Ebony, age 88, appears younger than her 77-year-old sister, Desiree.
However, Desiree remains active
mentally, whereas Ebony finds it difficult to complete familiar tasks. The sisters’ actual competence and
performance in dealing with life’s challenges indicate their __________ age.
Improved nutrition, medical treatment, sanitation, and safety have
contributed to the dramatic gains in
average __________ in the United States in the last 100 years.
B) life expectancy
The __________, along with women’s reduced risk taking and physical
aggression, are believed to be
responsible for the female advantage in average life expectancy.
B) protective value of the extra X chromosome
As __________, length of life increases.
C) education and income increase
David, a European-American male born in 1950, is likely to live 2 to
3 years __________ born the
D) longer than Isaac, an African-American male
When researchers estimate average healthy life expectancy, __________ ranks first.
Which male has the lowest healthy life expectancy?
D) Emmanuel from Haiti
After age 80, a life expectancy crossover occurs, in that __________.
C) surviving African Americans live longer than members of the white majority
Once people pass __________ years, the contribution of heredity to
length of life decreases in favor of
D) 75 to 80
D) usually have grandparents, parents, and siblings who reached very old age
Robust centenarians are __________.
B) emotionally secure and tough-minded
Wanda, age 77, has difficulty shopping, paying her bills, and
preparing food. Wanda needs help with
A) instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs)
In late life, more women than men report being __________ impaired,
and more men than women
A) visually; hearing
__________ affect(s) 25 percent of people in their seventies and 50 percent of those in their eighties.
Which of the following is true about hearing loss in late adulthood?
A) It affects safety and enjoyment of life.
Of all hearing difficulties, the __________ has the greatest impact on life satisfaction.
C) age-related decline in speech perception
__________ is/are evident in up to 80 percent of adults after age 80.
C) Reduced sensitivity to taste
Older adults have a greater __________.
B) difficulty recognizing familiar foods by taste alone
Researchers believe that odor perception __________ with age.
B) wanes and becomes distorted
__________ skills are strongly correlated with older adults’ tactile performance.
Although touch sensitivity typically diminishes in late adulthood,
responsiveness to __________ is an
C) gentle stroking
As the years pass, the heart muscle __________.
A) becomes more rigid
Francesca’s immune system has begun to turn against normal body
tissues, which is referred to as
C) an autoimmune response
Which of the following is an indicator of survival over the next two years in a very old person?
D) high T cell activity
Older adults __________ than younger adults.
D) have more difficulty sleeping deeply
When Grace reached her 70s, she began having difficulty falling
asleep, staying asleep, and sleeping
deeply. During the day, Grace worried about having sleep trouble. One thing Grace could do to foster
restful sleep is __________.
B) use the bedroom only for sleep
__________ with age.
A) The nose and ears broaden
__________ especially decline in height because of a loss of __________.
B) Women; bone mineral content
Which statement is true about physical changes in late adulthood?
C) Muscle strength generally declines at a faster rate than in middle age.
Walt, age 75, says that he feels about 60 years old. Sixty is Walt’s __________ age.
Devices such as smart caps and sensor-activated room lights are __________.
C) not usually covered as essential medical equipment by U.S. medical insurance
Mrs. Nguyen agrees with the following statement: “As
B) may help her live a longer life
Ila, who is Inuit, recently became head of her extended family unit.
Her status as “one who knows
things” is known as __________.
__________ with age.
B) The number of feared physical selves increases
Which aging American is at the greatest risk for chronic health conditions?
C) Len, a Native American
Low-SES older adults are __________ likely than higher-SES older
adults to benefit from medical
care because __________.
B) less; they are less optimistic that treatment will work
How do men and women compare in their physical health after age 85?
D) Men are less likely to be impaired because only the sturdiest have survived.
Several large-scale studies indicate that over the past several
decades, __________ has occurred in
C) compression of morbidity
Sedentary healthy older adults up to age 80 who begin endurance training __________.
A) show gains in vital capacity
Brain scans show that __________ older people experience less tissue loss in the cerebral cortex.
B) physically fit
Which statement is true about sexuality in late adulthood?
B) Most married older adults report continued, regular sexual enjoyment.
Lesbian and gay older adults who are married or in committed relationships __________.
A) are more sexually active than those who are single
After cardiovascular disease and cancer, the most common cause of
death among the aged is
B) respiratory diseases
Mr. Wagner has difficulty breathing caused by an extreme loss of
elasticity in lung tissue. This is
known as __________.
More prevalent among women than men, __________ is the leading cause of dementia.
C) Alzheimer’s disease
A blood vessel hemorrhaged in Ms. Rosenthal’s brain, causing
late-life physical disability. This is
known as __________.
A) a stroke
Which of the following is an example of primary aging?
A) blurred vision from macular degeneration
Which of the following is an example of secondary aging?
A) a decrease in the maximum heart rate
A) leaves older people highly vulnerable in the face of infection, extreme temperatures, or injury
The cartilage on the ends of Wendell’s joints is deteriorating.
Around age 65, he developed bony
lumps on the end of the joints on his fingers. Recently, he has been experiencing joint pain, swelling, and
some loss of flexibility. Wendell probably has __________.
Which statement is true about rheumatoid arthritis?
C) Although it can strike at any age, it increases after age 60.
__________ is associated with more rapid cognitive declines in older
people and an elevated risk of
dementia, especially Alzheimer’s disease.
From middle to late adulthood, the incidence of type 2 diabetes __________.
B) nearly doubles
Which older adult is more likely to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes?
B) Rudy, who is African American
At age 65 and older, the death rate from unintentional injuries is __________.
B) at an all-time high
Compared with younger drivers, older people are __________.
D) less likely to yield the right of way
The risk of __________ fracture increases fifteenfold from age 65 to 85.
One in five older hip fracture patients __________.
B) die within a year of the injury
Normal age-related cell death in the brain __________.
D) does not lead to loss of ability to engage in everyday activities
One form of dementia that involves deterioration in subcortical brain regions is __________.
D) Parkinson’s disease
Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia are both types of __________.
B) cortical dementia
Approximately 5.2 million Americans have __________.
C) Alzheimer’s disease
Which statement is true about Alzheimer’s disease?
B) At first, recent memory is most impaired, but as serious
disorientation sets in, recall of distant events
As Alzheimer’s disease progresses, __________.
A) skilled and purposeful movements disintegrate
To confirm Alzheimer’s disease, doctors __________.
C) inspect the brain after death
Marion has just learned that her brain contains an abundance of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques. Marion’s doctors are probably concerned that she has __________.
D) Alzheimer’s disease
Familial Alzheimer’s __________.
C) is responsible for 1 percent or fewer cases
The abnormal APOE ε4 gene is the most widely known risk factor for __________.
D) sporadic Alzheimer’s disease
Research indicates that __________ has memory benefits and slows
cognitive decline, at least in the
short term, among older adults with mild cognitive impairment.
B) insulin therapy
The rate of Alzheimer’s disease is reduced by more than half in older adults __________.
B) with higher education
Which statement is true about caregiving of older adults with dementia?
A) It is sometimes known as the “36-hour day” because of its constant demands.
Caregivers of older adults with dementia usually say that __________
is the assistance they most
D) respite—time away from providing care—
Mr. Torres had a series of strokes that left areas of dead brain
cells, causing step-by-step degeneration
of his mental ability. Mr. Torres is experiencing __________.
C) vascular dementia
Which older male has the greatest risk of vascular dementia?
D) Shinobu, who is from Japan
__________ is the disorder most often misdiagnosed as dementia.
D) can lead to cognitive deterioration
Which older adult is the most likely to enter a nursing home?
A) Mr. Holzman, who has dementia
__________ Americans are more likely to use nursing homes than __________ Americans.
C) European; African
Overall, __________ provide(s) at least 60 to 80 percent of all
long-term care in the United States,
Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and Western Europe.
Assisted living __________.
B) can enhance residents’ autonomy and life satisfaction
The more a mental ability depends on __________ intelligence, the earlier it starts to decline.
Which statement is true about cognitive functioning in late adulthood?
C) Older adults who sustain high levels of cognitive functioning
engage in selective optimization with
In setting personal goals, older adults __________.
B) focus on maintaining abilities and preventing losses
In old age, __________ is/are better preserved than __________.
A) semantic memory; episodic memory
Nina travels from the living room to the kitchen intending to get
something, but then she does not
recall what she intended to get. Nina’s experience provides an example of __________ memory.
Age differences in __________ memory are much smaller than in __________ memory.
C) implicit; explicit
At a recent family reunion, Philip’s uncle recognized him as his
brother’s son, but he could not recall
his name. Philip’s uncle exhibited a(n) __________ memory deficit.
Which statement is true about memory in late adulthood?
C) When older adults are directed to use elaboration, the young–old
difference in memory is greatly
The reminiscence bump __________.
C) is evident in the autobiographical recall of older adults from diverse cultures
Orlando, age 82, is asked to describe important life events, noting
the age at which each occurred.
Among remote events recalled, Orlando is most likely to focus on events that occurred __________.
B) between ages 10 and 30
Which of the following is an example of an event-based memory task?
A) taking medicine when an alarm goes off
Van sometimes has trouble finding the right words to convey his
thoughts. He often says, “It is right
on the tip of my tongue.” Like many older adults, Van is most likely __________.
C) having trouble retrieving words from long-term memory
When speaking, older adults tend to __________ than younger people.
A) use more pronouns
A common technique used by many older adults to compensate for their
difficulties in producing
language is to __________.
D) use more sentences to convey their message
Florence is more likely to __________ than her adult grandchildren.
B) resolve tip-of-the-tongue states at a higher rate
After retirement, older adults’ problem-solving activities typically involve __________.
C) management of IADLs
Which statement is true about problem solving in late adulthood?
A) Older adults usually do what they can to avoid interpersonal conflicts.
Compared with younger married couples, older couples more often __________.
C) collaborate in problem solving
Earl has broad practical knowledge, emotional maturity, and the
ability to apply his knowledge to
make life more worthwhile. Earl demonstrates __________.
B) requires the pinnacle of insight into the human condition
Compared with their agemates, older adults with the cognitive,
reflective, and emotional qualities
that make up wisdom __________.
D) are more likely to have a sense of purpose in life
In the year before Trudy died, her friends and family noticed that
she had become less active and
more withdrawn, even in their company. Trudy experienced __________.
C) terminal decline
An accelerating falloff in cognitive performance or in emotional investment in life is __________.
B) a sign of loss of vitality and impending death
For most of late adulthood, cognitive declines are __________.
Which statement is true about cognitive intervention in late adulthood?
B) Older adults’ relatively well-preserved metacognition is a powerful asset in cognitive training efforts.
Participation by people age 65 and older in continuing education programs __________.
continuing education programs __________.
Which statement is true about the types of lifelong learning programs available to older adults?
C) Osher Lifelong Learning Institutes are located on more than 120 U.S. university campuses.
Aimee is coordinating a continuing education program for older
adults. Which of the following
pieces of advice should she follow?
D) Relate new material to what older adults have already learned by drawing on their experiences.
Continuing education programs for older adults __________.
C) help participants learn new skills and develop a broader perspective on the world