chapter 26 Flashcards


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1

In post-Civil War America, Indians surrendered their lands only when they
a
.
chose to migrate farther west.
b
.
received solemn promises from the government that they would be left alone and
provided with supplies on the remaining land.
c
.
lost their mobility as the whites killed their horses.
d
.
were allowed to control the supply of food and other staples to the reservations.
e
.
traded land for rifles and blankets.

B

2

For Native Americans in the West, tribes were
a
.
the way they perceived their differences with other Indian groups.
b
.
a system of socially organizing themselves.
c
.
a fiction of the white imagination.
d
.
a better alternative to the scattered bands that they had had in the past.
e
.
None of these

C

3

In the warfare that raged between the Indians and the American military after the Civil War,
a
.
the Indians were never as well armed as the soldiers.
b
.
the U.S. army was able to dominate with its superior technology.
c
.
there was often great cruelty and massacres on both sides.
d
.
Indians proved to be no match for the soldiers.
e
.
Indians and soldiers seldom came into face-to-face combat.

C

4

The Buffalo Soldiers were
a
.
U. S. Army units who survived on the plains by killing buffalo.
b
.
African American cavalry and soldiers who served in the frontier wars.
c Soldiers who sought to defeat the Indians by depriving them of their primary food

. supply.
d
.
Soldiers who were killed in the Fetterman massacre.
e
.
Military officials who criticized George M. Custer's tactics.

B

5

The Indians battled whites for all the following reasons except to
a
.
rescue their families who had been exiled to Oklahoma.
b
.
avenge savage massacres of Indians by whites.
c
.
punish whites for breaking treaties.
d
.
defend their lands against white invaders.
e
.
preserve their nomadic way of life against forced settlement.

A

6

Match each Indian chief below with his tribe.
A
.
Chief Joseph 1. Apache
B. Sitting Bull 2. Cheyenne
C. Geronimo 3. Nez Percé
4. Sioux

a
.
A-1, B-2, C-3
b
.
A-3, B-4, C-1
c
.
A-2, B-4, C-3
d
.
A-4, B-3, C-2
e
.
A-1, B-3, C-4

B

7

As a result of the complete defeat of Captain William Fetterman's command in 1866
a
.
the government sent extensive military reinforcements to the Dakotas and Montana.
b
.
the government abandoned the Bozeman Trail and guaranteed the Sioux their lands.
c
.
the government adopted a policy of civilizing the Indians rather than trying to conquer
them.
d
.
white settlers agreed to halt their expansion beyond the 100 th meridian.
e
.
the conflict between the U.S. army and the Sioux came to a peaceful end.

B

8

A new round of warfare between the Sioux and U.S. Army began in 1874 when
a
.
the U.S. Army decided to retaliate for the Fetterman massacre.
b
.
Sioux Chief Crazy Horse began an effort to drive all whites from Montana and the
Dakotas.
c
.
Colonel George Custer led an expedition to Little Big Horn, Montana.
d
.
Colonel George Custer discovered gold on Sioux land in the Black Hills.
e
.
the federal government announced that it was opening all Sioux lands to settlement.

D

9

The Plains Indians were finally forced to surrender
a
.
because they were decimated by their constant intertribal warfare.
b
.
when they realized that agriculture was more profitable than hunting.
c
.
after such famous leaders as Geronimo and Sitting Bull were killed.
d
.
when the army began using artillery against them.
e
.
by the coming of the railroads and the virtual extermination of the buffalo.

E

10

The Nez Percé Indians of Idaho were goaded into war when
a
.
the Sioux began to migrate onto their land.
b
.
gold was discovered on their reservation.
c
.
the federal government attempted to force them onto a reservation.
d
.
the Canadian government attempted to force their return to the United States.
e
.
their alliance with the Shoshones required it.

C

11

The buffalo were nearly exterminated
a
.
as a result of being overhunted by the Indians.
b
.
when their grasslands were turned into wheat and corn fields.
c
.
when their meat became valued in eastern markets.
d
.
by disease.

e
.
through wholesale butchery by whites.

E

12

All of the following are true statements about Indians who ended up on reservations in the 1870s and
1880s except
a
.
they could theoretically preserve their cultural autonomy.
b
.
they were forced to eke out an existence.
c
.
they became wards of the U.S. government.
d
.
they felt protected by the U.S. government.
e
.
many died from diseases.

D

13

A Century of Dishonor (1881), which chronicled the dismal history of Indian-white relations, was
authored by
a
.
Harriet Beecher Stowe.
b
.
Helen Hunt Jackson.
c
.
Chief Joseph.
d
.
Joseph F. Glidden.
e
.
William F. Cody.

B

14

Helen Hunt Jackson's novel, Ramona, was centered around
a
.
the cruel mistreatment of Indians in California.
b
.
the cheating of Indians by federal agents on the reservations.
c
.
the efforts of Christian reformers to prevent the killing of Indians.
d
.
an Indian girl's attempt to retain her culture in an Indian boarding school.
e
.
the last Indian wars between the U.S. army and the Apaches in the Southwest.

A

15

The nineteenth-century humanitarians who advocated kind treatment of the Indians
a
.
had no more respect for traditional Indian culture than those who sought to exterminate
them.
b
.
advocated allowing the Ghost Dance to continue.
c opposed passage of the Dawes Act.

.
d
.
understood the value of the Indians' religious and cultural practices.
e
.
advocated improving the reservation system.

A

16

To assimilate Indians into American society, the Dawes Act did all of the following except
a
.
dissolve many tribes as legal entities.
b
.
try to make rugged individualists of the Indians.
c
.
wipe out tribal ownership of land.
d
.
promise Indians U.S. citizenship in twenty-five years.
e
.
outlaw the sacred Sun Dance.

E

17

The United States government's outlawing of the Indian Sun (Ghost) Dance in 1890 resulted in the
a
.
Battle of Wounded Knee.
b
.
Sand Creek massacre.
c
.
Battle of Little Big Horn.
d
.
Dawes Severalty Act.
e
.
Carlisle Indian School.

A

18

The Dawes Severalty Act was designed to promote Indian
a
.
prosperity.
b
.
annihilation.
c
.
assimilation.
d
.
culture.
e
.
education.

C

19

Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) Dawes Severalty Act is passed; (B)
Oklahoma land rush takes place; (C) Indians are granted full citizenship; and (D) Congress restores the
tribal basis of Indian life.
a
.
A, B, C, D

b
.
B, A, C, D
c
.
A, D, B, C
d
.
D, C, A, B
e
.
C, B, D, A

A

20

The largest single source of silver and gold in the frontier of the West was discovered in 1859 in
a
.
Montana.
b
.
the Black Hills of South Dakota.
c
.
California.
d
.
New Mexico.
e
.
Nevada.

E

21

The mining frontier played a vital role in
a
.
bringing law and order to the West.
b
.
attracting the first substantial white population to the West.
c
.
enabling the government to go off the gold standard.
d
.
ensuring that the mining industry would remain in the hands of independent, small
operations.
e
.
forcing the Indians off the Great Plains.

B

22

The bitter conflict between whites and Indians intensified
a
.
during the Civil War.
b
.
as a result of vigilante justice.
c
.
when big business took over the mining industry.
d
.
as the mining frontier expanded.
e after the Battle of Wounded Knee.

D

23

Which of these is NOT a true statement about women on the frontier?
a
.
Women worked as prostitutes on the frontier.
b
.
Some women made money running boarding houses.
c
.
Women earned a kind of equality on the frontier.
d
.
Frontier women got the right to vote much later than women in the East.
e
.
Women found a variety of opportunities in the West.

D

24

The wild frontier towns where the three major cattle trails from Texas ended were
a
.
Kansas City, Kansas; Pueblo, Colorado; and Laramie, Wyoming.
b
.
Tulsa, Oklahoma; Santa Fe, New Mexico; and Denver, Colorado.
c
.
Topeka, Kansas; Omaha, Nebraska; and Casper, Wyoming.
d
.
Abilene, Kansas; Ogalalla, Nebraska; and Cheyenne, Wyoming.
e
.
Atchison, Kansas; Greeley, Colorado; and Bozeman, Montana.

D

25

One major problem with the Homestead Act was that
a
.
the government continued to try to maximize its revenue from public lands.
b
.
160 acres were inadequate for productive farming on the rain-scarce Great Plains.
c
.
midwestern farmers had to give up raising livestock because of stiff competition with the
West.
d
.
most homesteaders knew little or nothing about farming in the West.
e
.
it took several years to earn a profit from farming a homestead.

B

26

Large numbers of Europeans were persuaded to come to America to farm on the northern frontier by
a
.
the Populist party.
b
.
churches and other nonprofit organizations.
c
.
the offer of free homestead land by the U.S. government.
d
.
European governments.

e
.
railroad agents who offered to sell them cheap land.

E

27

All of the following are true statements about the Homestead Act except
a
.
it was consistent with previous government public land policy designed to raise revenue.
b
.
about a half million families carved out new homes in the 40 years after its passage.
c
.
ten times more of the public land ended up in the hands of land speculators than farmers.
d
.
thousands of people didn't last the five years required by the Homestead Act.
e
.
the law was designed to provide a stimulus to the family farm.

A

28

A major problem faced by settlers on the Great Plains in the 1870s was
a
.
the high price of land.
b
.
the low market value of grain.
c
.
the scarcity of water.
d
.
overcrowding.
e
.
the opposition of miners.

C

29

In the long run, the group that probably did the most to shape the modern West was the
a
.
trappers.
b
.
miners.
c
.
railroad men.
d
.
cowboys.
e
.
hydraulic engineers.

E

30

Sooners were settlers who "jumped the gun" in order to
a
.
pan gold in California.
b
.
stake claims in the Comstock Lode in Nevada.
c
.
claim land in Oklahoma before the territory was legally opened to settlement.

d
.
drive the first cattle to Montana and Wyoming.
e
.
grab town sites in the Dakotas.

C

31

Among the following, the least likely to migrate to the cattle and farming frontier were
a
.
eastern city dwellers.
b
.
eastern farmers.
c
.
recent immigrants.
d
.
blacks.
e
.
midwestern farmers.

A

32

After exploring much of the West, geologist John Wesley Powell warned in 1874 that
a
.
the rush of settlers was devastating the western environment.
b
.
land west of the 100th meridian could not be farmed without extensive irrigation.
c
.
damming western rivers for irrigation purposes would damage mountains and forests.
d
.
mining was the only industry that could sustain the western economy.
e
.
the cattle industry would eventually falter because of severe western winters.

B

33

In 1890, when the superintendent of the census announced that a stable frontier line was no longer
discernible, Americans were disturbed because
a
.
they knew that the Homestead Act would no longer do them much good.
b
.
they thought that there would be a renewal of Indian warfare.
c
.
the idea of an endlessly open West had been an element of America's history from the
beginning.
d
.
many of them hoped eventually to migrate to the West.
e they feared that an influx of new western states would strengthen the Populists and other

. radicals.

C

34

The safety valve theory that the West dampened class conflict, while exaggerated, did have some
validity because
a
.
free western land did attract many immigrants to the West who might have crowded
urban job markets.
b
.
western farmers tended to be politically more conservative than those in the East.
c
.
wealthy western farmers hired many unemployed laborers from eastern cities.
d
.
eastern city dwellers headed west to get free homesteads during depressions.
e
.
western cities had less class conflict than those in the East.

A

35

Western cities like Denver and San Francisco did serve as a major safety valve by providing
a
.
a home for new immigrants.
b
.
recreational activities for its inhabitants.
c
.
a home for economically struggling farmers, miners, and easterners.
d
.
None of these
e
.
All of these

C

36

In the decades after the Civil War, most American farmers
a
.
became attached to their family farms.
b
.
diversified their crops.
c
.
became increasingly self-sufficient.
d
.
saw their numbers grow as more people moved west.
e
.
grew a single cash crop.

E

37

The root cause of the American farmers problems after 1880 was
a
.
urban growth.
b
.
foreign competition.
c
.
the declining number of farms and farmers.
d the shortage of farm machinery.

.
e
.
low prices and a deflated currency.

E

38

In the last decades of the nineteenth century, the volume of agricultural goods ____, and the price
received for these goods ____.
a
.
increased; decreased
b
.
decreased; increased
c
.
increased; also increased
d
.
decreased; also decreased
e
.
increased; stayed the same.

A

39

Late-nineteenth-century farmers believed that their difficulties stemmed primarily from
a
.
low tariff rates.
b
.
overproduction.
c
.
a deflated currency.
d
.
immigration laws.
e
.
the federal government.

C

40

With agricultural production rising dramatically in the post-Civil War years
a
.
more farmers could purchase land.
b
.
tenant farming spread rapidly throughout the Midwest and South.
c
.
bankruptcies declined.
d
.
western farmers prospered, while southern farmers had grave troubles selling their
cotton.
e
.
the government began encouraging the development of soil banks.

B

41

Farmers were slow to organize and promote their interest because they
a were not well educated.

.
b
.
did not possess the money necessary to establish a national political movement.
c
.
were divided by the wealthier, more powerful manufacturers and railroad barons.
d
.
were too busy trying to eke out a living.
e
.
were, by nature, highly independent and individualistic.

E

42

The first major farmers' organization was the
a
.
National Grange.
b
.
Populists.
c
.
Greenback Labor party.
d
.
Farmers' Alliance.
e
.
American Farm Bureau.

A

43

The original purpose of the Grange was to
a
.
get involved in politics.
b
.
support an inflationary monetary policy.
c
.
stimulate self-improvement through educational and social activities.
d
.
improve the farmers' collective plight.
e
.
support the Homestead law.

C

44

For farm men and women , Granges were a godsend because
a
.
they required members to pitch in and help each other during harvest season.
b
.
the picnics, concerts and lectures they offered helped ease their isolation.
c
.
their secret rituals kept out people they didn't like.
d
.
they sold farming supplies at a deep discount.
e
.
they helped members join together to take advantage of opportunities via the Homestead
Act.

B

45

In several states, farmers helped to pass the Granger Laws, which were designed to
a
.
provide state subsidies for farm exports.
b
.
lower farm mortgage interest rates.
c
.
allow the formation of producer and consumer cooperatives.
d
.
prohibit bankruptcy auctions.
e
.
regulate railroad rates and grain storage fees.

E

46

The Farmers' Alliance was originally formed to
a
.
drive up farm prices by reducing crop production.
b
.
advance agriculturally useful education in state land-grant colleges.
c
.
end the rise of tenant farming.
d
.
undermine eastern bankers by providing low-cost loans to farmers.
e
.
break the economic grip of the railroads through farmers' cooperatives.

E

47

The Farmers' Alliance was especially weakened by
a
.
its political ineptitude.
b
.
its inability to overcome racial divisions in the South.
c
.
corrupt leadership.
d
.
its failure to target landowners.
e
.
regional concentration in the South.

B

48

The Populist party arose as the direct successor to the
a
.
Greenback Labor party.
b
.
Farmers' Alliance.
c
.
Silver Miners' Coalition.
d
.
Liberal Republican party.
e
.
Grange.

B

49

The Populist party's presidential candidate in 1892 was
a
.
James B. Weaver.
b
.
William Jennings Bryan.
c
.
Mary Elizabeth Lease.
d
.
Adlai Stevenson.
e
.
William "Coin" Harvey.

A

50

Which one of the following was not among influential Populist leaders?
a
.
William "Coin" Harvey
b
.
Ignatius Donnelley
c
.
Mary Elizabeth Lease
d
.
James B. Weaver
e
.
Eugene V. Debs

E

51

In a bid to win labor's support, the Populist party
a
.
supported restrictions on immigration.
b
.
nominated Samuel Gompers for president.
c
.
opposed injunctions against labor strikes.
d
.
endorsed workmen's compensation laws.
e
.
proposed a law guaranteeing the right to organize and strike.

C

52

The severe economic depression of the 1890s strengthened the Populists'; argument that
a
.
the abolition of all metallic money in favor of paper was essential.
b
.
white and black farmers had common economic interests
c
.
they should form a progressive coalition with pro-silver Democrats.
d
.
farmers had nothing in common with the residents of industrial cities.
e
.
wage earners and farmers alike were victims of an oppressive economic system.

E

53

During the 1892 presidential election, large numbers of southern white farmers refused to desert the
Democratic Party and support the Populist Party because
a
.
they did not think the Populists represented their political interests.
b
.
they were not experiencing the same hard times as Midwestern farmers.
c
.
the history of racial division in the region made it hard to cooperate with blacks.
d
.
they believed that too many Populists were former Republicans.
e
.
they could not accept the Populist' call for government ownership of the railroads,
telegraph, and telephones.

C

54

Jacob Coxey and his army marched on Washington, D.C., to
a
.
demand a larger military budget.
b
.
protest the repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act.
c
.
demand that the government relieve unemployment with a public works program.
d
.
try to promote a general strike of all workers.
e
.
demand the immediate payment of bonuses to Civil War veterans.

C

55

Which one of the following was least sympathetic to workers and farmers hard-pressed by the
Depression of 1893?
a
.
John P. Altgeld
b
.
Richard Olney
c
.
Eugene V. Debs
d
.
Jacob Coxey
e
.
William Jennings Bryan

B

56

President Grover Cleveland justified federal intervention in the Pullman strike of 1894 on the grounds
that
a
.
the union's leader, Eugene V. Debs, was a socialist.
b
.
strikes against railroads were illegal.
c
.
the strikers were engaging in violent attacks on railroad property.

d
.
shutting down the railroads threatened American national security.
e
.
the strike was preventing the transit of U.S. mail.

E

57

Match each individual with his role in the Pullman strike:
A
.
Richard Olney 1. Head of the American Railway Union that organized the

strike

B. Eugene V. Debs 2. Governor of Illinois who sympathized with the striking

workers

C. George Pullman 3. United States attorney general who brought in federal

troops to crush the strike

D
.
John P. Altgeld 4. Owner of the "palace railroad car" company and the

company town where the strike began

a
.
A-1, B-2, C-4, D-3
b
.
A-2, B-1, C-3, D-4
c
.
A-3, B-1, C-4, D-2
d
.
A-4, B-3, C-2, D-l
e
.
A-2, B-4, C-l, D-3

C

58

Labor unions, Populists, and debtors saw in the brutal Pullman episode
a
.
proof of an alliance between big business, the federal government, and the courts against
working people.
b
.
a strategy by which united working-class action could succeed.
c
.
the need for a socialist party in the United States.
d
.
the potential of the federal government as a counterweight to big business.
e
.
the crucial role of middle-class public opinion in labor conflicts.

A

59

The Pullman strike created the first instance of
a
.
management recognition of the right of workers to organize and strike.
b
.
government use of federal troops to break a labor strike.
c
.
violence during a labor strike.
d
.
a united front between urban workers and agrarian Populists.
e government use of a federal court injunction to break a strike.

E

60

The depression of the 1890s and episodes like the Pullman Strike made the election of 1896 shape up
as a
a
.
battle between down-and-out workers and farmers and establishment conservatives.
b
.
conflict between the insurgent Populists and the two established political parties.
c
.
sectional conflict with the West aligned against the Northeast and South.
d
.
contest over the power of the federal government to manage a modern industrial
economy like the United States.
e
.
clash of cultures between ordinary middle-class Americans and European-oriented
radicals and reformers.

A

61

Which of the following was not among the qualifications that helped William McKinley earn the
Republican presidential nomination in 1896?
a
.
He came from the key electoral swing state of Ohio.
b
.
He had gained a national reputation by sponsoring the high McKinley Tariff Bill.
c
.
He was a likable Civil War veteran.
d
.
He was backed by the skilled political manager and fund raiser Mark Hanna.
e
.
He was an energetic and charismatic campaigner.

E

62

Mark Hanna, the Ohio Republican president-maker, believed that the prime function of the federal
government was to
a
.
defend against foreign enemies.
b
.
maintain a laissez-faire policy.
c
.
not "Rock the boat" of prosperity.
d
.
overturn the trickle down theory of economics.
e
.
provide aid to big business.

E

63

The Democratic party nominee for president in 1896 was ____; the Republicans nominated ____; and
the Populists endorsed ____.
a
.
William McKinley; Mark Hanna; William Jennings Bryan
b
.
William Jennings Bryan; William McKinley; James B. Weaver
c
.
William Jennings Bryan; William McKinley; William Jennings Bryan
d
.
Mark Hanna; William Jennings Bryan; William Jennings Bryan
e
.
William Jennings Bryan; Theodore Roosevelt; William Jennings Bryan

C

64

All of the following characteristics describe William Jennings Bryan in 1896 except he
a
.
disliked the concept of class conflict.
b
.
was very youthful.
c
.
was an energetic and charismatic campaigner.
d
.
was an excellent orator.
e
.
radiated honesty and sincerity.

A

65

William Jennings Bryan gained the presidential nomination of the Democratic party primarily because
he
a
.
had already gained the nomination of the Populist party.
b
.
had the support of urban workers.
c
.
possessed a brilliant political mind.
d
.
eloquently supported the farmers' demand for the unlimited coinage of silver.
e
.
was backed by the Democratic Party establishment.

D

66

In the election of 1896, the major issue became
a
.
restoration of protective tariffs.
b
.
enactment of an income tax.
c
.
government programs for those unemployed as a result of the depression.
d the rights of farmers and industrial workers.

.
e
.
free and unlimited coinage of silver.

E

67

One key to the Republican victory in the 1896 presidential election was
a
.
McKinley's ability to create divisions between western and southern farmers.
b
.
the huge financial and propaganda effort of Mark Hanna and the Republicans.
c
.
McKinley's ability to make the tariff issue more important than free silver.
d
.
the wide travel and numerous speeches made by William McKinley.
e
.
the ability of Republicans to disrupt the solid South.

B

68

The strongest ally of Mark Hanna and the Republicans in the 1896 presidential election was
a
.
the drop in wheat prices.
b
.
McKinley's vigorous campaigning.
c
.
fear of the alleged radicalism of William Jennings Bryan and his free silver cause.
d
.
the nearly unanimous support of the nation's trained economists.
e
.
the divisions in the Democratic Party.

C

69

The 1896 presidential election marked the last time that
a
.
rural America would defeat urban America.
b
.
the South remained solid for the Democratic party.
c
.
a third-party candidate had a serious chance at the White House.
d
.
factory workers would favor inflation.
e
.
a serious effort to win the White House would be made with mostly agrarian votes.

E

70

The 1896 victory of William McKinley ushered in a long period of Republican dominance that was
accompanied by
a
.
diminishing voter participation in elections.
b
.
strengthening of party organizations.
c greater concern over civil-service reform.

.
d
.
less concern for industrial regulation.
e
.
sharpened conflict between business and labor.

A

71

As president, William McKinley can best be described as
a
.
cautious and conservative.
b
.
a man of little ability.
c
.
an active reformer.
d
.
a person willing to go against the opinion of the majority.
e
.
a skillful negotiator.

A

72

The monetary inflation needed to relieve the social and economic hardships of the late nineteenth
century eventually came as a result of
a
.
the Gold Standard Act.
b
.
McKinley's adoption of the bimetallic standard.
c
.
an increase in the international gold supply.
d
.
Populist fusion with the Democratic party.
e
.
the creation of the Federal Reserve Board.

C