AAD CH 15 Flashcards


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1

Yolanda is 48. It is likely she __________.

C) has experienced a shift in subjective time orientation from “time since birth” to “time left to live”

2

Saul, age 62, has an eye condition. Its name literally means “old eyes.” Saul has __________.

D) presbyopia

3

The ability to see in dim light __________.

B) declines at twice the rate of daylight vision

4

Glaucoma __________.

C) typically progresses without noticeable symptoms

5

Although some hearing conditions run in families, Dawn, age 61, is experiencing an age-related hearing
condition. Dawn has __________.

B) presbycusis

6

Which statement is true about age-related hearing loss?

A) African tribal peoples display little age-related hearing loss.

7

The __________ consists of connective tissue that gives the skin elasticity.

B) dermis

8

As we age, __________.

D) cells in both the epidermis and dermis decline in water content

9

Which sign of aging of the skin usually occurs first?

C) development of lines on the forehead

10

Women’s skin typically ages more quickly than men’s because __________.

B) the dermis of women is not as thick as that of men

11

Lester is approaching age 50. He can anticipate an accumulation of fat in which areas of his body?

D) back and upper abdomen

12

__________ declines very gradually in the forties and fifties.

A) Muscle mass

13

Malcolm is a 45-year-old man and Flora is a 45-year-old woman. Which statement is the most likely
to be true?

B) Flora is experiencing a more rapid age-related decline in muscle mass than Malcolm.

14

Which statement is true about the aging skeleton?

A) Bones become more porous with age.

15

Which statement is true about loss of bone strength in middle adulthood?

C) Loss of bone strength causes the disks of the spinal column to collapse.

16

Research shows that dietary calorie restriction in nonhuman primates __________.

B) reduces the incidence of age-related diseases

17

Experimental evidence involving random assignment of individuals to calorie-restricted and
nonrestricted conditions reveals that __________.

C) restricted participants display improved cardiovascular and other health indicators

18

Jeanine is 49. According to her doctor, she has reached the midlife transition in which fertility
declines. Jeanine has reached __________.

B) the climacteric

19

Women who __________ tend to reach menopause earlier.

C) have not borne children

20

The changes involved in women’s fertility decline occur gradually over a 10-year period, during which __________.

A) the production of estrogen drops and menstrual cycles become irregular

21

Which statement is true about menopause?

C) Frequent hot flashes are associated with repeated night wakings and poor sleep.

22

Which woman is likely to report fewer menopausal complaints?

D) Noriko, an Asian woman

23

Hormone therapy __________.

B) reduces the physical discomforts of menopause

24

Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) __________.

A) is for women who have had hysterectomies

25

Women age 65 and older taking HRT __________.

C) have an elevated risk of Alzheimer’s disease

26

When women were asked their feelings about no longer menstruating, most said they __________.

A) were relieved

27

Which group of women is more likely to have a favorable attitude toward menopause?

B) African-American women

28

Tony, age 77, married Nichole, age 24. They are not using birth control because of Tony’s advanced
age. You can advise them that __________.

B) Tony produces less semen and sperm, but he can probably still father children

29

The inability to attain an erection when desired __________.

C) becomes more common in midlife

30

Middle-aged adults usually attribute health complaints to __________.

C) chronic diseases

31

Our understanding of health in middle to late adulthood is __________.

A) limited by insufficient research on women and ethnic minorities

32

Which statement is true about sexuality in middle adulthood?

D) The best predictor of sexual frequency in midlife is relationship satisfaction.

33

Thomas, age 45, has been married for 20 years. When asked about his sex life, Thomas will probably
say that sex is __________ than it was in his early married life.

C) less intense

34

The leading causes of death in middle age are __________ and __________.

C) cancer; cardiovascular disease

35

Which statement is true about illness and disability in middle adulthood?

B) Men are more vulnerable than women to most health problems in midlife.

36

Among middle-aged __________, cancer __________.

A) women; is by far the leading cause of death

37

From early to middle adulthood, the death rate due to __________ multiplies tenfold.

B) cancer

38

__________ cancer causes more deaths than any other type of cancer.

A) Lung

39

Which statement is true about the incidence of lung cancer in the United States?

C) Lung cancer has recently begun to decrease in women after a long period of increase.

40

Cancer death rates increase sharply as __________ decreases.

B) SES

41

Merrill has a buildup of plaque in his coronary arteries, which encircle his heart and provide its
muscles with oxygen and nutrients. Merrill has __________.

D) atherosclerosis

42

Linnea has angina pectoris. Her crushing chest pain reveals a(n) __________.

B) oxygen-deprived heart

43

When __________ persists, it can prevent the heart from pumping enough blood and result in
faintness.

B) arrhythmia

44

A pacemaker is one treatment for __________.

C) arrhythmia

45

Janet has cardiovascular disease. Her doctor detected high blood pressure and high blood cholesterol.
To relieve arterial blockage, Janet had __________, a procedure in which a surgeon threaded a needle-thin
catheter into her arteries and inflated a balloon at its tip.

A) angioplasty

46

Which statement is true about sex differences in heart attack symptoms and treatments?

B) Rather than chest pain, many women experience extreme fatigue and symptoms often mistaken for a
panic attack.

47

Bianca, age 52, has porous bones and a very low bone density level. Bianca is at risk for __________.

B) osteoporosis

48

People with __________ are more likely to be affected by osteoporosis.

D) thin, small-framed bodies

49

Shavonda fell and fractured her hip, and has since been diagnosed with osteoporosis. Shavonda’s
doctor will probably recommend __________.

C) weight-bearing exercise

50

Andrew is extremely competitive, ambitious, impatient, and hostile. He is prone to angry outbursts.
Andrew displays __________.

A) the Type A behavior pattern

51

Current evidence pinpoints __________ as a “toxic” ingredient of the Type A behavior pattern.

B) hostility

52

Sean has frequent angry outbursts. He is rude, disagreeable, critical, and condescending. Sean exhibits
__________.

A) expressed hostility

53

__________ is associated with high blood pressure and heart disease.

C) Ruminating about past anger-provoking events

54

In middle adulthood, stress management __________.

C) can limit the age-related rise in illness

55

Rosia viewed life as fluid. She expected change and accepted it as inevitable. When Rosia was faced
with a problem, she identified it and decided what to do about it. Rosia used a(n) __________ coping
strategy.

A) problem-centered

56

Effective emotion-focused coping __________.

D) helps people face problems more calmly

57

__________ coping is largely emotion-focused and self-blaming, impulsive, or escapist.

B) Ineffective

58

More than half of U.S. middle-aged adults __________.

A) are sedentary

59

__________ is vital in adopting, maintaining, and exerting oneself in an exercise regimen.

B) Self-efficacy

60

Jackelyn is a low-SES, sedentary 47-year-old. She is more likely than a high-SES agemate to mention
__________ as a barrier to exercise.

C) unsafe neighborhoods

61

Chrissy regards most experiences as controllable. She displays a committed approach to daily
activities and views change as a normal part of life and a chance for personal growth. Chrissy fits the
pattern of a __________ individual.

D) hardy

62

Wesley finds meaning in almost all his daily activities, even during stressful times. Wesley is
displaying which element of hardiness?

A) commitment

63

High-hardy individuals are likely to __________.

A) use active, problem-centered coping strategies in situations they can control

64

Adults with a history of __________ adversity exposure report __________.

C) modest lifetime; greater life satisfaction

65

Which statement is true about lifetime adversity?

A) People with modest lifetime adversity are less negatively affected by exposure to recent adversity.

66

People often rate middle-aged women as __________ than middle-aged men.

D) less attractive

67

__________ likely contributes to negative judgments of middle-aged women’s appearance, especially
by men.

B) Menopause

68

The double standard for gender and aging __________.

A) has become irrelevant

69

Most cognitive aging research has focused on intellectual __________.

D) deficits

70

Which statement is true about age-related changes in mental abilities?

C) Testing of college students and soldiers in the 1920s revealed an increase in intelligence in midlife.

71

Crystallized intelligence depends on __________.

B) accumulated knowledge and experience

72

Intelligence test items reflecting fluid abilities include __________.

D) spatial visualization

73

Which type of intelligence begins to decline in the twenties?

A) fluid

74

Many cross-sectional studies show that crystallized intelligence __________.

C) increases steadily through middle adulthood

75

In one study involving 2,500 mentally and physically healthy 16- to 85-year-olds, verbal IQ began to
decline in the __________.

D) eighties

76

Trends in both crystallized and fluid mental abilities reported from the Seattle Longitudinal Study
indicate that middle-aged adults __________.

C) are intellectually “in their prime,” not “over the hill”

77

Longitudinal research shows that from the twenties on, __________ decreases steadily.

C) perceptual speed

78

Hector, age 85, is likely to show greater decrements in __________.

B) numeric ability

79

Some theorists believe that a general slowing of __________ underlies nearly all age-related declines
in cognitive performance.

D) central nervous system functioning

80

As people discover that they are no longer as good as they once were at certain tasks, they
accommodate, shifting to activities that depend more on __________.

B) accumulated knowledge

81

Courtney, a baby boomer, is likely to score higher than her father at the same age on verbal memory,
inductive reasoning, and spatial orientation. Courtney’s performance compared to her father’s is likely due
in part to generational advances in __________.

C) education and technology

82

As processing speed slows, __________.

C) executive function declines

83

On both simple and complex reaction-time tasks, response time __________.

D) increases steadily from the early twenties into the nineties

84

Mounting evidence indicates that in healthy older adults, __________ predict(s) decrements in
reaction time and other cognitive abilities.

B) extent of myelin breakdown

85

On tests of complex abilities, the slower the reaction time, the __________ the score on __________.

C) lower; problem-solving tasks

86

Which statement is true about age-related slowing of cognitive processing?

B) One approach suggests that older adults experience greater loss of information as it moves through the
cognitive system.

87

Because older adults find ways to compensate for cognitive slowing on familiar tasks, their reaction
time __________.

A) is considerably better on verbal items than on nonverbal items

88

In middle and late adulthood, __________ working memory suffers much less than __________
working memory.

C) verbal; spatial

89

Domonique is an air traffic controller. Because of her occupational experiences, Domonique will
likely demonstrate smaller age-related declines in __________ than her middle-aged peers.

B) task-switching

90

Older adults’ ability to __________ is impaired relative to younger adults’.

A) recall studied information

91

Which statement is true about middle-aged students’ performance on working memory tasks?

C) They show performance declines only under pressured conditions.

92

In solving a math problem, Herman uses __________ memory.

D) procedural

93

Maria has trouble remembering where she parks her car in the large office parking lot. Her solution is
to park in the same area of the parking lot every day. She is using __________ knowledge.

B) metacognitive

94

Middle-aged adults display continued cognitive growth in the realm of __________.

C) practical problem solving

95

With regard to scientific knowledge, Ross has an extensive, highly organized, and integrated
knowledge base that can be used to support a high level of performance. Ross has __________ in science.

A) expertise

96

Which scientist is most likely at the height of expertise?

C) Dr. Lucerno, age 49

97

In a study examining the diverse ingredients of expert performance, middle-aged adults performed
more competently than younger adults in tasks involving __________.

D) organizational skills

98

Bronson manages a fast-food restaurant. Which individual with similar

D) Garfield, a 45-year-old

99

Middle-aged adults tend to be rational decision makers because they __________.

A) use practical problem-solving strategies

100

Which individual is most likely to be at the peak of creative accomplishment?

C) Shaunte, age 42

101

With age, many creators __________.

B) produce more works that integrate ideas

102

Which author is more likely to produce his or her most frequently cited works at a younger age?

A) Libby, a poet

103

Which statement is true about becoming a student in midlife?

B) Life transitions often trigger a return to college in midlife.

104

Those adult learners reporting high psychological stress typically include __________.

D) married women with nonsupportive partners

105

In college, __________ tend to take fewer credits and progress at a slower pace.

C) older women

106

Mature-age women learners list __________ as the most common reason for not completing their
degrees.

A) role overload

107

Which statement is true about mature-age college students?

D) Social support can make the difference between continuing in school and dropping out.

108

Mia returned to college at age 45. She will probably need help in __________.

C) choosing the most appropriate courses

109

Middle-aged college students __________.

D) provide valuable intergenerational contact