AAD CH 12 Flashcards

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According to Erikson, the major personality attainment of adolescence is __________.

B) identity


Although the seeds of identity formation are planted early, not until __________ do people
become absorbed in this task.

C) late adolescence and early adulthood


Eighteen-year-old Gisela stopped attending her church youth group and Sunday services, and,
contrary to her conservative parents’ beliefs, became immersed in a liberal political movement.
Two months later, she lost interest in the movement and joined a new church. According to
Erikson, Gisela is experiencing __________.

A) an identity crisis


Once formed, identity __________.

B) continues to be refined in adulthood


According to Erikson, if the psychological conflict of adolescence is resolved negatively, a
young person experiences __________.

D) role confusion


For most young people, identity development __________.

C) is a process of exploration followed by commitment


During adolescence, the young person’s vision of self becomes __________.

B) more well-organized


Which individual is the most likely to describe herself as “shy,” “outgoing,” and “a smart

B) 13-year-old Evangelina


By late adolescence, cognitive changes enable teenagers describing themselves to

D) combine their traits into an organized system


Which statement exemplifies 15-year-old Noah’s awareness that psychological qualities can
vary from one situation to the next?

B) “I have a fairly quick temper.”


Seventeen-year-old Amberly is likely to place more emphasis on __________ in her self-
description than 12-year-old Corey.

A) social virtues


Landon’s parents wonder how his self-esteem will differentiate in adolescence. Which
dimensions of self-evaluation is he likely to add to those of middle childhood?

A) close friendship, romantic appeal, and job competence


Fourteen-year-old Wesley’s self-esteem is likely to __________ from mid- to late

B) rise


Which parenting style is predictive of high self-esteem in adolescence?

C) authoritative


Laurent plans to major in engineering in college. When asked if he might change his career
path, he responds, “I might, but I doubt it. I’ve spent a lot of time studying my options. I’m
pretty sure engineering is right for me.” Laurent is demonstrating identity __________.

D) achievement


Individuals in identity moratorium __________.

A) have not yet made definite commitments


Emelia accepts her family’s religious beliefs without question. She has never reconsidered
them. She is characterized by identity __________.

B) foreclosure


Identity-diffused individuals __________.

D) are not actively trying to reach values and goals


When asked about his political beliefs, Paolo responds, “Oh, I don’t know. It doesn’t make
much difference to me.” Paolo is demonstrating identity __________.

C) diffusion


The process of identity formation typically involves __________.

A) in-depth exploration and reconsideration


College students usually __________.

C) make more identity progress than they did in high school because college offers opportunities
for exploration


Both identity __________ and __________ are psychologically healthy routes to mature self-

D) moratorium; achievement


At times, Drucilla is anxious and depressed about finding commitments, but she uses an
active, information-gathering cognitive style to make personal decisions and solve problems: She
seeks out relevant information, evaluates it carefully, and critically reflects on her views.
Drucilla is experiencing identity __________.

B) moratorium


Identity-foreclosed individuals __________.

C) display a dogmatic, inflexible cognitive style


__________ individuals are the least mature in identity development.

A) Long-term diffused


Eighteen-year-old Hershel assumes that absolute truth is always attainable. Hershel is
probably __________.

D) identity-foreclosed


Young people who __________ tend to have committed to values and goals and are on their
way to identity achievement.

A) feel attached to their parents but also free to voice their own opinions


Teenagers with __________ are more involved in exploring relationship issues, such as what
they value in close friends and in a life partner.

C) warm, trusting peer ties


In a Canadian study asking 12- to 20-year-olds to justify why they regarded themselves as
the same continuous person, Native Canadian youths __________.

B) emphasized a constantly transforming self, resulting from new roles and relationships


Xiao is an adolescent immigrant from a culture that values interdependent qualities. The
longer his family has been in the United States, the less Xiao feels committed to obeying his
parents and fulfilling family obligations. As a result, Xiao may experience __________.

A) acculturative stress


Which strategy helps minority adolescents resolve identity conflicts constructively?

C) Ensure that schools respect minority youths’ native languages.


Biculturally identified adolescents tend to __________.

B) have especially positive relations with members of other ethnic groups


Which statement about Lawrence Kohlberg’s well-known “Heinz dilemma” is true?

C) It is the way an individual reasons about the dilemma that determines moral maturity.


At Kohlberg’s preconventional level, individuals __________.

A) accept the rules of authority figures and judge actions by their consequences


Gilles finds it difficult to consider two points of view when presented with the “Heinz
dilemma.” He tends to overlook people’s intentions and, instead, focuses on fear of authority and
avoidance of punishment as reasons for behaving morally. Gilles is at which of Kohlberg’s
stages of moral development?

A) Stage 1, the punishment and obedience orientation


At Kohlberg’s Stage 2 of moral development, children __________.

D) view right action as flowing from self-interest and understand reciprocity as equal exchange
of favors


Emma believes that actively maintaining the current social system ensures positive
relationships and societal order. She is at Kohlberg’s __________ level.

B) conventional


In response to the “Heinz dilemma,” Marlee says, “No one will think you’re bad if you steal
the drug, but your family will think you’re an inhumane husband if you don’t. If you let your
wife die, you’ll never be able to look anyone in the face again.” Marlee is at which of Kohlberg’s
stages of moral development?

C) Stage 3, the “good boy–good girl” orientation


In response to the “Heinz dilemma,” Dolph states, “Even if his wife is dying, it is still
Heinz’s duty as a citizen to obey the law. If everyone started breaking the law, there’d be no
civilization, just crime and violence.” Dolph is at which of Kohlberg’s stages of moral

B) Stage 4, the social-order-maintaining orientation


Individuals at Kohlberg’s postconventional level __________.

C) define morality in terms of abstract principles and values that apply to all societies


At Kohlberg’s Stage __________, individuals can imagine alternatives to their own social
order, and they emphasize fair procedures for interpreting and changing the law.

C) 5, the social contract orientation


In response to the “Heinz dilemma,” Ruby explains, “It doesn’t make sense to put respect for
property above respect for life itself. Respect for human life is absolute.” Ruby is at which of
Kohlberg’s stages of moral development?

D) Stage 6, the universal ethical principle orientation


Kohlberg’s original research and other longitudinal studies confirm that with few exceptions,
individuals __________.

B) move through his first four stages in the predicted order


Although Kohlberg proposes six stages of moral development, __________.

A) few people move beyond Stage 4


According to one reexamination of Kohlberg’s stages, __________.

C) moral maturity can be found in a revised understanding of Stages 3 and 4


The influence of situational factors on moral judgments indicates that like Piaget’s cognitive
stages, Kohlberg’s moral stages are __________.

D) loosely organized and overlapping


Gilligan argues that Kohlberg’s theory of moral understanding __________.

A) does not adequately represent the morality of girls and women


On hypothetical dilemmas as well as everyday moral problems, adolescent and adult females

C) display reasoning at the same stage as their male agemates, and often at a higher stage


Some evidence indicates that although the morality of males and females taps both care and
justice, __________.

B) males more than females tend to focus equally on justice and care


In diverse Western and non-Western cultures, parent‒child disputes over __________
increase during the teenage years.

C) personal affairs


With age, teenagers __________.

D) increasingly defend the government’s right to limit individual freedom to engage in risky
behaviors, in the interest of the larger public good


Adolescents who __________ are advanced in moral reasoning.

B) more often participate in conversations with their friends


Moral reasoning typically progresses to Kohlberg’s higher stages the longer a person

C) remains in school


Which statement about the influence of schooling on moral reasoning is true?

D) College students who report more perspective-taking opportunities tend to be advanced in
moral reasoning.


College students who __________ are advanced in moral reasoning.

B) indicate they are more aware of social diversity


Responses to moral dilemmas in both village societies and industrialized cultures that highly
value interdependence __________ than in North America and Western Europe.

C) are more other-directed


Higher-stage moral thinkers __________.

D) more often defend victims of injustice


The connection between more mature moral reasoning and action is __________.

C) modest


In a study of low-SES African-American and Hispanic teenagers, those who emphasized
__________ in their self-descriptions displayed exceptional levels of community service.

A) moral traits and goals


Which factor is likely to strengthen moral identity?

B) community service


About 70 percent of Americans __________.

B) rate religion as very important in their lives


Compared with nonaffiliated youths, teenagers who remain part of a religious community are

C) advantaged in moral values and behavior


According to the pragmatic approach to morality, __________.

A) everyday moral judgments are practical tools that people use to achieve their goals


Seventeen-year-old Saffron strives to rely on herself and not on her parents for decision
making. Saffron is developing __________.

C) autonomy


Although 15-year-old Darnell does not yet make many independent decisions, he is relying
more on himself and less on his parents for support and guidance. Darnell is developing the
__________ component of adolescent autonomy.

C) emotional


Seventeen-year-old Inez carefully weighs her own judgment and the suggestions of others to
arrive at a personally satisfying, well-reasoned independent decision. Inez has developed the
__________ component of adolescent autonomy.

A) behavioral


An improved ability to reason about social relationships leads teenagers to __________.

B) view their parents as “just people”


Effective parenting of adolescents strikes a balance between __________ and __________.

B) connection; separation


Parents who __________ interfere with the development of autonomy.

C) are psychologically controlling


Which factor or set of factors is linked to a variety of favorable outcomes, such as prevention
of delinquency, reduction in sexual activity, improved school performance, and positive
psychological well-being?

B) consistent parental monitoring of daily activities, through a cooperative relationship in which
the adolescent willingly discloses information


In cultures that place a high priority on interdependence, __________.

A) teenagers view autonomy as self-endorsed decision making


Throughout adolescence, __________ is the single most consistent predictor of mental

A) the quality of the parent–child relationship


Mild to moderate family conflict __________.

C) informs parents of teenagers’ changing needs, signaling a need for adjustments in the parent–
child relationship


The reduced time that Western teenagers spend with their parents results from __________.

D) the large amount of unstructured time available to teenagers


Parents who __________ usually find it easier to grant teenagers appropriate autonomy and
experience less conflict with them.

C) are financially secure and content with their marriages


During adolescence, sibling __________.

A) relationships often become less intense, in both positive and negative feelings


Throughout adolescence, __________.

C) attachment between siblings remains strong for most young people


Number of best friends declines from about __________ in early adolescence to __________
in adulthood.

C) four to six; one or two


Sonja, age 15, is likely to report that the most important characteristic of friendship is

D) intimacy


__________ rises over the adolescent years.

A) Self-disclosure between friends


Adolescents are less __________ their friends than they were in childhood.

B) possessive of


In a study in which ethnically diverse boys from low-income families were asked to describe
their friendships, __________ boys were more likely than others to resist conforming to gender

A) Hispanic


When focusing on deeper thoughts and feelings, adolescent friends Glenda and Svetlana
repeatedly mull over problems and negative emotions, which sometimes triggers anxiety and
depression. Glenda and Svetlana are demonstrating __________.

C) corumination


__________ is the preferred means of electronic interaction between teenage friends.

A) Texting


Which statement about cell phones and the Internet is true?

C) Girls call their friends more often than boys.


Very high social media use is linked to __________.

B) boredom and depression


Which statement about adolescent friendships is true?

B) Close friendships provide a foundation for future intimate relationships.


Twelve-year-old Iola spends most of her time with a group of six girls who are friends and
have similar family backgrounds, attitudes, interests, and values. This group is Isabel’s

C) clique


“Brains,” “jocks,” “populars,” and “druggies” are typical examples of teenage __________.

B) crowds


Membership in a crowd is based on __________.

C) reputation and stereotype


As adolescents settle on personal values and goals, __________.

B) crowds decline in importance


Early adolescents tend to mention __________ as a reason for dating.

A) achieving peer status


Early dating __________.

C) is related to delinquency and poor academic achievement


Which statement about adolescent dating is true?

A) Security of attachment to parents and friends predicts gratifying romantic ties among sexual
minority teens.


Mr. Contreras is concerned about his 17-year-old daughter, who has been exchanging text
messages with one particular boy. You should tell him that __________.

B) close romantic ties among older teenagers promote self-esteem and identity progress


The most common psychological problem of adolescence is __________.

D) depression


Adolescents are __________ likely than younger children to __________.

B) more; remain depressed when reassessed at older ages


Teenage girls are twice as likely as boys to __________.

A) report persistent depressed mood


Twin studies indicate that depression is __________ heritable.

C) moderately


Which statement about gender differences in adolescent depression is true?

B) Girls with either an androgynous or a “masculine” gender identity show low rates of
depressive symptoms.


The suicide rate is low in __________, intermediate in __________, and high in

A) Spain; the United States; Finland


The number of boys who __________ exceeds the number of girls by a ratio of over 4 to 1.

B) kill themselves


Which teenager is at the highest risk for suicide?

A) Lakota, a Native-American boy


__________ attempt suicide three times as often as other adolescents.

B) Sexual minority youths


Which factor contributes to the sharp rise in suicide from childhood to adolescence?

A) belief in the personal fable


Which statement about teen suicide is true?

C) Teenage suicides often occur in clusters, with one death increasing the likelihood of others
among depressed peers.


When asked directly and confidentially about lawbreaking, __________ teenagers admit to
having committed some sort of offense—usually a minor crime, such as petty stealing or
disorderly conduct.

D) almost all


Police arrests and self-reports show that delinquency __________.

B) rises over adolescence and then declines from the early twenties on


Serious violent crime is __________.

C) mostly the domain of boys


Delinquent youths, regardless of SES and ethnicity, often experience parenting that is

B) high in conflict


As a child, David was negative, restless, willful, and physically aggressive. By age 8, he
was already engaging in petty theft. Jason was a happy child who did well in school but began
displaying antisocial behavior around age 13, and gradually moved to more severe delinquent
acts. Which statement is true?

C) David is at higher risk for leading a life-course pattern of aggression and criminality.


With regard to adolescent delinquency, early-onset youths __________.

D) usually inherit traits that predispose them to aggressiveness


The longer antisocial young people spend in prison, the more likely they are to __________.

A) sustain a life of crime


Some studies on zero tolerance policies have found that they __________,

D) heighten school dropout and antisocial behavior


Multisystemic therapy aimed at preventing delinquency __________.

B) leads to improvement in parent–adolescent relationships and school performance