Yolanda is 48. It is likely she __________.
C) has experienced a shift in subjective time orientation from “time since birth” to “time left to live”
Saul, age 62, has an eye condition. Its name literally means “old eyes.” Saul has __________.
The ability to see in dim light __________.
B) declines at twice the rate of daylight vision
C) typically progresses without noticeable symptoms
Although some hearing conditions run in families, Dawn, age 61, is
experiencing an age-related hearing
condition. Dawn has __________.
Which statement is true about age-related hearing loss?
A) African tribal peoples display little age-related hearing loss.
The __________ consists of connective tissue that gives the skin elasticity.
As we age, __________.
D) cells in both the epidermis and dermis decline in water content
Which sign of aging of the skin usually occurs first?
C) development of lines on the forehead
Women’s skin typically ages more quickly than men’s because __________.
B) the dermis of women is not as thick as that of men
Lester is approaching age 50. He can anticipate an accumulation of fat in which areas of his body?
D) back and upper abdomen
__________ declines very gradually in the forties and fifties.
A) Muscle mass
Malcolm is a 45-year-old man and Flora is a 45-year-old woman. Which
statement is the most likely
to be true?
B) Flora is experiencing a more rapid age-related decline in muscle mass than Malcolm.
Which statement is true about the aging skeleton?
A) Bones become more porous with age.
Which statement is true about loss of bone strength in middle adulthood?
C) Loss of bone strength causes the disks of the spinal column to collapse.
Research shows that dietary calorie restriction in nonhuman primates __________.
B) reduces the incidence of age-related diseases
Experimental evidence involving random assignment of individuals to
nonrestricted conditions reveals that __________.
C) restricted participants display improved cardiovascular and other health indicators
Jeanine is 49. According to her doctor, she has reached the midlife
transition in which fertility
declines. Jeanine has reached __________.
B) the climacteric
Women who __________ tend to reach menopause earlier.
C) have not borne children
The changes involved in women’s fertility decline occur gradually over a 10-year period, during which __________.
A) the production of estrogen drops and menstrual cycles become irregular
Which statement is true about menopause?
C) Frequent hot flashes are associated with repeated night wakings and poor sleep.
Which woman is likely to report fewer menopausal complaints?
D) Noriko, an Asian woman
Hormone therapy __________.
B) reduces the physical discomforts of menopause
Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) __________.
A) is for women who have had hysterectomies
Women age 65 and older taking HRT __________.
C) have an elevated risk of Alzheimer’s disease
When women were asked their feelings about no longer menstruating, most said they __________.
A) were relieved
Which group of women is more likely to have a favorable attitude toward menopause?
B) African-American women
Tony, age 77, married Nichole, age 24. They are not using birth
control because of Tony’s advanced
age. You can advise them that __________.
B) Tony produces less semen and sperm, but he can probably still father children
The inability to attain an erection when desired __________.
C) becomes more common in midlife
Middle-aged adults usually attribute health complaints to __________.
C) chronic diseases
Our understanding of health in middle to late adulthood is __________.
A) limited by insufficient research on women and ethnic minorities
Which statement is true about sexuality in middle adulthood?
D) The best predictor of sexual frequency in midlife is relationship satisfaction.
Thomas, age 45, has been married for 20 years. When asked about his
sex life, Thomas will probably
say that sex is __________ than it was in his early married life.
C) less intense
The leading causes of death in middle age are __________ and __________.
C) cancer; cardiovascular disease
Which statement is true about illness and disability in middle adulthood?
B) Men are more vulnerable than women to most health problems in midlife.
Among middle-aged __________, cancer __________.
A) women; is by far the leading cause of death
From early to middle adulthood, the death rate due to __________ multiplies tenfold.
__________ cancer causes more deaths than any other type of cancer.
Which statement is true about the incidence of lung cancer in the United States?
C) Lung cancer has recently begun to decrease in women after a long period of increase.
Cancer death rates increase sharply as __________ decreases.
Merrill has a buildup of plaque in his coronary arteries, which
encircle his heart and provide its
muscles with oxygen and nutrients. Merrill has __________.
Linnea has angina pectoris. Her crushing chest pain reveals a(n) __________.
B) oxygen-deprived heart
When __________ persists, it can prevent the heart from pumping
enough blood and result in
A pacemaker is one treatment for __________.
Janet has cardiovascular disease. Her doctor detected high blood
pressure and high blood cholesterol.
To relieve arterial blockage, Janet had __________, a procedure in which a surgeon threaded a needle-thin
catheter into her arteries and inflated a balloon at its tip.
Which statement is true about sex differences in heart attack symptoms and treatments?
B) Rather than chest pain, many women experience extreme fatigue and
symptoms often mistaken for a
Bianca, age 52, has porous bones and a very low bone density level. Bianca is at risk for __________.
People with __________ are more likely to be affected by osteoporosis.
D) thin, small-framed bodies
Shavonda fell and fractured her hip, and has since been diagnosed
with osteoporosis. Shavonda’s
doctor will probably recommend __________.
C) weight-bearing exercise
Andrew is extremely competitive, ambitious, impatient, and hostile.
He is prone to angry outbursts.
Andrew displays __________.
A) the Type A behavior pattern
Current evidence pinpoints __________ as a “toxic” ingredient of the Type A behavior pattern.
Sean has frequent angry outbursts. He is rude, disagreeable,
critical, and condescending. Sean exhibits
A) expressed hostility
__________ is associated with high blood pressure and heart disease.
C) Ruminating about past anger-provoking events
In middle adulthood, stress management __________.
C) can limit the age-related rise in illness
Rosia viewed life as fluid. She expected change and accepted it as
inevitable. When Rosia was faced
with a problem, she identified it and decided what to do about it. Rosia used a(n) __________ coping
Effective emotion-focused coping __________.
D) helps people face problems more calmly
__________ coping is largely emotion-focused and self-blaming, impulsive, or escapist.
More than half of U.S. middle-aged adults __________.
A) are sedentary
__________ is vital in adopting, maintaining, and exerting oneself in an exercise regimen.
Jackelyn is a low-SES, sedentary 47-year-old. She is more likely than
a high-SES agemate to mention
__________ as a barrier to exercise.
C) unsafe neighborhoods
Chrissy regards most experiences as controllable. She displays a
committed approach to daily
activities and views change as a normal part of life and a chance for personal growth. Chrissy fits the
pattern of a __________ individual.
Wesley finds meaning in almost all his daily activities, even during
stressful times. Wesley is
displaying which element of hardiness?
High-hardy individuals are likely to __________.
A) use active, problem-centered coping strategies in situations they can control
Adults with a history of __________ adversity exposure report __________.
C) modest lifetime; greater life satisfaction
Which statement is true about lifetime adversity?
A) People with modest lifetime adversity are less negatively affected by exposure to recent adversity.
People often rate middle-aged women as __________ than middle-aged men.
D) less attractive
__________ likely contributes to negative judgments of middle-aged
women’s appearance, especially
The double standard for gender and aging __________.
A) has become irrelevant
Most cognitive aging research has focused on intellectual __________.
Which statement is true about age-related changes in mental abilities?
C) Testing of college students and soldiers in the 1920s revealed an increase in intelligence in midlife.
Crystallized intelligence depends on __________.
B) accumulated knowledge and experience
Intelligence test items reflecting fluid abilities include __________.
D) spatial visualization
Which type of intelligence begins to decline in the twenties?
Many cross-sectional studies show that crystallized intelligence __________.
C) increases steadily through middle adulthood
In one study involving 2,500 mentally and physically healthy 16- to
85-year-olds, verbal IQ began to
decline in the __________.
Trends in both crystallized and fluid mental abilities reported from
the Seattle Longitudinal Study
indicate that middle-aged adults __________.
C) are intellectually “in their prime,” not “over the hill”
Longitudinal research shows that from the twenties on, __________ decreases steadily.
C) perceptual speed
Hector, age 85, is likely to show greater decrements in __________.
B) numeric ability
Some theorists believe that a general slowing of __________ underlies
nearly all age-related declines
in cognitive performance.
D) central nervous system functioning
As people discover that they are no longer as good as they once were
at certain tasks, they
accommodate, shifting to activities that depend more on __________.
B) accumulated knowledge
Courtney, a baby boomer, is likely to score higher than her father at
the same age on verbal memory,
inductive reasoning, and spatial orientation. Courtney’s performance compared to her father’s is likely due
in part to generational advances in __________.
C) education and technology
As processing speed slows, __________.
C) executive function declines
On both simple and complex reaction-time tasks, response time __________.
D) increases steadily from the early twenties into the nineties
Mounting evidence indicates that in healthy older adults, __________
predict(s) decrements in
reaction time and other cognitive abilities.
B) extent of myelin breakdown
On tests of complex abilities, the slower the reaction time, the __________ the score on __________.
C) lower; problem-solving tasks
Which statement is true about age-related slowing of cognitive processing?
B) One approach suggests that older adults experience greater loss of
information as it moves through the
Because older adults find ways to compensate for cognitive slowing on
familiar tasks, their reaction
A) is considerably better on verbal items than on nonverbal items
In middle and late adulthood, __________ working memory suffers much
less than __________
C) verbal; spatial
Domonique is an air traffic controller. Because of her occupational
experiences, Domonique will
likely demonstrate smaller age-related declines in __________ than her middle-aged peers.
Older adults’ ability to __________ is impaired relative to younger adults’.
A) recall studied information
Which statement is true about middle-aged students’ performance on working memory tasks?
C) They show performance declines only under pressured conditions.
In solving a math problem, Herman uses __________ memory.
Maria has trouble remembering where she parks her car in the large
office parking lot. Her solution is
to park in the same area of the parking lot every day. She is using __________ knowledge.
Middle-aged adults display continued cognitive growth in the realm of __________.
C) practical problem solving
With regard to scientific knowledge, Ross has an extensive, highly
organized, and integrated
knowledge base that can be used to support a high level of performance. Ross has __________ in science.
Which scientist is most likely at the height of expertise?
C) Dr. Lucerno, age 49
In a study examining the diverse ingredients of expert performance,
middle-aged adults performed
more competently than younger adults in tasks involving __________.
D) organizational skills
Bronson manages a fast-food restaurant. Which individual with similar
D) Garfield, a 45-year-old
Middle-aged adults tend to be rational decision makers because they __________.
A) use practical problem-solving strategies
Which individual is most likely to be at the peak of creative accomplishment?
C) Shaunte, age 42
With age, many creators __________.
B) produce more works that integrate ideas
Which author is more likely to produce his or her most frequently cited works at a younger age?
A) Libby, a poet
Which statement is true about becoming a student in midlife?
B) Life transitions often trigger a return to college in midlife.
Those adult learners reporting high psychological stress typically include __________.
D) married women with nonsupportive partners
In college, __________ tend to take fewer credits and progress at a slower pace.
C) older women
Mature-age women learners list __________ as the most common reason
for not completing their
A) role overload
Which statement is true about mature-age college students?
D) Social support can make the difference between continuing in school and dropping out.
Mia returned to college at age 45. She will probably need help in __________.
C) choosing the most appropriate courses
Middle-aged college students __________.
D) provide valuable intergenerational contact