According to Erikson, the final psychological conflict, __________,
involves coming to terms with
C) ego integrity versus despair
In a study that followed a sample of women diverse in SES throughout
predicted ego integrity in late adulthood.
B) midlife generativity
Seventy-year-old Isabel’s life goals emphasized money and prestige. She is likely to __________.
A) fear the end of life
According to Erikson, __________ occurs when aging adults feel they have made many wrong decisions, yet time is too short to find an alternate route to integrity.
Mr. Suko is 80 years old. He is argumentative, bitter, and regretful.
He has a tendency to blame others
for his personal failures. According to Erikson, Mr. Suko’s behavior disguises __________.
According to Robert Peck, __________ involves affirming self-worth
through family, friendships, or
community life for those who invested heavily in their careers.
A) ego differentiation
Neil, age 73, has learned to focus on his psychological strengths. He
overcomes his physical limitations
by emphasizing the compensating rewards of cognitive, emotional, and social powers. According to Peck,
Neil has attained __________.
C) body transcendence
While 80-year-old Naomi’s contemporaries have died, she faces the
reality of death constructively
through efforts to make life more secure, meaningful, and gratifying for younger generations. According
to Peck, Naomi has attained __________.
A) ego transcendence
Research suggests that as people grow older, __________.
C) both body transcendence and ego transcendence increase
Erikson’s widow, Joan Erikson, suggested an additional stage of
psychosocial development called
As he approached his ninetieth year, Franco spent more time in quiet
reflection. He had a heightened
inner calm and contentment. According to Joan Erikson, Franco had reached __________.
Emme selectively attends to and better recalls emotionally positive
over negative information. Emme
has the ability to maximize positive emotion and dampen negative emotion. This ability is known as
D) the positivity effect
When they cannot avoid negative experiences, older adults are especially effective at __________.
C) emotion-centered coping
Which statement is true about reminiscence?
B) Research reveals no age differences in total quantity of reminiscing.
Tessa tells stories about people and events from her past and shares
associated thoughts and feelings.
Tessa engages in __________.
Contemporary older people in industrialized nations are largely __________.
C) present- and future-oriented
__________ reminiscence is linked to adjustment problems.
Marlon, an extraverted 75-year-old, reminisces about his wife, who
passed away when Marlon was 56.
He enjoys reliving his relationship with his wife. Marlon engages in __________ reminiscence.
Older adults who score high in openness to experience engage, at
times, in __________ reminiscence,
drawing on their past for effective problem-solving strategies.
For young and old alike, reminiscence __________.
C) often occurs during times of life transition
The autobiographical selves of older adults are more likely than
those of younger adults to emphasize
B) coherence and consistency
Researchers ask 85-year-old Gerald to respond to the question, “Who
am I?” Gerald is likely to
C) more positive than negative self-evaluations
Marion, age 78, has come to terms with life despite its
imperfections. She has become increasingly
generous, acquiescent, and good-natured. Marion shows gains in __________.
Older adults who are high in __________ tend to cope poorly with
stressful events and are at risk for
The late-life increase in religiosity is __________.
B) usually modest
Which older adult is more likely to be involved in both organized and informal religious activities?
D) Jarrod, a low-SES African American
Which statement is true about sex differences in religious
involvement and spirituality in late
A) Women are more likely than men to engage in religious activities.
Charise, age 74, is involved in organized religion. Longitudinal
research suggests that Charise will
__________ than her agemates who do not participate in organized or informal religion.
C) live longer
In some research, religious activity—not religious belief or membership in a congregation—was associated with __________ following negative life events.
A) declines in distress
Evidence indicates that among religious older people, __________
contributes substantially to higher
self-esteem, optimism, and life satisfaction.
B) belief in God’s powers
May stops by her mother June’s house every day. If June is having
trouble getting dressed or making
the bed, then May helps her, and the two women chat while they work. May’s behavior toward June
illustrates the __________ script.
August stops by his mother April’s house every week. If April has no
trouble with tasks like making coffee or unloading the dishwasher,
then August withdraws. August’s behavior toward April illustrates
Ida is mostly self-reliant. She experiences no difficulty with daily
activities. Ida probably views social
contact as __________.
D) highly satisfying
Which statement is true about social contact among older adults?
A) Among older adults who have trouble performing daily activities,
social contact is frequently
associated with a less positive everyday existence.
Risk for depression rises as physical disability leads to
B) increased social isolation
More than __________, __________ predict(s) depressive symptoms.
C) actual physical limitations; perceived negative physical health
Which statement is true about suicide in late adulthood?
B) Failed suicides are much rarer in old age than in adolescence.
The chances of suicide are elevated when a sick older person __________.
A) is socially isolated
Older __________ more often say that __________.
D) women; others depend on them for emotional support
__________ promotes longevity.
B) Availability of social support
Which statement is true about formal support for older adults?
A) Formal support spares older adults from feeling overly dependent in their close relationships.
Lela, age 81, has lived in her own apartment since her husband died
six years ago. Lately, she has
been having difficulty with tasks of daily living. Lela’s family and friends want to help. For social support
to foster her well-being, __________.
B) Lela must take personal control of it
Harriet can handle dressing, shopping, and food preparation by
herself. However, Harriet allows her
daughter Ada to assist with these activities, leaving Harriet more stamina for gardening. Harriet is
managing her aging by __________.
D) freeing up energy for endeavors that are personally satisfying
__________ is associated with a positive outlook in older adults with disabilities.
A) Perceived social support
Shenita, a retired drama teacher, spends a lot of her time
volunteering at a local community theater.
She also enjoys weekend trips to see plays with her former colleagues. Shenita’s activities are consistent
with the __________ theory of aging.
Striving for continuity is essential for attaining Erikson’s sense of
__________, which depends on
preserving a sense of personal history.
C) ego integrity
As Salvatore grows older, he feels closer to his siblings and more
connected with his spouse. At 85,
his contact with acquaintances has diminished and he is left with a few very close relationships. He is not
terribly interested in forming any new social ties. Salvatore’s behavior is consistent with __________
D) socioemotional selectivity
Older adults emphasize the __________ function of interaction.
Which older adult is likely to fare better in terms of health and income?
D) Ciera, who lives in an urban area
Overwhelmingly, aging adults in Western nations __________.
C) remain living in or near their old home
In the United States, about 4 percent of aging adults __________.
B) relocate to other communities
The primary reason more older adults in Western countries live on
their own today than ever before is
D) improved health and economic well-being
Which adult child is likely to feel an especially strong obligation to care for an aging parent?
C) Anna, who is of Polish descent
Camila’s health is declining. Her son Santiago asked her to move in
with him, but Camila refused.
__________ theory helps explain Camila’s desire to live where many of her memorable life events took
Which aging American is most likely to be poverty-stricken?
A) Shani, a widowed woman
Harry lives in a complex that provides a variety of support services,
including meals in a common
dining room, recreational activities, and transportation assistance, but does not offer nursing care. Harry
lives in a(n) __________.
A) independent living community
Life-care communities __________.
B) offer a range of housing alternatives, from independent living to full nursing home care
Older adults who feel socially integrated into a residential community setting are __________.
C) more likely to consider it their home
Forrest lives in a Green House-style nursing home. Compared with a
traditional nursing home
resident, Forrest will probably __________.
B) report a substantially better quality of life
With age, ships in the social convoy __________.
C) exchange places
Which statement is true about marriage in late adulthood?
B) As in early and middle adulthood, paths of late-life marital satisfaction are diverse.
When marital dissatisfaction exists in later life, __________.
C) it often takes a greater toll on women than on men
Which statement is true about lesbian and gay partnerships in late adulthood?
B) Compared with same-sex couples not in a legally recognized
relationship, sexual minority couples who
are married are advantaged in physical and psychological well-being.
Divorce among people age 65 and older has __________ over the past three decades.
Compared with younger adults, older adults who divorce __________.
C) seldom express regret over leaving an unhappy marriage
Ethel, age 65, and Raymond, age 72, cohabit. If they are typical of
cohabiting older adults, which
statement is most likely true?
B) They are as satisfied with their partnered lives as are their married counterparts.
David’s wife, Esther, recently died. If David is like most recently
widowed older adults, his greatest
problem is most likely __________.
A) profound loneliness
Which statement is true about widowhood?
C) Ethnic minorities with high rates of poverty and chronic disease are more likely to be widowed.
Which older adult is more likely to show physical and mental health
problems following the death of a
A) Albert, whose wife’s death was unexpected
Women’s __________ may lead them to feel less need to remarry following the death of a spouse.
A) kinkeeper role
__________ are key in never-married older women’s lives.
C) Same-sex friendships
Never-married, childless men are more likely than women to __________.
C) feel lonely and depressed
Overall, never-married older people report a level of well-being
equivalent to that of __________
Both men and women describe closer bonds with __________ than with __________.
B) sisters; brothers
Typically, aging siblings __________.
C) visit at least several times a year
Which older adult is most likely to receive sibling support when his health declines?
B) Harrison, who is childless and never married
Which statement is true about late-life friendships?
B) Older adults report more favorable experiences with friends than with family members.
__________ and __________ are basic to meaningful friendships in late adulthood.
C) Intimacy; companionship
With age, older adults report that the friends they feel the closest to __________.
A) live in the same community
Compared with younger people, older adults report fewer __________ friends.
Mr. Dugan belongs to an older adult lunch club. The other members of
the club, while not intimates,
are Mr. Dugan’s __________ friends.
Lyle and Nora are in their early seventies and live in their own
home. If they are typical of Western
older adults in their relationship with their adult children, Lyle and Nora probably __________.
C) give more than they receive in financial and practical assistance
For parents age 75 and older, adult children’s __________ is
beneficial, fostering self-esteem and
sense of family connection.
D) moderate support, with opportunities to reciprocate,
Figures underestimate the actual incidence of elder abuse because __________.
D) most abusive acts take place in private, and victims are often unable or unwilling to complain
Carmen, age 82, lives with her son Lance, who regularly fails to
fulfill needed caregiving obligations.
As a result, Carmen often lacks medication, fails to eat meals, and feels isolated. Carmen is a victim of
A) physical neglect
__________ are the most frequently reported types of elder abuse.
C) Financial abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect
Overwhelmed, Monica abandoned her frail, disabled grandmother in the
waiting area of a hospital
emergency room. Monica’s act is referred to in the media as __________.
A) granny dumping
The more negative a caregiver–recipient relationship, __________.
B) the greater the risk of elder abuse of all kinds
Abusers who are paid caregivers or professionals rendering other services are usually __________.
C) amiable but manipulative
Which statement is true about the risk factors of elder maltreatment?
A) Perpetrators of abuse are often dependent, emotionally or financially, on their victims.
Irrespective of financial need, the age of retirement is rising in
the United States and Western nations
B) most baby boomers say they want to work longer
Today, retirement __________.
C) is a dynamic process with multiple transitions serving different purposes
Bridge employment seems to have a favorable impact on psychological
well-being only when people
B) engage in work related to their former career
Which older worker is likely to retire first?
Joseph, who works in a blue-collar job
Contemporary older people view retirement as __________.
A) a time of opportunity and personal growth
Which statement is true about retirement satisfaction?
C) Retirement can enhance marital satisfaction by granting husband
and wife more time for
Arthur is looking forward to having more time for leisure pursuits
after retirement. He is excited about
trying out new options. Arthur should know that leisure activities pursued during retirement typically
focus on __________.
D) things that have been lifelong interests
Retired adults who are __________ are more engaged in leisure activities and volunteer service.
C) high in self-efficacy
Which statement is true about the volunteer activities of aging adults?
B) Of those older adults who volunteer, over half give 200 or more hours per year.
Older adults volunteering with Experience Corps acquire skills in __________.
C) tutoring and behavior management of children
Which statement is true about Experience Corps?
B) Volunteers show changes in fMRI brain activity that coincide with gains in executive function.
Mercedes and Sean work hard to maintain their vitality and are able
to limit their age-related declines
in physical, cognitive, and social functioning. Mercedes and Sean fit contemporary experts’ view of
D) successful aging
__________ aging reflects the reality that aging well involves not
only achievement of desirable
outcomes but also effective coping with life’s challenges and losses.
According to George Vaillant, which factor outweighs the others with
regard to predicting a happy,
active old age?
C) effective coping strategies
Aging well is __________.
A) facilitated by societal contexts that promote effective person–environment fit