includes a shift from placing the problem internally and "blaming the victim" to a consideration of social factors in the environment that contribute to a client's problem.
is an intervention that changes the label or evaluation applied to some behavioral characteristic.
as clients become more grounded in their understanding of feminism, therapists may suggest that clients become involved in activities such as volunteering at a rape clinic, crisis center, lobbying lawmakers or providing community education about gender issues
is built on the premise that it is essential to consider the social, cultural and political context that contributes to a person's problems in order to understand that person
a philosophical orientation that lends itself to an integration of feminist, multicultural and social justice concepts with a variety of psychotherapy approaches
offers a unique approach to understanding the roles that women and men with diverse social identities and experiences have been socialized to accept and to bringing this understanding into the therapeutic process.
Explain differences in the behavior of women and men in terms of socialization processes rather than on the basis of our "innate" natures, thus avoiding dichotomized stereotypes in social roles and interpersonal behavior.
Uses concepts and strategies that apply equally to individuals and groups regardless of age, race, culture, generation, ability, class or sexual orientation.
Assumes that human development is a lifelong process and that personality and behavioral changes can occur at any time rather than being fixed during early childhood
Used the term "engendered lives" to describe her belief that gender is the organizing principle in people's lives.
Therapists emphasize the qualities of authenticity and transparency that contribute to the flow of the relationship; being emphatically present with the suffering's of the client is at the core of treatment.
Relational-cultural theory (RCT)
This principle is based on the assumption that the personal or individual problems individuals bring to counseling originate in a political and social context.
The personal is political and critical consciousness
Feminist therapies aim not only for individual change but also for societal change
The goal is to advance a different vision of societal organization that frees both women and men from the constraints imposed by gender-role and social class-related expectations
Commitment to social change
Shifting women's experiences from being ignored and devalued to being sought after and valued is strongly encouraged by feminist therapists.
Women's and girl's voices and ways of knowing, as well as the voices of others who have experienced marginalization and oppression are valued and their experiences are honored.
is marked by authenticity, mutuality, and respect, is at the core of feminist therapy
Psychological stress is reframed, not as disease but as a communication about unjust systems.
A focus on strengths and a reformulated definition of psychological distress
All types of oppression are recognized along with the connections among them
Goals of feminist therapy include
valuing and affirming diversity
striving for change rather than adjustment
balancing independence and interdependence
Feminist therapists work in an egalitarian manner and use this strategy to tailor to each client
Feminist therapists use this specific technique in the best interests of the client to equalize the client-therapist relationship, to provide modeling, to normalize women's collective experiences, to empower clients, and to establish informed consent