Human Anatomy & Physiology: chapters 1, 2,3, and 5 Study guide lecture test 1 Flashcards


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1

Nucleus

control center that contains DNA in the form of chromosomes and chromatin

2

Nucleolus

assembles ribosomes

3

Plasma membrane

encloses cell contents and participate in many cellular activities required for life

4

Ribosomes

site of protein synthesis

5

Rough ER

contains ribosomes and synthesizes proteins that are inserted into the plasma membrane or exported out of the cell to go to other areas of the body

6

Smooth ER

site of lipid synthesis

7

Golgi apparatus

sort and modify proteins and lipids

8

Lysosome

contains enzymes that break down carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins

9

Centriole

Rod shaped bodies near the nucleus that helps to organize and divide cells contents during mitosis

10

Mitochondria

powerhouse of the cell and site of aerobic cellular respiration

11

Peroxisome

contains peroxide to eliminate cancer-causing free radicals

12

Vesicle

small, membranous pound sacs which move items into and out of the cell

13

Cytoplasm

material that fills the cell from the nuclear membrane to the plasma membrane

14

Cytosol

the fluid portion of the cytoplasm that is a suspension of nutrients, enzymes, and electrolytes

15

Cytoskeleton

the cell skeleton filled with proteins that support the cell

16

Give 3 life functions of the body

maintain boundaries, movement, reproduction, metabolism, exertion, responsiveness/excitability, digestion, and growth

17

6 levels of organization in order

chemical, cells, tissue, organs, systems,and organism

18

what are the differences between Catabolism and Anabolism?

Catabolism- complex substances are broken down into smaller pieces.
Anabolism- smaller pieces are made into more complex substances synthesis.

19

Endocrine is the same as hormone system?
True or false

true

20

How many bones are there in the body?

206 bones

21

What is it called when complex substances are broken down into smaller pieces?

Catabolism

22

When the body needs energy it breaks down what substance into two smaller substances?

adenosinetriphosphate (ATP)

23

what are the four basic types of tissue?

Nervous, connective, muscle, epithelium.

24

What function of the body is occurring when foodstuff is broken down into simple molecules that can be absorbed into the bloodstream?

Digestion

25

choose the answer that gives the six levels of organization largest to smallest?

Organisms, system, organs, tissues, cell, atoms.

26

What does a buffer do?

it helps to maintain a constant pH

27

What is the most abundant and important inorganic compound in the body?

Water

28

What is the pH of human blood?

pH 7.35 – 7.45

29

What are the names of four elements that 96% of the body consists of?

hydrogen, sodium, oxygen, calcium

30

What is a catalyst in biology?

protein enzymes

31

An example of extracellular fluid is blood?
true or false

true

32

All organic compounds contain nitrogen?
true or false

false

33

________ is the universal solvent.

Water

34

Alkalosis is when a person's blood pH is higher than within the acceptable range.
True or false

true

35

Disaccharides contain two simple sugars.
true or false

true

36

all these statements regarding ATP are true except (choose one)
A. ATP is a nucleotide.

B. It is the primary molecule responsible for providing energy use by all body cells.

C. ATP contains a phosphorus base, sugar and a phosphate group.

D. ATP contains three phosphate group.

C. ATP contains a phosphorus base, sugar and a phosphate group.

37

Complementary bases in RNA include A, G, C, and T.
true or false

false

38

the three types of RNA are messenger (mRNA), transfer (tRNA), and ribonucleic (rRNA)
true or false

true

39

in DNA, what types of bonds hold nucleotides together?

Hydrogen

40

the following statement regarding molecular chaperones are true except (choose one)

A. They help proteins achieve their functional 3-D structure

B. They aid in the folding and Association process of protein.

C. They are closely related to globular proteins.

D. They promote the breakdown of damaged or denatured proteins.

C. They are closely related to globular proteins.

41

Growth is usually accomplished by ink creasing the number of_________?

Cell

42

When it comes to the five survival needs, appropriate balance is not necessary, too much or too little is fine.
True or false

false

43

All but one of the listed is essential to survival needs, which is not in the group?

A. Oxygen

B. Carbon dioxide

C. Water

D. Nutrients

B. Carbon dioxide

44

There are twelve structural systems?
True or false

false

45

Which body system is a functional system?

A. Immune system
B. Skeleton system
C. Integumentary system
D. Nervous system

A. Immune system

46

the build up of smaller pieces into larger more complex substance is known as?

Anabolisim

47

The sum of all chemical reactions that occur within the body is known as metabolism?
true or false

true

48

ATP is known as_________ currency in the body?
A. Hormone
B. Krebs cycle
C. Energy
D. Immune

C. energy

49

Name three of the eight life functions of the body.

A. Maintain boundaries
B. Movement
C. Responsiveness/excitability
D. Digestion
E. Metabolism
F. Excretion
G. Reproduction
H. Growth

50

There are five basic types of tissue in the body.
true or false

false

51

Fluids outside of the cell are extracellular, and fluids inside a cell are intracellular.
true or false

false

52

Standard anatomical position is a body laying down feet together.
true or false

false

53

Two types of compounds occur in the human body, organic and inorganic. Organic compounds contain?
A. Water
B. Salt
C. Acid
D. Carbon

D. Carbon

54

The most abundant and import an organic compound in the human body is.
A. Blood
B. Water
C. Salt
D. Oxygen

B. Water

55

A person's pH level should be between 7.35 and 7.45.
true or false

true

56

match the terms to the definition:

terms definitions

A. Hydrophilic A. Proton acceptor
B. Acid B. body fluids pH
C. Buffer <7.35
D. Alkalosis C. Water loving
E. Hydrophobic D. Helps maintain a
F. Base constant pH
G. Acidosis E. Body fluids pH >
7.45
F. proton donor
G. Water fearing

A.hydrophilic C. Water loving
B. acid F. proton donor
C. Buffer D. Help maintains a constant pH
D. Alkalosis E. Body fluids pH > 7.45
E. Hydrophobic G. Water fearing
F. Base A. proton acceptor
G. Acidosis B. Body fluids pH < 7.35

57

What are the four most common elements in the human body? In fact, 96% of the body can system of these four elements. remember CHON

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.

58

Starch and Glycogen are two important _____ ______ in the body. They’re also both used as storage carbohydrates. ________ is the storage carbohydrate in animal tissues, and _______ is the storage carbohydrate in plants.

Polysaccharides
Glycogen
Starch

59

Important Disaccharides
a. Glucose and Fructose=____________ (Table sugar)
b. Glucose and _______= Maltose (Malt sugar) *
c. Glucose and Galactose = _______ (Milk sugar)

*Sucrose
Glucose
*Lactose

60

What is the H: O ratio in Carbohydrates?

2:1

61

Is the most efficient and compact form of store energy, fat for insulation?

Triglyceride

62

This are modified triglycerides, these are unique and it is why they form the cell membrane, these are diglycerides with a phosphorus-containing group and two fatty acid chains?

Phospholipids

63

It is essential for human like, it is found in cell membranes and is the raw material for vitamin D synthesis, these are flat molecules made of four interlocking hydrocarbon rings?

Steroids

64

This is a modified simple sugar (alcohol sugars)?

Glycerol

65

Single covalent bonds between carbon atoms are saturated and are solid at room temperature?

Saturation

66

The term best describing a state of internal balance is?

Homeostasis

67

True of False. 1. An example of homeostasis in the body is consuming large amounts of sugar daily over long periods of time and creating type II diabetes.

*False, homeostatic imbalance

68

True or False. . Blood and plasma are intracellular.

*False, extracellular

69

Which is the final piece in maintaining homeostatic control?

response

70

Negative feedback is _________ ___________ of something

To much

71

Stimulus-receptor-________-control center-__________-response

*afferent *efferent

72

Growth is usually accomplished by increasing the number of ________.

cells

73

T or F When it comes to the five survival needs, appropriate balance is not necessary, too much or too little is fine.

False

74

All but one of the listed is essential to survival needs, which is not in the group?
A.) Oxygen
B.) Carbon Dioxide*
C.) Water
D.) Nutrients

*B.) Carbon Dioxide*

75

T or F There are twelve structural systems.

False

76

Which body system is a functional system?

Immune System

77

T/F An example of homeostasis in the body is consuming large amounts of sugar daily over long periods of time and creating type II diabetes.

*False, homeostatic inbalance

78

Blood and plasma are intracellular?

False, extracellular

79

Which is the final piece in maintaining homeostatic control? a.effector b.response c.stimuli d. output

b. response

80

Negative feedback is _________ ___________ of something

to much

81

Stimulus-receptor-________-control center-__________-response

*afferent *efferent

82

Which of the following is NOT one of the functions of the integumentary system?
a) Protection
b) Blood Reservoir
c) Excretion
d) Detoxification
e) Sensory information

d) Detoxification

83

Which type of sensory receptor is NOT located in the skin?
a. Sound
b. Touch
c. Pressure
d. Free Nerve Endings

A. sound

84

Which of the following properties help to maintain hydration of the skin?
a. Keratin
b. Melanocyte
c. Sebum
d. A and B
e. A and C

e. A and C

85

Which of the following is NOT considered to be part of the integumentary system?
a. Skin
b. Teeth
c. Hair
d. Nails
e. Glands

b. Teeth

86

Which of the following layers are considered part of the SKIN?
a. Epidermis
b. Dermis
c. Subcutaneous layer
d. All of the above
e. A and B

e. A and B.

87

Which of the following are the correct characteristics for recognizing melanoma?
a. Apex, Border, Color, Direction
b. Asymmetry, Broad, Consistency, Diameter
c. Apex, Broad, Consistency, Direction
d. Asymmetry, Border, Color, Diameter

d. Asymmetry, Border, Color, Diameter

88

Which is the most common type of skin cancer?

Basal Cell Carcinoma

89

Which is the most dangerous type of skin cancer?

Melanoma

90

Which type of skin cancer arises from keratinocytes?

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

91

Which of the following is NOT considered important in skin care?
a. Proper nutrition
b. Adequate circulation
c. Adequate amounts of sunlight are important
d. Protection from sunlight
e. All are considered important

e. All are considered important

92

The RULE of NINES applies to what type of skin condition?

Burns

93

Which of the following is NOT a factor that affects wound healing?
a. Nerve Supply
b. Temperature
c. Infection
d. Blood Supply
e. Age

b. Temperature

94

For HAIR, which of the three concentric rings of keratin is responsible for forming a single later of overlapping cells, like shingles on a roof; helps to separate hairs so matting doesn’t occur, and is responsible for split ends.

Cuticle

95

Which of the following is NOT a function of HAIR?
a. Sensory perception
b. Guarding the scalp against trauma
c. Guarding the scalp against heat loss
d. Guarding the scalp against bacteria
e. Guarding the scalp against sunlight

d. Guarding the scalp against bacteria

96

What is the involuntary muscle responsible for goosebumps?

Arrector pili

97

What is the an extension of the dermis, into the epidermis that allows blood vessels to get closer to the superficial surface and is responsible for preventing slipping when grasping and object?

Dermal papillae

98

Which of the following are not specialized apocrine glands?
a. Mammary Glands
b. Ceruminous Glands
c. Sebaceous Glands
d. Eccrine Glands
e. C and D

e. C and D

99

Which of the following are derivatives of the epidermis?
a) Sudoriferous
b) Sebaceous)
c) Hair and hair follicles
d) Nails
e) All of the above

e) All of the above

100

Which of the following functions help in temperature regulation internally?
a. Constriction (narrow) of blood vessels
b. Dilation (widen) of blood vessels
c. Evaporation of perspiration
d. Changing environment
e. A, B and C

e. A, B and C

101

Which of the following is the correct order for Epidermal layers from superficial to deep?
a. Stratum spinosum, stratum lucidum, stratum basale, stratum granulosum, stratum coreum
b. Stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum gransulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale
c. Stratum basale, stratum lucidum, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum corneum
d. Stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum

b. Stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum gransulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale*

102

Apocrine and Eccrine glands are types of which gland?

Sudoriferous

103

This layer of the dermis had areolar connective tissue, had dermal papillae, and is leaves room for defense for the cell to respond to foreign invaders?

Papillary Layer

104

Flexure lines are dermal folds near a joint, (visible lines on the palm of the hand) where the dermis is tightly secured to deeper structures. Which layer of the dermis are flexure lines present in?
a. Papillary Layer
b. Reticular Layer
c. Hypodermis
d. Cleavage Lines
e. Pigmented nevi
Match the

b. Reticular Layer

105

Means “horn”; the fibrous protein that helps give the epidermis its protective properties; rise in the layers and eventually sluff off as dead cells.

B. Keratinocyte

106

Spider shaped epithelial cells; means “black”; forms a pigment that shields and protects the nucleus from the damaging effects of UV radiation.

A. Melanocyte

107

Arise from BONE MARROW and migrate to the epidermis; ingest foreign substances and are key activators of the immune system

D. Dendritic or Langerhans Cells

108

Present at the epidermal-dermal junction; spiky hemisphere shape; associated with a sensory nerve ending for touch

C. Merkel (Tactile) Cells

109

Main skin pigment, found in hair, eyeball, iris of the eye, tumors. The darker the skin, the more pigments are found in their tissues

Melanin

110

Pigment that carries oxygen in RBCs

Hemoglobin

111

Related to vitamin A, stores in fatty tissues. Derived from carrots and other orange and yellow vegetables.

Carotene

112

Pigment responsible for the yellowing in jaundice, green appearance

Bile Pigments

113

Most superficial layer; 20-30 layers of dead cells represented only by sacs filled with keratin.

Stratum Corneum

114

Several layers of cells containing thick bundles of “spines” made of pre-keratin.

Stratum Spinosum

115

Three to five layers of flattened cells, organelles deteriorating; cytoplasm full of keratin granules

Stratum Granulosum

116

Deepest epidermal layer; one layer of active mitotic stem cells; some newly formed cells become part of the more superficial layers; see occasional melanocytes and epidermal dendritic cells.

Stratum Basale

117

A few rows of flat, dead keratinocytes; Found only in “thick skin” (palms, soles)

Stratum Lucidum

118

Type of gland that is confined to axillary and anogenital (relating to anus and genitals) areas; sweat contains fatty substances and proteins that lead to odor, but does not regulate temperature

Apocrine Gland

119

Type of gland that is abundant on palms, soles, and forehead; ducts connect to pores; function in thermoregulation

Eccrine Gland

120

Sweat gland; coiled glands that vent directly to the skin surface or through hair follicles.

Sudoriferous Gland

121

Sac-like gland associated with hair follicles; secrete sebum, an oily substance that lubricates and water proofs the skin

Sebaceous Gland

122

True or False; simple diffusion uses kinetic energy.

True

123

True or False; Active transport uses ATP

True

124

True or False; Exocytosis is the excretion of substances inside the cell

False

125

Which of the following processes require ATP
a. Endocytosis
b. Exocytosis
c. Active transport
d. All the above

d. All the above

126

True or False; Sodium and Chloride are most prominent inside the cell.

False

127

True or False? Ions diffuse according to their chemical gradient.

True

128

True or False? In vesicular transport, ATP is needed to transport large particles, macromolecules, and fluids across plasma membranes.

True

129

Exocytosis secretes large substances ___________ of the cell.

out

130

Endocytosis transports large materials _________ of the cell

into

131

The Na+ K+ pump pumps

3 Na+ ions out of cell and 2 K+ ions into cell

132

What are the two types of active processes?

Active transport, Vesicular transport

133

Ribosomes our site of protein synthesis. What are the two types?

Free ribosomes, Membrane bound ribosomes

134

What is mitochondria?

Mitochondria is known as the powerhouse of a cell.

135

True or False? Transcytosis is moving substance into, across, and then out of the cell.

True

136

Potassium and Calcium are most prominent outside the cell.

False

137

When a parent cell becomes two identical daughter cells called somatic cells is called?

Mitosis

138

The divistion of the cytoplasm”cell movement” begins in late anaphase, Microfilaments for the cleavage furrow and separate the cell?

Cytokenesis

139

Glycolysis-2ATP, Krebs cycle 32 – 34 ATP, electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation are pathways Of?

Cellular respiration*

140

DNA transfers information to RNA is a process called?

Transcription

141

The process by which amino acids are assembled into a protein?

Translation

142

True/False: When a cell is preparing to divide, the chromatin threads coil and condense into short, bar-like bodies called chromosomes
A. True

True

143

True or False? There are 4 phases of mitosis. They include all of the following EXCEPT (multiple choice):
a. telophase
b. metaphase
c. interphase
d. anaphase
e. prophase

“C” interphase – this is the period from cell formation to cell division. It is NOT a phase of mitosis.

144

Fill in the blank. Name the three pathways in which glucose is catabolized:

Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, electron transport chain

145

True/False: Transcription is the process by which amino acids are assembled into a protein.

False Translation

146

Translation occurs in the _____________, whereas transcription occurs in the ___________.

Translation: cytoplasm, Transcription: ribosome

147

The cell membrane is permeable to some substances but not to others. What characteristics does this describe?

Semipermeable

148

In passive movement through the plasma membrane, molecules move ________ the concentration gradient.

Down

149

When constant movement of particles go from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until equilibrium is reached, it is considered what type of passive process?

diffusion

150

T/F A molecule will diffuse through a membrane when the molecule is lipid soluble.

true

151

When it comes to simple diffusion, ________ and gasses move freely across the lipid membrane.

Lipids

152

True or False. A membrane lipid consists of 20% glycolipids.

False 5%

153

The cells are bathes in an extracellular fluid called _____________ that is derived from the blood

Interstitial fluid

154

What are the 2 movement through the PM and what is the difference between them two?

Passive- does not require energy
Active- requires energy

155

True or False. Atom is the smallest structural and functional living unit.

False cell

156

Constant movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration until they each equilibrium is called?

Diffusion

157

The diffusion of water through a selectively membrane is called __________

Osmosis

158

true or false The passage of a solution through a membrane under mechanical force is called diffusion

false filtration

159

solution that has a lower concentration than the fluid within the cell is called __________.

hypotonic

160

An organelle that produces energy for the cell is called a ________________.

Mitochondrion

161

If a cell lacked centrioles, it would not be able to _________________.

divide

162

Membrane lipids are composed of:

Phospholipids, Glycolipids
Cholesterol

163

True or False The term used to describe the cell membrane is the fluid mosaic model.

True

164

Unsaturated fat is ________ at room temperature

liquid

165

The job of the plasma membrane is:
a) Enclosing cell contents
b) Separates major body fluids (ICF and ECF)
c) Participates in activities like growth, reproduction, and cellular communication
d) Absorbs materials from extracellular environment
e) All of the above

e) All of the above

166

The Sodium-Potassium Pump is one form of active transport. This system pumps __*__ Na+ ions __*__of the cell and __*__ K+ ions ___*__ the cell with each cycle.

3 Na ions out of cell
2 K ions into the cell

167

What is the average resting membrane potential of a cell?

-70mV the average resting membrane potential is -70mV. (The range is -50 to -100mV depending on the cell type)

168

What part of the cell is responsible for lipid synthesis?

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

169

Peroxisomes are responsible for breaking down; these are considered carcinogens, meaning cancer causing.

Free radicals

170

What are the phases of Mitosis?
I. Anaphase II. Prophase III. Metaphase IV. Interphase V. Telophase
a. I, III, V
b. I, II, IV
c. I, II, III, V*
d. IV only

C- (proper order of cell division) Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase

171

True or False? Pinocytosis is “cell drinking”.

true

172

Sodium follows its concentration gradient and brings the cell up to ______, the actual resting potential of the cell.

-70mV

173

The material that fills a cell – a suspension of nutrients, electrolytes, enzymes, and other materials in water.

cytoplasm

174

*True or False? Mitochondria contain their own DNA, and are known as the “power houses” of a cell.

true

175

Choose the correct order, from beginning to end, of the 4 phases of mitosis.
A. Anaphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Telophase
B. Telophase, Anaphase, Prophase, Metaphase
C. Prophase, Anaphase, Telophase, Metaphase
Choose the correct order, from beginning to end, of the 4 phases of mitosis.
A. Anaphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Telophase
B. Telophase, Anaphase, Prophase, Metaphase
C. Prophase, Anaphase, Telophase, Metaphase
D. Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase

D. Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase*

176

What is the correct order for transcription/ translation?
a. DNA unwinds, RNA nucleotide bases will semi-conservatively replicate by matching the RNA bases to the DNA bases. This forms the mRNA copy of DNA.
b. A ribosomal subunit, rRNA, joins the mRNA copy of DNA. A START CODON on the mRNA strand attaches to the start codon of tRNA. The mRNA strand will move along the A,P,E sites of the rRNA subunit andmore tRNA will attach their amino acid to the newly formed polypeptide chain trailing from the mRNA, rRNA complex.
c. The newly formed polypeptide will go to the RoughER for processing and molecular chaperones will fold the protein, giving it the 3-D shape

1,2,3

177

True or False? Both Transcription and Translation have a an initiation phase, an elongation phase and a termination phase?

True

178

The process by which amino acids are assembled into a protein is called?

Translation

179

NaK ATPase moves __________ Na out of the cell and _________ K into the cell on every cycle or turn.

3, 2

180

Which ions are higher outside of the cell?

Sodium and Chloride

181

The most accurate term used to describe the plasma membrane is called _____________?

Fluid Mosaic Model

182

Which of the following types of membrane transport requires ATP?
a. Osmosis
b. Facilitated diffusion
c. Active Transport
d. Bulk transport or vesicular transport
e. C and D are both correct

e. C and D are both correct

183

Match the correct percent to the type of membrane lipid.
173. Phospholipids
174. Glycolipids
175. Cholesterol
A. 5%
B. 20%
C. 75%
D. 30%

173 C
174 A
175 B

184

A protein built into the plasma membrane that will have its active site exposed to substances in the adjacent solution. This protein type may act as a team with other proteins to induce sequential steps in a metabolic pathway.

Enzymatic Activity

185

A protein that spans the membrane and may provide a channel across the membrane that is selective for a particular solute. Some use ATP as an energy source, like NaK ATPase.

Transport

186

Membrane proteins of adjacent cells that may be hooked together by intercellular junctions. They may act as temporary binding sites that guide cell migration and other cell-to-cell interaction.

Intercellular Joining

187

A membrane protein exposed to the outside of the cell that may have a binding site with a specific shape that fits the shape of a chemical messenger, such as a hormone.

Receptors for signal transduction

188

Cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix may be anchored to the membrane proteins to help maintain cell shape and fix the location of certain membrane proteins.

Attachment to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix

189

Period from cell formation to cell division

Interphase

190

Third phase of mitosis. Each half of the “x” chromosome gets pulled toward the opposite poles, now looking “v” shaped.

Anaphase

191

Means “cell movement”, the division of the cytoplasm

Cytokinesis

192

Vigorous growth and metabolism phase

G1

193

Preparation for cell division

G2

194

The final phase of mitosis in which identical sets of chromosomes at opposite ends uncoil and resume their thread-like chromatin form; the cell will temporarily have two nuclei

Telophase

195

DNA replication occurs

S phase

196

The first phase of mitosis; chromatin condenses and centrtioles attach to the chomosome , starting to line them up at the center of the cell

Prophase

197

The second stage of mitosis; chromosomes cluster at the mid-line of the cell at the equator and the chromosomes start separating from on another.

Metaphase