Jennifer, age 45, is a Girl Scout leader. She really enjoys giving to
and guiding the next generation.
According to Erikson, Jennifer has developed a sense of __________.
Martin, age 47, is single and has no children. Which of Martin’s activities reflects generativity?
C) He volunteers at the YMCA as a coach and as a “big brother” to preadolescent boys.
Childless middle-aged adults __________.
A) become generative as mentors in the workplace, community volunteers, or in family relationships
The negative outcome of Erikson’s midlife stage, stagnation, focuses on __________.
Adults with a sense of stagnation may express their self-absorption through __________.
B) taking little interest in being productive at work
Highly generative people appear especially __________.
Which parent is most likely to be generative?
C) Princess, who is authoritative
Which statement about generativity and stagnation is true?
B) Among well-educated women, those with children express greater generative concerns.
Especially in individualistic societies, __________ may help preserve generative commitments.
C) belonging to a religious community
According to Levinson, middle adulthood begins with a __________.
A) transitional period
Betty just celebrated her fiftieth birthday. She marked the occasion
by taking hang-gliding lessons and purchasing a more mature wardrobe.
According to Levinson, Betty is engaged in which developmental
Which middle-aged man is likely to be highly sensitive about the physical changes of aging?
D) Jack, a non-college-educated construction worker
As Angelo approaches age 50, he feels increasingly disheartened about
his poor relationship with his
two sons. At work, he volunteers to mentor a young new hire who is about the age of his oldest boy.
According to Levinson, Angelo is confronting which developmental task?
__________ is associated with favorable personality traits and adjustment.
Marcus, age 53, is spending a lot of time caring for his young
grandson. His subordinates at work have
noticed that he has become a kinder, more compassionate boss. According to Levinson, Marcus is
engaged in which developmental task?
In Levinson’s engagement–separateness task, men and women with
successful careers may
B) reduce their concern with achievement
Darlene, who spent her early adulthood devoted to child rearing, is
engaged in Levinson’s
engagement–separation task. Consequently, Darlene will probably focus on __________.
C) pursuing a long-desired ambition
Which statement is true about people who flexibly modify their
identities in response to age-related
changes yet maintain a sense of self-continuity?
A) They are higher in self-esteem.
Deangelo, age 52, has been unemployed for 18 months. Having spent his
entire life living below the
poverty line, Deangelo often felt like he never found a respected place in society. Deangelo is probably
directing his energies toward __________.
According to Vaillant, __________ is a major preoccupation of midlife.
B) “passing the torch”
Which statement is true about research regarding the midlife crisis?
D) Vaillant saw examples of a slow and steady change, rather than a crisis.
When MIDUS participants were asked to describe “turning points” that
had occurred during the past
five years, most __________.
A) were positive
Negative turning points described by MIDUS participants __________.
C) generally led to personal growth
The majority of MIDUS participants who reported experiencing a midlife crisis __________.
B) defined such events much more loosely than researchers do
Among a nationally representative sample of Americans, life regrets centered mainly on __________.
B) romantic and family relationships
Experiencing regrets is consistently associated with __________.
D) less favorable psychological well-being
__________ is common during middle age.
D) Life evaluation
Gilles, age 50, tells his brother, “I’d like to maintain my physical
health and work on getting
emotionally stronger. I want to be a good friend and a role model to my kids. I don’t want to be that guy
who never comes to family get-togethers because he is too busy working. I want to be successful in my
career, but not at the expense of my family.” Gilles is discussing his __________.
C) possible selves
Possible selves are the __________ dimension of self-concept.
Which statement is true about possible selves?
A) They may be an especially strong motivator of action in midlife.
Throughout adulthood, the personality traits people assign to their current selves show __________.
B) considerable stability
Adults in their early twenties __________.
C) mention many possible selves
With age, possible selves become __________.
D) more concrete
Cate, age 49, acknowledges that she has both good and bad qualities,
yet she feels positively about
herself and life. Cate exhibits __________.
Cate exhibits __________.
__________ increase(s) from early to middle adulthood.
Compared with younger people, middle-aged adults see themselves as __________.
B) capable of effectively managing a complex array of tasks
Jay, age 50, is finally comfortable with himself. He is more
independent, assertive, and committed to
his personal values than he was in early adulthood. Jay probably believes that midlife is __________.
D) “the prime of life”
Hart volunteers with Habitat for Humanity. When he is at a work site,
he is so engrossed in activity
that he loses all sense of time and self-awareness. When he volunteers, Hart experiences __________.
Which statement is true about psychological well-being in midlife?
B) The role of marriage in mental health increases with age, becoming
a powerful predictor by late
In comparisons of Japanese and Korean adults with same-age U.S. MIDUS participants, __________.
C) Japanese and Koreans’ highest well-being scores were on positive relations with others
Nat is 42. His sister, Kiana, is 25. Which statement is the most
likely to be true, based solely on their
B) Nat is more likely than Kiana to anticipate and plan ways to handle future discomforts.
Many studies of the late twentieth and early-twenty-first century reported __________ in midlife.
D) increased androgyny in men and women
In recently gathered self-reports, __________.
B) men’s and women’s endorsement of “masculine” and “feminine” traits
showed little change throughout
Some evidence reveals a link between children’s departure from the home and __________.
D) men’s greater openness to the “feminine” side of their personalities
In longitudinal research, __________ gained most in dominance,
assertiveness, and outspokenness by
their early fifties.
B) women who attained high status in their careers
In adulthood, __________ is associated with cognitive flexibility,
creativity, advanced moral
reasoning, and psychosocial maturity.
Sudie is calm, even-tempered, self-content, comfortable, unemotional,
and hardy. She is low in which
“big five” personality trait?
Guy is reserved, quiet, passive, sober, and emotionally unreactive.
He is low in which “big five”
Individuals who are high in agreeableness are __________.
D) soft-hearted, trusting, generous, acquiescent, lenient, and good-natured
Nora is imaginative, creative, original, curious, and liberal. She is
high in which “big five” personality
C) openness to experience
Individuals who are low in conscientiousness are __________.
B) negligent, lazy, disorganized, late, aimless, and nonpersistent
Gregor, age 17, is high in conscientiousness. Gregor __________.
A) can anticipate that this trait will increase through middle age
Neuroticism __________ from adolescence through middle age.
Which statement is true about the “big five” personality traits?
C) Individual differences in the “big five” traits are large and highly stable.
The term “empty nest” is no longer used to refer to the middle
adulthood phase of the family life cycle
B) it implies a negative transition
During the phase of “launching children and moving on,” __________.
C) most people experience a sense of completion and liberation
Which statement is true about couples in their forties, fifties, and sixties?
B) In interviews, lesbian couples describe more openness and honesty
in sharing thoughts and feelings
Which statement is true about divorce in midlife?
C) In the United States, the divorce rate among adults age 50 and
over has doubled in the past two
__________ have become the majority of the adult population living in
poverty, regardless of age and
D) Women who support themselves or their families
In her first relationship following her divorce, 48-year-old Edwina
reevaluated what she considered
important in a healthy relationship. She most likely places __________.
B) greater weight on equal friendship
Less is known about long-term adjustment following divorce among
middle-aged men, perhaps
D) most enter new relationships and remarry within a short time
Which statement is true about launching children and moving on?
A) Most parents adjust well to their children’s departure from the home.
Which young adult is likely to move out of the parental home at the youngest age?
D) Kevin from the United States
Whether or not they reside with parents, young-adult children who
__________ can prompt parental
B) are “off-time” in development
Throughout middle adulthood, parents of grown children __________.
B) give more financial support to the children than they receive
__________ parents give more overall support to their grown children.
After all five of her children struck out on their own, Naomi made
sure everyone stayed in touch by
creating a family blog. She also took charge of gathering the family for celebrations. Naomi is her
Preston and Mei are about to become grandparents for the first time.
They believe that
grandparenthood is highly important because they will leave behind not just one but two generations after
death. Which gratification of grandparenthood is probably most important to them?
D) immortality through descendants
A person who lists being a valued older adult as a gratification of
grandparenthood especially values
A) being perceived as a wise, helpful person
Neil and Mark cannot wait to spoil their granddaughter. They love the
idea of having fun with her all
day and then sending her home with their son when she gets tired and cranky. Which gratification of
grandparenthood is probably most important to them?
__________ is the strongest predictor of frequent, face-to-face interaction with young grandchildren.
A) Living nearby
Which grandparent is likely to report more frequent visits with grandchildren?
C) Lashawn, a maternal grandmother
Which maternal grandmother is most likely to be the preferred
caregiver of her grandchildren while
their parents work?
D) Lupe, a Mexican-American homemaker
Which statement is true about grandparents who take full
responsibility for raising their
D) They often experience considerable emotional and financial strain.
Which statement is true about grandparents?
B) Relationships with daughter-in-law or son-in-law strongly affect the closeness of grandchild ties.
Which caregiving grandparents are especially likely to be living in
extreme poverty while caring for
C) the Wynns, who are Native American
Compared with children in divorced, single-parent families, blended
families, or foster families,
children reared by grandparents __________.
A) fare better in adjustment
Which statement is true about middle-aged children and their aging parents?
C) A longer life expectancy means that adult children and their
parents are increasingly likely to grow old
Middle-aged men are __________ with aging parents.
B) becoming more involved in family responsibilities
Cindy, age 48, cares for her two teenage sons and her ailing
mother-in-law. Along with her mother,
she is also one of a handful of caregivers for her elderly grandmother. Cindy belongs to the __________
Which individual likely provides the most direct care and financial support to aging parents?
C) Veronica, a middle-income African-American woman
Which statement is true about caring for aging parents?
B) As adults move from early to later middle age, the sex difference in parental caregiving declines.
The greatest source of stress for middle-aged adults who share a
household with an aging parent is
A) problem behavior
Women who quit work in order to take care of an ill aging parent __________.
C) fare especially poorly in adjustment, probably due to social isolation
Compared with European Americans, Korean-American caregivers of
parents with mental disabilities
B) experienced more anxiety and depression
Which statement is true about sibling relationships in middle adulthood?
C) Despite reduced contact, many siblings feel closer in midlife, often in response to major life events.
Compared to men, middle-aged women report __________.
C) providing their friends with more emotional support
By midlife, __________.
C) friendships serve as current sources of pleasure and satisfaction
Which statement is true about friendships during midlife?
Many midlifers connect regularly with friends through social media.
Middle-aged people __________.
A) attach great value to the friendship relationship
Which statement is true about vocational life in middle adulthood?
C) More so than in earlier or later years, people attempt to increase
the personal meaning of their
The number of older workers __________.
D) will rise dramatically over the next few decades
When different aspects of jobs are considered, happiness with
__________ shows a strong age-related
B) the work itself
Which middle-aged worker is likely to experience the biggest increase in job satisfaction?
C) Rodrigo, a male corporate executive
One key characteristic that predicts job satisfaction among
middle-aged workers is having
A) a reasonable workload
Meerab has been teaching middle school for 22 years. As the new
school year approaches, she feels
mentally exhausted and unsure if she is making any impact in her students’ lives. Meerab is experiencing
D) occurs more often in the helping professions
Burnout is linked to __________.
C) on-the-job injuries
Which statement is true about job training for older workers?
B) Older workers depend more than younger workers on co-worker
encouragement for vocational
Which employee is the most likely to be assigned to a prestigious high-level management job?
A) Garrett, a European-American man
Women who demonstrate __________ in the workplace often encounter prejudice.
Kindra, a female senior manager, and Lou, a male senior manager, are
both promoted to comparable
positions. Which statement is more likely to be
C) Kindra probably has earned higher performance ratings than Lou.
In the United States today, one-third of women-owned firms
B) have ethnic minority owners
Typically, when a middle-aged worker experiences an extreme career
shift, the reason is
A) a personal crisis
The average age of retirement declined over the twentieth century in
the United States because of
C) government-sponsored retirement benefits
Many U.S. baby boomers say they __________.
D) expect to delay retirement
Which statement is true about retirement in the United States?
A) Retirees’ income typically drops by 50 percent.
Less well-educated people with lower lifetime earnings are the __________ likely to __________.
C) least; attend retirement preparation programs