The real heart of the progressive movement was the effort by
a. preserve world peace.
b. use the government as an agency of human welfare.
c. ensure the Jeffersonian style of government.
d. get the government off the backs of the people.
e. promote economic and social equality.
The American population in 1900 can best be described as
a. ethnically and racially mixed.
b. reaching nearly 76 million people.
c. one in seven people were foreign-born.
d. None of these
e. All of these
Match each late-nineteenth-century social critic below with the
target of his criticism.
A. Thorstein Veblen 1. "bloated trusts"
B. Jack London 2. slum conditions
C. Jacob Riis 3. "conspicuous consumption"
D. Henry Demarest Lloyd 4. destruction of nature
a. A-4, B-2, C-3, D-1
b. A-1, B-3, C-4, D-2
c. A-3, B-4, C-2, D-1
d. A-3, B-2, C-1, D-4
e. A-2, B-1, C-4, D-3
a. was closely tied to the feminist movement and women's causes.
b. offered little to the growing women's movement.
c. supported better treatment of women but not women's suffrage.
d. saw racial issues as more important than women's issues.
e. reflected the views of working-class women.
Female progressives often justified their reformist political
activities on the basis of
a. the need to assert female power against male oppression.
b. America's need to catch up with more progressive European nations.
c. women's inherent rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
d. the harsh treatment of working women by employers.
e. their being essentially an extension of women's traditional roles as wives and mothers.
The religious movement that was closely linked to progressivism
a. the Young Men's and Young Women's Christian Associations.
b. the missionary movement.
c. conservative evangelicalism.
d. the Social Gospel.
e. the Catholic Action movement.
Match each early-twentieth-century muckraker below with the target of
his or her exposé.
A. David G. Phillips 1. the United States Senate
B. Ida Tarbell 2. the Standard Oil Company
C. Lincoln Steffens 3. city governments
D. Ray Stannard Baker 4. the condition of blacks
a. A-1, B-2, C-3, D-4
b. A-4, B-2, C-3, D-1
c. A-3, B-1, C-2, D-4
d. A-3, B-2, C-4, D-1
e. A-1, B-4, C-2, D-3
Lincoln Steffens, in his series of articles entitled The Shame of the
a. exposed the United States Senate as a millionaires' club.
b. exposed the deplorable condition of blacks in urban areas.
c. laid bare insider trading practices on the stock market.
d. uncovered official collusion in prostitution and white slavery.
e. unmasked the corrupt alliance between big business and municipal government.
Most muckrakers believed that their primary function in the
progressive attack on social ills was to
a. formulate a consistent philosophy of social reform.
b. explain the causes of social ills.
c. devise solutions to society's problems.
d. make the public aware of social problems.
e. link up with movements for social justice.
The leading progressive organization advocating prohibition of liquor
a. the National Consumers League.
b. Hull House.
c. the General Federation of Women's Clubs.
d. the Progressive Party.
e. the Women's Christian Temperance Union.
Progressive reformers included which of the following?
c. Female settlement workers
d. Labor unionists
e. All of these
The Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution was a key progressive
reform designed to
a. end the corrupt and family-destroying influence of the liquor industry.
b. make Senators directly elected and end the Senate millionaire's club.
c. prohibit child labor.
d. guarantee the secret Australian ballot in all federal elections.
e. enable the President to be elected directly by the people rather than by the Electoral
According to progressives, the cure for all of American democracy's
a. technical and scientific expertise.
b. a third political party.
d. a more conservative government.
e. more democracy.
All of the following were prime goals of earnest progressives
a. the direct election of senators.
c. women's suffrage.
d. ending prostitution and white slavery.
e. treating women in the workplace exactly the same as men.
Activists, scholars and politicians mused about why socialism did not
take hold in America, giving all
of the following as reasons except
a. American workers' refusal to see themselves as a separate class.
b. the western frontier provided a safety valve that allowed workers to leave oppressive
c. law and government policy prevented workers from uniting and protesting.
d. workers' remarkably high standard of living.
e. workers had full political economy long before the forces of industrialization developed.
By 1910, all of the following were true about women's efforts to gain
the vote except
a. Progressives supported the movement.
b. reformers embraced votes for women as a way to elevate the political tone.
c. Prohibitionists thought they could count of votes of enfranchised women.
d. a federal amendment granting the right to vote was about to be passed.
e. states in the West had gradually extended the vote to women.
The settlement house and women's club movements were crucial centers
of female progressive activity
a. provided literary and philosophical perspectives on social questions.
b. broke down the idea that women had special concerns as wives and mothers.
c. introduced many middle-class women to a broader array of urban social problems and
d. helped slum children learn to read Dante and Shakespeare.
e. became the launching pads for women seeking political office.
Which of the following was not among the issues addressed by women in
the progressive movement?
a. Ending special regulations governing women in the workplace
b. Preventing child labor in factories and sweatshops
c. Ensuring that food products were healthy and safe
d. Attacking tuberculosis and other diseases bred in slum tenements
e. Creating child care subsidies for working mothers with preschool children
In Muller v. Oregon, the Supreme Court upheld the principle promoted
by progressives like Florence
Kelley and Louis Brandeis that
a. child labor under the age of fourteen should be prohibited.
b. the federal government should regulate occupational safety and health.
c. women's factory labor should be limited to ten hours a day five days a week.
d. female workers should receive equal pay for equal work.
e. female workers required special rules and protection on the job.
The public outcry after the horrible Triangle Shirtwaist fire led
many states to pass
a. laws requiring mandatory fire escape for all businesses employing more than ten people.
b. laws prohibiting women from working in the needle trades.
c. antisweatshop and workers' compensation laws for job injuries.
d. zoning regulations governing where dangerous industrial factories could be located.
e. laws guaranteeing unions the right to raise safety concerns.
The case of Lochner v. New York represented a setback for
progressives and labor advocates because
in its ruling, the Supreme Court
a. declared a law limiting work to ten hours a day unconstitutional.
b. declared unconstitutional a law providing special protection for women workers.
c. declared that prohibiting child labor would require a constitutional amendment.
d. upheld the constitutionality of a law enabling business to fire labor organizers.
e. ruled that fire and safety regulations were local and not state or federal concerns.
Activists in the anti-liquor campaigns saw saloons and alcohol as
intimately linked with
b. drunken voters.
c. crooked city officials, paid off by liquor companies.
d. All of these
e. None of these
The progressive-inspired city-manager system of government
a. brought democracy to urban dwellers.
b. was developed in Wisconsin.
c. was designed to remove politics from municipal administration.
d. made giant strides under the leadership of Hiram Johnson.
e. opened urban politics to new immigrants.
Progressive reform at the level of city government seemed to indicate
that the progressives' highest
a. democratic participation.
b. governmental efficiency.
c. free enterprise.
d. economic equality.
e. urban planning.
While president, Theodore Roosevelt chose to label his reform
proposals as the
a. Fair Deal.
b. Big Deal.
c. Big Stick.
d. New Deal.
e. Square Deal.
As a part of his reform program, Teddy Roosevelt advocated all of the
a. guaranteed recognition of labor unions.
b. federal regulation of corporations.
c. consumer protection.
d. conservation of natural resources.
e. federal regulation of railroad rates and an end to shipping rebates.
Teddy Roosevelt helped to end the 1902 strike in the anthracite coal
a. using the military to force the miners back to work.
b. passing legislation making the miners' union illegal.
c. helping the mine owners to import strike-breakers.
d. appealing to mine owners' and workers' sense of the public interest.
e. threatening to seize the mines and to operate them with federal troops.
The Elkins and Hepburn Acts were designed to
a. regulate municipal utilities and end private utility monopolies.
b. guarantee the purity of food and drugs.
c. provide federal protection for natural resources.
d. improve women's working conditions.
e. end corrupt and exploitative practices by the railroad trusts.
Teddy Roosevelt believed that large corporate trusts
a. had to all be busted up if the American economy were to thrive.
b. were essential to American national power and economic growth.
c. were simply too powerful to be broken up or regulated.
d. were bad only if they acted as monopolies against the public interest.
e. should be balanced by strong labor unions.
The real purpose of Teddy Roosevelt's assault on trusts was
a. fragment the political power of big business.
b. prove that the democratic federal government, not private business, governed the United
c. halt the trend toward combination and integration in business.
d. establish himself as a bigger trustbuster than William Howard Taft.
e. inspire confidence in small business owners.
President Roosevelt believed that the federal government should adopt
a policy of ____ trusts.
d. collusion with
Passage of the Federal Meat Inspection Act was inspired by the
a. Theodore Dreiser's The Titan.
b. Jack London's The Call of the Wild.
c. Henry Demarest Lloyd's Wealth Against Commonwealth.
d. Jacob Riis's How the Other Half Lives.
e. Upton Sinclair's The Jungle.
When Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle, he intended his book to focus
attention on the
a. unsanitary conditions that existed in the meat-packing industry.
b. plight of workers in the stockyards and meat-packing industry.
c. corruption in the United States Senate.
d. deplorable conditions in the drug industry.
e. unhealthy effects of beef consumption.
The Newlands Act, passed under Theodore Roosevelt's administration,
was designed to
a. restore abandoned toxic mining sites for agricultural use.
b. open new federal lands to sustainable forestry.
c. reclaim and irrigate unproductive lands.
d. provide protection for fragile western wilderness areas.
e. preserve clean water in the mountain West.
The first people to work toward preserving nature and the environment
a. typically members of the upper classes.
b. Native Americans.
c. primarily women.
d. followers and supporters of Theodore Roosevelt.
e. cattle ranchers in the Dakotas.
According to the text, Teddy Roosevelt's most important and enduring
achievement may have been
a. building the Panama Canal.
b. busting the corporate monopoly trusts.
c. mediating an end to the Russo-Japanese War.
d. conserving American resources and protecting the environment.
e. protecting the American consumer.
The multiple-use conservationists generally believed that
a. preserving scenic beauty and natural wonders was compatible with human activity.
b. the environment could be effectively protected without shutting it off to human use.
c. forests and rivers could be used for recreation but not for economic purposes.
d. federal lands should be divided into economically useful areas, recreational areas, and
e. cattlemen, lumbermen, and farmers should all develop sustainable use policies.
The western preservationists suffered their worst political setback
a. California refused to control suburban sprawl into fragile mountain and desert areas.
b. private developers were allowed to cut off public access to the Pacific Coast beaches.
c. the city of Los Angeles built canals to bring water from the Sierra Nevada Mountains.
d. the Yosemite National Park was opened to motor vehicles.
e. California's Hetch Hetchy Valley was dammed to supply water to San Francisco.
Teddy Roosevelt weakened himself politically after his election in
1904 when he
a. got into a quarrel with his popular secretary of war, William Taft.
b. refused to do anything in response to the Roosevelt Panic.
c. supported the Federal Reserve Act.
d. began to reduce his trust-busting activity.
e. announced that he would not be a candidate for a third term as president.
The Panic of 1907 exposed the need for substantial reform in
a. U.S. banking and currency policies.
b. tariff policies.
c. water and land-use protection.
d. the practice of corporate interlocking directorates.
e. Wall Street stock-trading
Theodore Roosevelt is probably most accurately described as
a. ardent defender of American individualism.
c. middle-of-the-road reformer.
d. champion trustbuster.
e. political elitist.
While president, Theodore Roosevelt
a. enhanced the power and prestige of the presidency.
b. displayed little skill in getting his legislation through Congress.
c. relied more on insider political skills than on public opinion.
d. was highly popular with the business community.
e. held rigidly to ideological principles.
During his presidency, Teddy Roosevelt did all of the following
a. expand presidential power.
b. shape the progressive movement.
c. aid the cause of the environment.
d. make the federal government a neutral force between business and labor.
e. substantially weaken corporate capitalism.
As president, William Howard Taft
a. was a good judge of public opinion.
b. held together the diverse wings of the Republican party.
c. was wedded more to the status quo than to progressive change.
d. adopted a confrontational attitude toward Congress.
e. carried on the legacy of Theodore Roosevelt.
President Taft's foreign policy was dubbed
a. big-stick diplomacy.
b. the Open Door policy.
c. the Good Neighbor policy.
d. dollar diplomacy.
e. sphere-of-influence diplomacy.
The Supreme Court's rule of reason in antitrust law was handed down
in a case involving
a. Northern Securities.
b. United States Steel.
c. General Electric.
d. Armour Meat-Packing.
e. Standard Oil.
Teddy Roosevelt decided to run for the presidency in 1912
a. William Howard Taft had seemed to discard Roosevelt's progressive policies.
b. Taft decided not to run for a second term.
c. Woodrow Wilson appeared to be a very strong Democratic candidate.
d. Senator Robert La Follette encouraged him to do so.
e. the Democratic party was split.