat sales go down

23

If two different variables are not related at all, they probably have a correlation coefficient of

0

24

If you are studying depression rates during the cold winter months, a potential ________ could be the busy holiday season.

cofounding variables

25

If you are studying the impact of a new type of teaching curriculum in the psychology classroom, the classroom where the old curriculum is still taught is considered the

control group

26

If you participate in a study and find out that the medication you received did not contain actual medication inside, then that pill is considered a

placebo

27

in a study about anxiousness, researchers have participants either read a story about a girl who is stressed about her final exams and other work and family commitments or a classic fairytale. Before the study, they plan to have students self-report on their levels of anxiety, then re-test them after the study to see if the anxious story increased anxiousness levels. In this example, the students reported anxiousness after reading a story is the

dependent variable

28

In order to study the cause and effect relationship between two variables, a researcher must perform what type of study?

experimental

29

In the example of how violent television programming might affect violent behavior in children, the ________ views violent television programming for a specified time

control group

30

Jonas wants to understand the relationship between head size and intelligence. What type of study might he perform?

correlational

31

Maxwell’s research group is conducting a study on the relationship between daytime toddler naps and dinnertime appetite. Some groups are assigned to a 1 ½-2 ½ hour afternoon nap, some to a 30-60 minutes nap, or some to no nap at all. The amount they eat for dinner is recorded. In this study, the ________ is the dependent variable and ________ is the control group.

amount of food eaten; no nap

32

Non-experimental research is called ________ research.

descriptive

33

Observational research that focuses on just one individual or a group of people is called a

case study

34

People generally engage in superstitious behavior, like wearing your lucky red socks while taking a test because you wore them last time you got a high grade, because of a belief in a(n) ________.

illusory correlation

35

Preliminary, non-experimental, research that gathers information about behavior is called ________ research.

descriptive

36

Research that compares multiple segments of the population at the same time is known as

cross-sectional research

37

Ryan is conducting an experiment on the type of breakfast eaten by high schoolers and their wakefulness and alertness during the day. Which is the best way for Ryan to prevent experimenter bias?

he should not know what the students ate for breakfast

38

Suzanne is interested in understanding the relationship between hours spent watching t.v. and student grades in elementary school. What type of study might she perform?

correlational

39

The strength and direction of the relationship between two variables is expressed by the ________.

correlation coefficient

40

There is a ________ correlation between the number of hours of sleep a person gets and how tired they feel.

negative

41

Unrelated variables probably have a correlation coefficient of

0

42

Using existing records to try to answer a research question is known as ________

archival research

43

What measures the effects of the independent variable?

dependent variable

44

When watching the news one night, you learn about a family with 5 Juilliard musicians. You want to learn more about their environment and personality traits that led them to become such successful musicians. What type of study would you conduct?

case study

45

Which variable is manipulated by the experimenter?

independent variable

46

You are interested in the amount of time students spend talking to other students during class breaks in high school and want to know if girls are more talkative with other girls, or when talking to boys. You set up a camera to record a hundred such interactions. What type of study is this?

naturalistic observation

47

You want to learn more about food preferences of those in an entire city. What would the the best way to gather this information?

survey

48

According to the text, psychology students are most likely to benefit from exposure to

critical thinking skills and the scientific method

49

According to the text, psychology students are most likely to benefit from exposure to

critical thinking

50

Katie spends most of her daytime hours taking care of her four kids, but enjoys teaching two psychology courses in the evenings at a local community college. Katie likely has a

master's degree in psychology

51

Ryan wants to be a high school football coach and school counselor. He will need at least a ________ degree in counseling psychology.

master's degree

52

Typically, an adjunct psychology professor will have a

master's degree in psychology

53

Which type of psychology degree focuses more on the clinical practice and less on research?

psyD

54

According to the ________ model, health and illness are determined by psychological, biological, and social factors.

biopsychosocial

55

As a sprinter on the track and field team, Shaun knows that the way he visualizes and thinks about his race can have a major impact on his performance. His coach encourages him to talk to the

sport psychologist

56

Cognitive psychology focuses on

studying thoughts and their relationship to our experiences and actions.

57

If Kayla is interested in personality psychology, she is most likely to study

long-standing traits and patterns that propel behavior

58

If Marco is interested in changes in reasoning and thinking that occur during adolescence, he should specialize in ________ psychology.

developmental

59

Jade plans to major in business then continue on to study ________ so that she can work as a consultant for businesses interested in improving employee motivation and increasing productivity.

I-O psychology

60

Jenny’s softball team always came close to winning, but seemed to give up during the 6th inning. Her coach scheduled an appointment with the ________ to discuss performance anxiety.

sport psychologist

61

Marquesas is suffering from anxiety. According to the ________ model, her illness is probably determined by psychological, biological, and social factors.

biopsychosocial

62

Social psychology is the study of

how people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others

63

Stefan had a terrible work experience when cooking at a local diner while in high school. That experience led him to want to study business management and best practices in improving the workplace environment. He should consider studying

I-O psychology.

64

Which area of psychology focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and other problematic patterns of behavior?

clinical psychology

65

Which factors influence health, according to the biopsychosocial model?

interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors

66

Which of the following are the main psychological domains?

biological, cognitive, developmental, social and personality, mental and physical health

67

Which of the following are the main psychological domains?

biological, cognitive, developmental, social and personality, mental and physical health

68

Which of the following topics are included in the biological domain of psychology?

neuroscience

69

Which of the following topics are included in the biological domain of psychology?

consciousness

70

Which psychological domain would include a study of learning and conditioning?

developmental

71

Which psychological domain would include a study of memory and intelligence?

cognitive

72

Which questions would a biopsychologist most likely address when studying depression?

Does stress or lack of exercise affect the nervous system and hormones to either cause or prevent depression?

73

Which questions would a biopsychologist most likely address when studying schizophrenia?

Does stress or lack of exercise affect the nervous system and hormones to either cause or prevent schizophrenia?

74

Which type of psychologist may be involved in mediating a custody battle?

forensic psychologist.

75

Which type of psychologist would most likely be asked to serve as an expert witness during a court case?

forensic psychologist

76

the area of psychology that focuses on studying thoughts and their relationship to our experiences and our actions.

cognitive

77

the study of how people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others

social

78

________ psychology seeks to study the genetic causes of behavior.

Evolutionary

79

________ psychology seeks to study the ultimate biological causes of a behavior

Evolutionary

80

Each of our 46 ________ have a sequence of DNA, made up of ________, which determine traits and physical characteristics.

chromosomes; genes

81

Epigenetics examines gene expression and how those with identical genes may have different

phenotypes

82

If Greg’s mother has a cleft chin (genotype Bb) and his father does not (genotype bb), what are the chances that Greg has a cleft chin?

50 percent

83

Most traits are controlled by more than just one gene, meaning that they are

polygenic

84

One of the best ways to answer questions associated with the nature-nurture debate is to complete twin studies, especially with ________ twins.

identical

85

One reason the nature-nurture debates continues is because it is

difficult to study because people cannot be assigned to various genetic and environmental conditions.

86

People born with a high genetic risk for schizophrenia were ________ likely to develop schizophrenia if they were raised in a healthy family environment than if they were raised in a disturbed family environment.

less

87

The idea that Sophia is born with high genetic potential for intelligence that determines the boundaries of her intelligence, but that her environment interacts with those genes to determine wherein her intelligence falls within those bounds is known as

range of reaction

88

The study of how the same genotype may lead to different phenotypes is known as

epigenetics

89

The study of “nature” in the nature-nurture debate is really a study of the ________ bases of behavior.

biological

90

Which of the following is a major problem with arriving at a conclusive scientific answer to the nature-nurture debate?

Humans cannot easily be randomly assigned to different genetic and environmental conditions.

91

Which of the following is an example of the influence of nature, or genetics, on a person?

A child of divorced parents shows the same tendency toward extroversion as her twin sister living across the country with her father.

92

Which types of twins have the same DNA, and are valuable in studying the influence of environmental factors on genetics?

monozygotic

93

________ study how the interaction of genes and the environment cause individual differences in behavior.

Behavioral geneticists

94

An axon is a ________.

long, tubelike structure extending from a neuron’s cell body

95

The branchlike fibers extending in clusters from the neuron’s cell body are called ________.

dendrites

96

The soma is a ________.

neuron’s cell body

97

Which of the following is the correct order of events describing the movement of an electrical charge through a neuron?

Dendrite, cell body, axon

98

. Which of the following sequences accurately reflects the route followed by nerve impulses when one neuron communicates with another?

Dendrite, cell body, axon

99

Agonists and antagonists mimic or impede neurotransmitters by binding to ________.

receptors

100

Drugs designed to restore neurotransmitter balance in the brain are known as

psychotropic medications

101

During action potential, positively charged ________ ions move inside the cell.

sodium

102

During resting potential, before the electric charge is sent, the inside of a neuron has a ________ charge.

negative

103

If the threshold of excitation is reached, action potential begins, which causes the inside of the cell to temporarily have a ________ charge.

positive

104

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are drugs that

prevent unused neurotransmitters from being transported back to the neuron.

105

The input sites of neurons where signals are received from other neurons are known as

dendrites

106

What is the electrical signal that typically moves from the cell body down the axon to the axon terminals?

action potential

107

Which of the following help neurons line up closely with each other, provide insulation to neurons, transport nutrients and waste products, and mediate immune responses?

glial cells

108

________, which play a supportive role in the nervous system, vastly outnumber ______

Glial cells; neurons

109

A noninvasive technique that uses magnetic fields to map brain activity by measuring changes in the brain’s blood flow and oxygen levels is called ________.

functional MRI (fMRI)

110

Doctors want to take a closer look at a schizophrenic patient’s brain to monitor the activity of neurotransmitters while she experiences hallucinations. First, they will give her an injection of a radioactive substance. Which technique will they use?

positron emission tomography (PET)

111

After a severe car accident, Tristan struggles to comprehend what people are saying when they speak to him. He probably has damage to

Wernicke’s area.

112

Carrie processes visual information using her

occipital lobe

113

Damage to Broca’s area may cause

difficulty speaking

114

Devin processes the pain of a fresh paper cut on his finger in the

somatosensory cortex

115

One reason smells often evoke memories is that the sense of smell

is routed through the limbic system.

116

Research shows that both hemispheres of the brain are involved in most tasks, but split-brain studies demonstrate that

the right hemisphere is mostly non-verbal.

117

Stephen has a tumor in his brain and doctors want to assess what areas are impacted. They want a clear picture of the brain, but also want to see changes in the brain’s blood flow. What imaging technique will they use?

functional MRI (fMRI)

118

Structures that produce the neurotransmitter dopamine and aid in movement are the substantia nigra and the ________, both found in the midbrain.

ventral tegmental area

119

The ________ helps maintain the body’s level of homeostasis and regulates things like body temperature and appetite.

hypothalamus

120

The ________ is involved in regulating the sleep/wake cycle and plays an important role in arousal and alertness.

reticular formation

121

The ________ plays an important role in higher-level thinking and decision making

cerebral cortex

122

The biggest part of the brain, called the ________, contains the cerebral cortex, which is ________ in humans that other animals.

forebrain; larger

123

The corpus callosum

is a thick band of neural fibers enabling communication between the two brain hemispheres

124

The substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, and reticular formation can all be found in the

midbrain

125

The temporal lobe specializes in

hearing.

126

Where is the primary visual cortex housed?

the occipital lobe

127

Which type of brain imaging is especially helpful in the study of sleep disorders?

an electroencephalograph (EEG)

128

You can describe something seen in your left visual field with ease because the ________ relays the information to your right hemisphere.

corpus callosum

129

A popular, new personality test consistently yields the same results when given to the same people over a period of several months and when administered to similar people. The test asks so many cultural questions, however, that many think the test does not accurately measure personality. This test has________ reliability and ________ validity.

high; low

130

An experiment is reliable if it

can be replicated by another researcher and provide similar results.

131

An experiment is valid if it

measures what it is supposed to measure.

132

Francis is studying the relationship between personality traits and drug abuse. If she that there is a significant relationship between these two variables, that means her study would have a p-value around ________ or less.

.05

133

Hart is interested in the role of relationships in preventing heart disease. As her patients come into her office in Bluebell, Alabama, she asks them two questions: Are you a in a relationship? Have you experienced any heart problems in the last 8 years? Based on her findings, she concludes that relationships cause cardiovascular (heart) problems. One issue with her methodology is that the results are not generalizable. What does this mean?

Her results may not be true for the entire population

134

If Maria conducts a study and discovers the results seem consistent enough to not have been caused by chance, she can conclude that her findings are

statistically significant

135

If Miguel wants to replicated Sara’s study, which section of Sara’s research article will be most valuable to him?

methods

136

If an experiment can be easily replicated by another researcher and provide similar results, it is considered

reliable

137

If an experiment measures what it is supposed to measure, it is considered

valid.

138

If every person in a population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate in a study, then it is considered a

random sample.

139

Random assignment is important in grouping participants in a research study because

it balances out the differences that might naturally exist between participants.

140

Stuart wants to study whether there is a relationship between the number of hours a high school senior spends on social networking sites and their grade point average. He obviously cannot study every 12th grader, so instead he will select a smaller ________ of seniors to study. a

sample

141

The likelihood that a research finding was due to random chance rather than being due to an actual observed change is called the

p-value.

142

The pattern of variation in data is called the

distribution

143

What is the abstract of a scholarly article?

The section with a summary of the whole article.

144

What is the correct term for a pattern of variation that is noted in a given data set?

distribution

145

When the findings in a research study are believed to be due to an actual phenomenon under investigation and not due to chance or random occurrence, this is called ________.

statistical significance

146

Where in a scholarly article would you expect to find a concise summary of the entire experiment?

abstract

147

Which section of a research article includes an explanation of the procedures used to conduct the experiment?

methods

148

Why is it important to use random assignment when determining which research participants will comprise the different treatment groups in the study?

Random assignment balances out the differences that might naturally exist between participants.

149

A person’s conscious and voice of reason and goodness is the

superego

150

Abraham Maslow is best known for

proposing a hierarchy of human needs in motivating behavior.

151

According to Sigmund Freud, which of the following is a way to access the unconscious mind?

dream analysis

152

According to Sigmund Freud, which of the following is a way to access the unconscious mind?

seemingly innocent slips of the tongue

153

B.F. Skinner is to ________ as Pavlov is to ________.

operant conditioning; classical conditioning

154

Functionalism focused on

how mental activities help a person adapt to its environment

155

Humanism which developed as a reaction to the behaviorism and psychodynamic schools of psychology, emphasized that ________.

each person is inherently good and motivated to be a healthy functioning individual

156

I provide Ralph with the positive reinforcement of a candy bar when he does something I like. I punish him by squirting him with a squirt gun when he does something I don’t like. I am applying the principles of ________ in an attempt to modify Ralph’s behavior.

operant conditioning

157

Pavlov is to ________ and B.F. Skinner is to ________.

classical conditioning; operant conditioning

158

Proponents of the early school of ________ psychology argue that our thoughts, feelings, and motives are important in understanding human behavior and that more than just observable actions should be studied.

cognitive

159

Psychoanalytic theory focuses on ________ and early childhood experiences.

a person’s unconscious

160

Psychoanalytic theory focuses on a person’s unconscious and ________.

early childhood experiences

161

Ryan notices that a lot of people he sees avoid making eye contact while they walk by him on their cell phones. He develops a tentative explanation that people are too focused on their conversation to be distracted by an outside passerby. Ryan’s observation is an example of a

hypothesis

162

Scientific theories

are supported by evidence.

163

Susanna’s parents give her an allowance every day that her bed is made and her room is picked up. Her parents are utilizing principles of

operant conditioning.

164

The Sea World animal trainers use rewards (reinforcements) to teach whales, sea lions and dolphins to perform tricks. These training techniques are based on principles from which early school of psychology?

Behaviorism

165

The cognitive revolution turned the emphasis in psychology away from the behavioral focus on only observable behavior to instead

acknowledge the existence of internal mental states.

166

The ego is

the rational and reasonable part of personality

167

The focus on how mental activities help a person adapt to his or her environment is known as

functionalism

168

The id is the

unconscious part of personality responsible for drives like sex and aggression

169

The most accurate definition of psychology is the scientific study of

the mind and behavior

170

The psychodynamic school of psychology emphasizes ________.

the unconscious and early childhood experiences

171

The rational and reasonable part of personality is known as the

ego

172

The superego is

the unconscious part of personality responsible for drives like sex and aggression

173

The unconscious and early childhood experiences are emphasized by the ________.

psychodynamic school of psychology

174

The unconscious part of personality responsible for drives like sex and aggression is the

id

175

Two people may look at the identical image but perceive different things. This phenomenon is studied by

Gestalt psychologists.

176

Which of the following are major areas of interest in cognitive psychology?

knowledge and memory

177

Which of the following are major areas of interest in cognitive psychology

perception and language

178

Which of the following statements most closely aligns with humanism?

Each person is inherently good and motivated to be a healthy functioning individual

179

Which person was most interested in studying learned behavior?

B.F. Skinner

180

Which perspective within psychology emphasizes the potential for good that is innate to all people?

humanism

181

Which researcher was more likely to use recording devices and objective measures to examine the mind?

William James

182

Which saying best fits gestalt psychology?

“The whole is other than the sum of its parts.” -Koffka

183

Which school of psychology was more likely to focus on the operation of the entire mind instead of specific parts?

functionalism

184

Which school of thought emphasized how people process information?

cognitive psychology

185

Which school of thought emphasized observable behavior and objectivity

behaviorism

186

Which school of thought emphasized the development of a healthy and effectively-functioning person?

humanistic psychology

cognitive psychology

187

Which school of thought emphasized the unconscious influences on thought and behavior?

psychodynamic psychology

188

Which school of thought emphasized the use of introspection to categorize and break down sensations into basic elements?

structuralism

189

While behaviorism focused on only observable behavior, cognitive psychology

acknowledges the existence of internal mental states

190

Wilhelm Wundt’s usage of introspection to measure the workings of the mindan experiment is reliable is known as

Structuralism

191

William James is best known for

functionalism

192

You spend weeks teaching your new dog how to roll over. The rewards and reinforcers you use to shape her behavior are based on which early school of psychology?

Behaviorism

193

________ is the name for Wundt’s approach of asking patients to look inward and describe their feelings in order to understand consciousness.

Structuralism

194

________ psychologist Kurt Koffka is known for saying “the whole is other than the sum of its parts.”

Gestalt

195

________ psychologists emphasized the importance of thoughts and internal mental states instead of just observable actions.

Cognitive

196

The peripheral nervous system is composed of the

somatic and autonomic nervous systems

197

The terms autonomic and somatic refer to the two main subdivisions of the ________.

peripheral nervous system

198

A psychologist who studies the interaction between hormones and behavior is called a

behavioral endocrinologist.

199

After a stressful day at school and work, Kristen attends a yoga class. At the end of the class, Kristen lays quietly on her mat while paying close attention to her breathing. Her ________ nervous system is activated.

parasympathetic

200

Conscious and voluntary movements are associated with the ________ nervous system.

somatic

201

If Julian is startled by a rat in his kitchen, his ________ nervous system kicks into action

sympathetic

202

Justin is listening to the radio when he hears the sound of sirens, which he mistakes for the police turning on their sirens behind him. He immediately presses on the brakes, has an accelerated heartbeat and higher blood pressure, as well as sweaty palms. His reaction is known as

the fight-or-flight response.

203

Physiological changes such as those activated when Sarah hears spooky sounds while she’s out for a run (her pupils dilate, her heart rate and blood pressure increase, etc.) are known as

the fight-or-flight response.

204

The ________ nervous system is involved in the relay of sensory and motor information to the central nervous system.

somatic

205

The chemical substances that are secreted into the bloodstream by the endocrine system are known as

hormones.

206

The pituitary gland, sometimes called the “master gland,” carries out instructions from the ________.

hypothalamus

207

The state of equilibrium, in which biological conditions (such as body temperature) are maintained at optimal levels is known as

homeostasis

208

What is the scientific study of the interaction between hormones and behavior called?

behavioral endocrinology

209

A ________ is a general, tentative explanation that proposes explanations for observed behavior that can be used to predict future outcomes, whereas a/an ________ is a specific prediction about the relationship between two or more variables that is to be tested.

theory; hypothesis

210

A psychology class participates in an experiment measuring bystander intervention at the mall. They tell people the experiment is about fashion trends, collect data about the ways number of times a subject intervenes when a bystander needs help, then thank the participants for their time. In this example, the class forgot to ________ in order to resolve the ________ in the study.

debrief participants; deception

211

A theory is a/an

set of ideas that proposed an explanation for observed phenomena

212

A(n) ________ is a well-developed set of ideas that proposes an explanation for observed phenomena.

theory

213

In order for an experiment to be considered fair,

all data should be considered when evaluating a hypothesis.

214

In order for an experiment to be considered falsifiable,

it should be capable of being disproved.

215

In order for an experiment to be considered predictable,

it should make assumptions about future events

216

Informed consent means clearly explaining all of the following EXCEPT

explaining the hypothesis to the participants

217

Jane thinks that a longer wait time at the doctor’s office will result in more negative reviews for the office, no matter the expertise or quality of the doctor. What steps should Jane follow to conduct a study consistent with the scientific method?

make an observation, ask a question, form a hypothesis, do an experiment, analyze the results, prove or disprove the hypothesis

218

What best describes the purpose of the IRB?

to review proposals for research that involves human participants

219

Which best describes the basic steps of the scientific method?

make an observation, ask a question, form a hypothesis, do an experiment, analyze the results, prove or disprove the hypothesis

220

Which organization reviews research conducted using animal subjects?

IACUC