AAD CH 17

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1

Ebony, age 88, appears younger than her 77-year-old sister, Desiree. However, Desiree remains active
mentally, whereas Ebony finds it difficult to complete familiar tasks. The sisters’ actual competence and
performance in dealing with life’s challenges indicate their __________ age.

C) functional

2

Improved nutrition, medical treatment, sanitation, and safety have contributed to the dramatic gains in
average __________ in the United States in the last 100 years.

B) life expectancy

3

The __________, along with women’s reduced risk taking and physical aggression, are believed to be
responsible for the female advantage in average life expectancy.

B) protective value of the extra X chromosome

4

As __________, length of life increases.

C) education and income increase

5

David, a European-American male born in 1950, is likely to live 2 to 3 years __________ born the
same year.

D) longer than Isaac, an African-American male

6

When researchers estimate average healthy life expectancy, __________ ranks first.

A) Japan

7

Which male has the lowest healthy life expectancy?

D) Emmanuel from Haiti

8

After age 80, a life expectancy crossover occurs, in that __________.

C) surviving African Americans live longer than members of the white majority

9

Once people pass __________ years, the contribution of heredity to length of life decreases in favor of
environmental factors.

D) 75 to 80

10

Centenarians __________.

D) usually have grandparents, parents, and siblings who reached very old age

11

Robust centenarians are __________.

B) emotionally secure and tough-minded

12

Wanda, age 77, has difficulty shopping, paying her bills, and preparing food. Wanda needs help with
__________.

A) instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs)

13

In late life, more women than men report being __________ impaired, and more men than women
__________ impaired.

A) visually; hearing

14

__________ affect(s) 25 percent of people in their seventies and 50 percent of those in their eighties.

B) Cataracts

15

Which of the following is true about hearing loss in late adulthood?

A) It affects safety and enjoyment of life.

16

Of all hearing difficulties, the __________ has the greatest impact on life satisfaction.

C) age-related decline in speech perception

17

__________ is/are evident in up to 80 percent of adults after age 80.

C) Reduced sensitivity to taste

18

Older adults have a greater __________.

B) difficulty recognizing familiar foods by taste alone

19

Researchers believe that odor perception __________ with age.

B) wanes and becomes distorted

20

__________ skills are strongly correlated with older adults’ tactile performance.

A) Fluid

21

Although touch sensitivity typically diminishes in late adulthood, responsiveness to __________ is an
exception.

C) gentle stroking

22

As the years pass, the heart muscle __________.

A) becomes more rigid

23

Francesca’s immune system has begun to turn against normal body tissues, which is referred to as
__________.

C) an autoimmune response

24

Which of the following is an indicator of survival over the next two years in a very old person?

D) high T cell activity

25

Older adults __________ than younger adults.

D) have more difficulty sleeping deeply

26

When Grace reached her 70s, she began having difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, and sleeping
deeply. During the day, Grace worried about having sleep trouble. One thing Grace could do to foster
restful sleep is __________.

B) use the bedroom only for sleep

27

__________ with age.

A) The nose and ears broaden

28

__________ especially decline in height because of a loss of __________.

B) Women; bone mineral content

29

Which statement is true about physical changes in late adulthood?

C) Muscle strength generally declines at a faster rate than in middle age.

30

Walt, age 75, says that he feels about 60 years old. Sixty is Walt’s __________ age.

C) subjective

31

Devices such as smart caps and sensor-activated room lights are __________.

C) not usually covered as essential medical equipment by U.S. medical insurance

32

Mrs. Nguyen agrees with the following statement: “As

B) may help her live a longer life

33

Ila, who is Inuit, recently became head of her extended family unit. Her status as “one who knows
things” is known as __________.

C) isumataq

34

__________ with age.

B) The number of feared physical selves increases

35

Which aging American is at the greatest risk for chronic health conditions?

C) Len, a Native American

36

Low-SES older adults are __________ likely than higher-SES older adults to benefit from medical
care because __________.

B) less; they are less optimistic that treatment will work

37

How do men and women compare in their physical health after age 85?

D) Men are less likely to be impaired because only the sturdiest have survived.

38

Several large-scale studies indicate that over the past several decades, __________ has occurred in
industrialized nations.

C) compression of morbidity

39

Sedentary healthy older adults up to age 80 who begin endurance training __________.

A) show gains in vital capacity

40

Brain scans show that __________ older people experience less tissue loss in the cerebral cortex.

B) physically fit

41

Which statement is true about sexuality in late adulthood?

B) Most married older adults report continued, regular sexual enjoyment.

42

Lesbian and gay older adults who are married or in committed relationships __________.

A) are more sexually active than those who are single

43

After cardiovascular disease and cancer, the most common cause of death among the aged is
__________.

B) respiratory diseases

44

Mr. Wagner has difficulty breathing caused by an extreme loss of elasticity in lung tissue. This is
known as __________.

B) emphysema

45

More prevalent among women than men, __________ is the leading cause of dementia.

C) Alzheimer’s disease

46

A blood vessel hemorrhaged in Ms. Rosenthal’s brain, causing late-life physical disability. This is
known as __________.

A) a stroke

47

Which of the following is an example of primary aging?

A) blurred vision from macular degeneration

48

Which of the following is an example of secondary aging?

A) a decrease in the maximum heart rate

49

Frailty __________.

A) leaves older people highly vulnerable in the face of infection, extreme temperatures, or injury

50

The cartilage on the ends of Wendell’s joints is deteriorating. Around age 65, he developed bony
lumps on the end of the joints on his fingers. Recently, he has been experiencing joint pain, swelling, and
some loss of flexibility. Wendell probably has __________.

B) osteoarthritis

51

Which statement is true about rheumatoid arthritis?

C) Although it can strike at any age, it increases after age 60.

52

__________ is associated with more rapid cognitive declines in older people and an elevated risk of
dementia, especially Alzheimer’s disease.

C) Diabetes

53

From middle to late adulthood, the incidence of type 2 diabetes __________.

B) nearly doubles

54

Which older adult is more likely to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes?

B) Rudy, who is African American

55

At age 65 and older, the death rate from unintentional injuries is __________.

B) at an all-time high

56

Compared with younger drivers, older people are __________.

D) less likely to yield the right of way

57

The risk of __________ fracture increases fifteenfold from age 65 to 85.

C) hip

58

One in five older hip fracture patients __________.

B) die within a year of the injury

59

Normal age-related cell death in the brain __________.

D) does not lead to loss of ability to engage in everyday activities

60

One form of dementia that involves deterioration in subcortical brain regions is __________.

D) Parkinson’s disease

61

Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia are both types of __________.

B) cortical dementia

62

Approximately 5.2 million Americans have __________.

C) Alzheimer’s disease

63

Which statement is true about Alzheimer’s disease?

B) At first, recent memory is most impaired, but as serious disorientation sets in, recall of distant events
evaporates.

64

As Alzheimer’s disease progresses, __________.

A) skilled and purposeful movements disintegrate

65

To confirm Alzheimer’s disease, doctors __________.

C) inspect the brain after death

66

Marion has just learned that her brain contains an abundance of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques. Marion’s doctors are probably concerned that she has __________.

D) Alzheimer’s disease

67

Familial Alzheimer’s __________.

C) is responsible for 1 percent or fewer cases

68

The abnormal APOE ε4 gene is the most widely known risk factor for __________.

D) sporadic Alzheimer’s disease

69

Research indicates that __________ has memory benefits and slows cognitive decline, at least in the
short term, among older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

B) insulin therapy

70

The rate of Alzheimer’s disease is reduced by more than half in older adults __________.

B) with higher education

71

Which statement is true about caregiving of older adults with dementia?

A) It is sometimes known as the “36-hour day” because of its constant demands.

72

Caregivers of older adults with dementia usually say that __________ is the assistance they most
desire.

D) respite—time away from providing care—

73

Mr. Torres had a series of strokes that left areas of dead brain cells, causing step-by-step degeneration
of his mental ability. Mr. Torres is experiencing __________.

C) vascular dementia

74

Which older male has the greatest risk of vascular dementia?

D) Shinobu, who is from Japan

75

__________ is the disorder most often misdiagnosed as dementia.

B) Depression

76

Depression __________.

D) can lead to cognitive deterioration

77

Which older adult is the most likely to enter a nursing home?

A) Mr. Holzman, who has dementia

78

__________ Americans are more likely to use nursing homes than __________ Americans.

C) European; African

79

Overall, __________ provide(s) at least 60 to 80 percent of all long-term care in the United States,
Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and Western Europe.

D) families

80

Assisted living __________.

B) can enhance residents’ autonomy and life satisfaction

81

The more a mental ability depends on __________ intelligence, the earlier it starts to decline.

A) fluid

82

Which statement is true about cognitive functioning in late adulthood?

C) Older adults who sustain high levels of cognitive functioning engage in selective optimization with
compensation.

83

In setting personal goals, older adults __________.

B) focus on maintaining abilities and preventing losses

84

In old age, __________ is/are better preserved than __________.

A) semantic memory; episodic memory

85

Nina travels from the living room to the kitchen intending to get something, but then she does not
recall what she intended to get. Nina’s experience provides an example of __________ memory.

C) episodic

86

Age differences in __________ memory are much smaller than in __________ memory.

C) implicit; explicit

87

At a recent family reunion, Philip’s uncle recognized him as his brother’s son, but he could not recall
his name. Philip’s uncle exhibited a(n) __________ memory deficit.

A) associative

88

Which statement is true about memory in late adulthood?

C) When older adults are directed to use elaboration, the young–old difference in memory is greatly
reduced.

89

The reminiscence bump __________.

C) is evident in the autobiographical recall of older adults from diverse cultures

90

Orlando, age 82, is asked to describe important life events, noting the age at which each occurred.
Among remote events recalled, Orlando is most likely to focus on events that occurred __________.

B) between ages 10 and 30

91

Which of the following is an example of an event-based memory task?

A) taking medicine when an alarm goes off

92

Van sometimes has trouble finding the right words to convey his thoughts. He often says, “It is right
on the tip of my tongue.” Like many older adults, Van is most likely __________.

C) having trouble retrieving words from long-term memory

93

When speaking, older adults tend to __________ than younger people.

A) use more pronouns

94

A common technique used by many older adults to compensate for their difficulties in producing
language is to __________.

D) use more sentences to convey their message

95

Florence is more likely to __________ than her adult grandchildren.

B) resolve tip-of-the-tongue states at a higher rate

96

After retirement, older adults’ problem-solving activities typically involve __________.

C) management of IADLs

97

Which statement is true about problem solving in late adulthood?

A) Older adults usually do what they can to avoid interpersonal conflicts.

98

Compared with younger married couples, older couples more often __________.

C) collaborate in problem solving

99

Earl has broad practical knowledge, emotional maturity, and the ability to apply his knowledge to
make life more worthwhile. Earl demonstrates __________.

D) wisdom

100

Wisdom __________.

B) requires the pinnacle of insight into the human condition

101

Compared with their agemates, older adults with the cognitive, reflective, and emotional qualities
that make up wisdom __________.

D) are more likely to have a sense of purpose in life

102

In the year before Trudy died, her friends and family noticed that she had become less active and
more withdrawn, even in their company. Trudy experienced __________.

C) terminal decline

103

An accelerating falloff in cognitive performance or in emotional investment in life is __________.

B) a sign of loss of vitality and impending death

104

For most of late adulthood, cognitive declines are __________.

C) gradual

105

Which statement is true about cognitive intervention in late adulthood?

B) Older adults’ relatively well-preserved metacognition is a powerful asset in cognitive training efforts.

106

Participation by people age 65 and older in continuing education programs __________.

continuing education programs __________.
A)

107

Which statement is true about the types of lifelong learning programs available to older adults?

C) Osher Lifelong Learning Institutes are located on more than 120 U.S. university campuses.

108

Aimee is coordinating a continuing education program for older adults. Which of the following
pieces of advice should she follow?

D) Relate new material to what older adults have already learned by drawing on their experiences.

109

Continuing education programs for older adults __________.

C) help participants learn new skills and develop a broader perspective on the world