AAD CH 18

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1

According to Erikson, the final psychological conflict, __________, involves coming to terms with
one’s life.

C) ego integrity versus despair

2

In a study that followed a sample of women diverse in SES throughout adulthood, __________
predicted ego integrity in late adulthood.

B) midlife generativity

3

Seventy-year-old Isabel’s life goals emphasized money and prestige. She is likely to __________.

A) fear the end of life

4

According to Erikson, __________ occurs when aging adults feel they have made many wrong decisions, yet time is too short to find an alternate route to integrity.

B) despair

5

Mr. Suko is 80 years old. He is argumentative, bitter, and regretful. He has a tendency to blame others
for his personal failures. According to Erikson, Mr. Suko’s behavior disguises __________.

D) self-contempt

6

According to Robert Peck, __________ involves affirming self-worth through family, friendships, or
community life for those who invested heavily in their careers.

A) ego differentiation

7

Neil, age 73, has learned to focus on his psychological strengths. He overcomes his physical limitations
by emphasizing the compensating rewards of cognitive, emotional, and social powers. According to Peck,
Neil has attained __________.

C) body transcendence

8

While 80-year-old Naomi’s contemporaries have died, she faces the reality of death constructively
through efforts to make life more secure, meaningful, and gratifying for younger generations. According
to Peck, Naomi has attained __________.

A) ego transcendence

9

Research suggests that as people grow older, __________.

C) both body transcendence and ego transcendence increase

10

Erikson’s widow, Joan Erikson, suggested an additional stage of psychosocial development called
__________.

A) gerotranscendence

11

As he approached his ninetieth year, Franco spent more time in quiet reflection. He had a heightened
inner calm and contentment. According to Joan Erikson, Franco had reached __________.

C) gerotranscendence

12

Emme selectively attends to and better recalls emotionally positive over negative information. Emme
has the ability to maximize positive emotion and dampen negative emotion. This ability is known as
__________.

D) the positivity effect

13

When they cannot avoid negative experiences, older adults are especially effective at __________.

C) emotion-centered coping

14

Which statement is true about reminiscence?

B) Research reveals no age differences in total quantity of reminiscing.

15

Tessa tells stories about people and events from her past and shares associated thoughts and feelings.
Tessa engages in __________.

C) reminiscence

16

Contemporary older people in industrialized nations are largely __________.

C) present- and future-oriented

17

__________ reminiscence is linked to adjustment problems.

B) Self-focused

18

Marlon, an extraverted 75-year-old, reminisces about his wife, who passed away when Marlon was 56.
He enjoys reliving his relationship with his wife. Marlon engages in __________ reminiscence.

B) other-focused

19

Older adults who score high in openness to experience engage, at times, in __________ reminiscence,
drawing on their past for effective problem-solving strategies.

C) knowledge-based

20

For young and old alike, reminiscence __________.

C) often occurs during times of life transition

21

The autobiographical selves of older adults are more likely than those of younger adults to emphasize
__________.

B) coherence and consistency

22

Researchers ask 85-year-old Gerald to respond to the question, “Who am I?” Gerald is likely to
express __________.

C) more positive than negative self-evaluations

23

Marion, age 78, has come to terms with life despite its imperfections. She has become increasingly
generous, acquiescent, and good-natured. Marion shows gains in __________.

B) agreeableness

24

Older adults who are high in __________ tend to cope poorly with stressful events and are at risk for
health problems.

A) neuroticism

25

The late-life increase in religiosity is __________.

B) usually modest

26

Which older adult is more likely to be involved in both organized and informal religious activities?

D) Jarrod, a low-SES African American

27

Which statement is true about sex differences in religious involvement and spirituality in late
adulthood?

A) Women are more likely than men to engage in religious activities.

28

Charise, age 74, is involved in organized religion. Longitudinal research suggests that Charise will
__________ than her agemates who do not participate in organized or informal religion.

C) live longer

29

In some research, religious activity—not religious belief or membership in a congregation—was associated with __________ following negative life events.

A) declines in distress

30

Evidence indicates that among religious older people, __________ contributes substantially to higher
self-esteem, optimism, and life satisfaction.

B) belief in God’s powers

31

May stops by her mother June’s house every day. If June is having trouble getting dressed or making
the bed, then May helps her, and the two women chat while they work. May’s behavior toward June
illustrates the __________ script.

A) dependency–support

32

August stops by his mother April’s house every week. If April has no trouble with tasks like making coffee or unloading the dishwasher, then August withdraws. August’s behavior toward April illustrates the
__________ script.

B) independence–ignore

33

Ida is mostly self-reliant. She experiences no difficulty with daily activities. Ida probably views social
contact as __________.

D) highly satisfying

34

Which statement is true about social contact among older adults?

A) Among older adults who have trouble performing daily activities, social contact is frequently
associated with a less positive everyday existence.

35

Risk for depression rises as physical disability leads to

B) increased social isolation

36

More than __________, __________ predict(s) depressive symptoms.

C) actual physical limitations; perceived negative physical health

37

Which statement is true about suicide in late adulthood?

B) Failed suicides are much rarer in old age than in adolescence.

38

The chances of suicide are elevated when a sick older person __________.

A) is socially isolated

39

Older __________ more often say that __________.

D) women; others depend on them for emotional support

40

__________ promotes longevity.

B) Availability of social support

41

Which statement is true about formal support for older adults?

A) Formal support spares older adults from feeling overly dependent in their close relationships.

42

Lela, age 81, has lived in her own apartment since her husband died six years ago. Lately, she has
been having difficulty with tasks of daily living. Lela’s family and friends want to help. For social support
to foster her well-being, __________.

B) Lela must take personal control of it

43

Harriet can handle dressing, shopping, and food preparation by herself. However, Harriet allows her
daughter Ada to assist with these activities, leaving Harriet more stamina for gardening. Harriet is
managing her aging by __________.

D) freeing up energy for endeavors that are personally satisfying

44

__________ is associated with a positive outlook in older adults with disabilities.

A) Perceived social support

45

Shenita, a retired drama teacher, spends a lot of her time volunteering at a local community theater.
She also enjoys weekend trips to see plays with her former colleagues. Shenita’s activities are consistent
with the __________ theory of aging.

A) continuity

46

Striving for continuity is essential for attaining Erikson’s sense of __________, which depends on
preserving a sense of personal history.

C) ego integrity

47

As Salvatore grows older, he feels closer to his siblings and more connected with his spouse. At 85,
his contact with acquaintances has diminished and he is left with a few very close relationships. He is not
terribly interested in forming any new social ties. Salvatore’s behavior is consistent with __________
theory.

D) socioemotional selectivity

48

Older adults emphasize the __________ function of interaction.

B) emotion-regulating

49

Which older adult is likely to fare better in terms of health and income?

D) Ciera, who lives in an urban area

50

Overwhelmingly, aging adults in Western nations __________.

C) remain living in or near their old home

51

In the United States, about 4 percent of aging adults __________.

B) relocate to other communities

52

The primary reason more older adults in Western countries live on their own today than ever before is
__________.

D) improved health and economic well-being

53

Which adult child is likely to feel an especially strong obligation to care for an aging parent?

C) Anna, who is of Polish descent

54

Camila’s health is declining. Her son Santiago asked her to move in with him, but Camila refused.
__________ theory helps explain Camila’s desire to live where many of her memorable life events took
place.

C) Continuity

55

Which aging American is most likely to be poverty-stricken?

A) Shani, a widowed woman

56

Harry lives in a complex that provides a variety of support services, including meals in a common
dining room, recreational activities, and transportation assistance, but does not offer nursing care. Harry
lives in a(n) __________.

A) independent living community

57

Life-care communities __________.

B) offer a range of housing alternatives, from independent living to full nursing home care

58

Older adults who feel socially integrated into a residential community setting are __________.

C) more likely to consider it their home

59

Forrest lives in a Green House-style nursing home. Compared with a traditional nursing home
resident, Forrest will probably __________.

B) report a substantially better quality of life

60

With age, ships in the social convoy __________.

C) exchange places

61

Which statement is true about marriage in late adulthood?

B) As in early and middle adulthood, paths of late-life marital satisfaction are diverse.

62

When marital dissatisfaction exists in later life, __________.

C) it often takes a greater toll on women than on men

63

Which statement is true about lesbian and gay partnerships in late adulthood?

B) Compared with same-sex couples not in a legally recognized relationship, sexual minority couples who
are married are advantaged in physical and psychological well-being.

64

Divorce among people age 65 and older has __________ over the past three decades.

D) quadrupled

65

Compared with younger adults, older adults who divorce __________.

C) seldom express regret over leaving an unhappy marriage

66

Ethel, age 65, and Raymond, age 72, cohabit. If they are typical of cohabiting older adults, which
statement is most likely true?

B) They are as satisfied with their partnered lives as are their married counterparts.

67

David’s wife, Esther, recently died. If David is like most recently widowed older adults, his greatest
problem is most likely __________.

A) profound loneliness

68

Which statement is true about widowhood?

C) Ethnic minorities with high rates of poverty and chronic disease are more likely to be widowed.

69

Which older adult is more likely to show physical and mental health problems following the death of a
spouse?

A) Albert, whose wife’s death was unexpected

70

Women’s __________ may lead them to feel less need to remarry following the death of a spouse.

A) kinkeeper role

71

__________ are key in never-married older women’s lives.

C) Same-sex friendships

72

Never-married, childless men are more likely than women to __________.

C) feel lonely and depressed

73

Overall, never-married older people report a level of well-being equivalent to that of __________
aging adults.

B) married

74

Both men and women describe closer bonds with __________ than with __________.

B) sisters; brothers

75

Typically, aging siblings __________.

C) visit at least several times a year

76

Which older adult is most likely to receive sibling support when his health declines?

B) Harrison, who is childless and never married

77

Which statement is true about late-life friendships?

B) Older adults report more favorable experiences with friends than with family members.

78

__________ and __________ are basic to meaningful friendships in late adulthood.

C) Intimacy; companionship

79

With age, older adults report that the friends they feel the closest to __________.

A) live in the same community

80

Compared with younger people, older adults report fewer __________ friends.

C) other-sex

81

Mr. Dugan belongs to an older adult lunch club. The other members of the club, while not intimates,
are Mr. Dugan’s __________ friends.

D) secondary

82

Lyle and Nora are in their early seventies and live in their own home. If they are typical of Western
older adults in their relationship with their adult children, Lyle and Nora probably __________.

C) give more than they receive in financial and practical assistance

83

For parents age 75 and older, adult children’s __________ is beneficial, fostering self-esteem and
sense of family connection.

D) moderate support, with opportunities to reciprocate,

84

Figures underestimate the actual incidence of elder abuse because __________.

D) most abusive acts take place in private, and victims are often unable or unwilling to complain

85

Carmen, age 82, lives with her son Lance, who regularly fails to fulfill needed caregiving obligations.
As a result, Carmen often lacks medication, fails to eat meals, and feels isolated. Carmen is a victim of
__________.

A) physical neglect

86

__________ are the most frequently reported types of elder abuse.

C) Financial abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect

87

Overwhelmed, Monica abandoned her frail, disabled grandmother in the waiting area of a hospital
emergency room. Monica’s act is referred to in the media as __________.

A) granny dumping

88

The more negative a caregiver–recipient relationship, __________.

B) the greater the risk of elder abuse of all kinds

89

Abusers who are paid caregivers or professionals rendering other services are usually __________.

C) amiable but manipulative

90

Which statement is true about the risk factors of elder maltreatment?

A) Perpetrators of abuse are often dependent, emotionally or financially, on their victims.

91

Irrespective of financial need, the age of retirement is rising in the United States and Western nations
because __________.

B) most baby boomers say they want to work longer

92

Today, retirement __________.

C) is a dynamic process with multiple transitions serving different purposes

93

Bridge employment seems to have a favorable impact on psychological well-being only when people
__________.

B) engage in work related to their former career

94

Which older worker is likely to retire first?

Joseph, who works in a blue-collar job

95

Contemporary older people view retirement as __________.

A) a time of opportunity and personal growth

96

Which statement is true about retirement satisfaction?

C) Retirement can enhance marital satisfaction by granting husband and wife more time for
companionship.

97

Arthur is looking forward to having more time for leisure pursuits after retirement. He is excited about
trying out new options. Arthur should know that leisure activities pursued during retirement typically
focus on __________.

D) things that have been lifelong interests

98

Retired adults who are __________ are more engaged in leisure activities and volunteer service.

C) high in self-efficacy

99

Which statement is true about the volunteer activities of aging adults?

B) Of those older adults who volunteer, over half give 200 or more hours per year.

100

Older adults volunteering with Experience Corps acquire skills in __________.

C) tutoring and behavior management of children

101

Which statement is true about Experience Corps?

B) Volunteers show changes in fMRI brain activity that coincide with gains in executive function.

102

Mercedes and Sean work hard to maintain their vitality and are able to limit their age-related declines
in physical, cognitive, and social functioning. Mercedes and Sean fit contemporary experts’ view of
__________.

D) successful aging

103

__________ aging reflects the reality that aging well involves not only achievement of desirable
outcomes but also effective coping with life’s challenges and losses.

A) Optimal

104

According to George Vaillant, which factor outweighs the others with regard to predicting a happy,
active old age?

C) effective coping strategies

105

Aging well is __________.

A) facilitated by societal contexts that promote effective person–environment fit