AAD CH 2
Christine is 5′7′′ and has blue eyes. Such directly observable characteristics are called __________.
Phenotypes depend in part on an individual’s __________.
Our __________ determine(s) our species and influences all our unique characteristics.
The __________ is the control center of a cell in the human body.
Chromosomes look like __________.
Which statement about human chromosomes is true?
B) They store and transmit genetic information.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) looks like a __________.
C) twisted ladder
A __________ is a segment of DNA along the length of the chromosome.
Protein-coding genes __________.
A) directly affect our body’s characteristics
The area surrounding the cell nucleus is called the __________.
__________, which trigger chemical reactions throughout the body, are
the biological foundation on
which our characteristics are built.
Lynn, a Canadian, and Sasha, a Russian, are about __________ percent genetically identical.
Which of the following statements about human genetic makeup is true?
C) The species-specific genetic material responsible for human attributes is extensive.
The sperm and the ovum are sex cells, or __________.
A gamete __________.
C) contains 23 chromosomes
__________ halves the number of chromosomes normally present in body cells.
When sperm and ovum unite at conception, a(n) __________ results.
The exchange of chromosome segments during meiosis results in __________.
B) an extremely low likelihood that nontwin siblings will be genetically identical
A healthy man can father a child __________.
A) at any age after sexual maturity
Autosomes are chromosomes that are __________.
D) not sex cells
In females, the twenty-third pair of chromosomes is called __________.
Taylor’s twenty-third pair of chromosomes is XY. Taylor is __________.
Patsy and Terry are fraternal twins. This type of twinning results from __________.
C) the release and fertilization of two ova
Fraternal twins are __________.
B) no more alike than ordinary siblings
In industrialized nations, fraternal twinning occurs __________.
D) more often among women taking fertility drugs
A zygote that separates into two clusters of cells instead of just one produces __________.
A) identical twins
Animal research shows that a variety of environmental influences
prompt monozygotic twinning,
C) variation in oxygen levels
During their early years, children of single births __________ than twins.
B) are healthier
In dominant–recessive inheritance, the one allele that affects the
child’s characteristics is called
Phil has blond hair. This means that Phil inherited a __________ pair
of __________ alleles for hair
A) homozygous; recessive
Eric is more likely than his sister to be negatively affected by X-linked disorders because __________.
C) the Y chromosome lacks many corresponding genes to override those on the X chromosome
Which of the following is true about sex differences?
D) Worldwide, a greater number of boys are conceived and born than girls.
In which disease or disorder does genomic imprinting operate on the sex chromosomes?
A) fragile X syndrome
Which of the following statements about mutation is true?
A) Some mutations occur spontaneously, simply by chance.
In __________, normal body cells mutate, an event that can occur at any time of life.
A) somatic mutation
Terrace is 6′2′′ and weighs 165 pounds, while his brother, Jayquan,
is 5′9′′ and weighs 210 pounds.
These traits are due to __________.
B) polygenic inheritance
Most chromosomal defects result from __________.
C) mistakes occurring during meiosis
As a result of a failure of the twenty-first pair of chromosomes to
separate during meiosis, Aziz
received three of these chromosomes rather than the normal two. Aziz has __________ syndrome.
About 70 percent of individuals with Down syndrome who live past age
40 show symptoms of
Research on sex chromosome disorders shows that __________.
C) females who are missing an X chromosome often have trouble with spatial relationships
Manny inherited an extra X chromosome. If he is like many boys with
Klinefelter syndrome, Manny
will have difficulty __________.
Which of the following is true about genetic counseling?
B) It helps couples assess their chances of giving birth to a baby with a hereditary disorder.
If a family history of intellectual disabilities, psychological
disorders, physical defects, or inherited
diseases exists, a genetic counselor prepares a __________, which identifies affected relatives in a
couple’s family tree.
Which statement about donor insemination is true?
C) It permits women without a male partner to become pregnant.
Usually, in vitro fertilization __________.
C) is used to treat women whose fallopian tubes are permanently damaged
Which statement about children conceived through reproductive technologies is true?
B) Compared with their naturally conceived counterparts, caregiving
is somewhat warmer for young
children conceived through donor insemination or in vitro fertilization.
To detect developmental problems before birth, doctors use __________.
A) prenatal diagnostic methods
Except for __________, prenatal diagnosis should not be used
routinely because of injury risk to the
D) maternal blood analysis
__________ is the most widely used prenatal diagnostic method.
Which prenatal diagnostic method is used after in vitro fertilization but before implantation?
D) preimplantation genetic diagnosis
The modification of gene-specified proteins involved in biological
aging and disease is known as
Adopted children and adolescents tend to __________.
D) have more learning and emotional difficulties than other children
Most adopted children __________.
A) fare well, despite the risks
When Erin and Brooke cooperate, their parents are likely to be warm
and gentle in the future. This is
an example of a(n) __________ influence between parents and their children.
Amelia and Andrew praise and stimulate their children, and they
mutually support each other’s
parenting behaviors. Amelia and Andrew engage in effective __________.
Young people today are more likely to have __________ than at any time in history.
A) older relatives
People who work in skilled and semiskilled manual occupations tend to
__________ than people in
professional and technical occupations.
B) have more children
When asked about personal qualities they desire for their children,
higher-SES parents are more likely
to emphasize __________.
Of all Western nations, __________ has the highest percentage of extremely poor children.
A) the United States
Nearly 10 percent of __________ children live in deep poverty.
In several studies, affluent teenagers were __________ likely than youths in general to __________.
B) more; report high levels of anxiety and depression
An experimental study of neighborhood mobility found that compared
with peers who remained in
poverty-stricken areas, children and youths who moved into low-poverty neighborhoods and remained
there for several years showed __________.
B) better school achievement
Neighborhood resources __________.
D) have a greater impact on economically disadvantaged than on well-to-do young people
Longitudinal follow-up research on the Better Beginnings, Better
Futures Project of Ontario, Canada,
revealed a(n) __________.
C) improved sense of community connection
Well-educated adults tend to have __________ than adults with less education.
B) access to more social support
One reason that the American people have been reluctant to accept the
idea of publicly supported child
care is that __________.
D) American values emphasize independence and self-reliance
In __________, people hold different beliefs and customs from those held by the larger culture.
Which of the following is true about extended-family households?
D) Extended-family households are a vital feature of black family
life that has promoted resilience in its
In cultures that emphasize collectivism, people value __________ more.
C) collaborative endeavors
The United States is more __________ than most Western European
countries, which place greater
weight on __________.
D) individualistic; collectivism
In the United States, public policies safeguarding __________ lag behind policies for __________.
B) children and youths; older adults
__________ does not rank well on any key measure of children’s health and well-being.
D) The United States
A comparison of the United States with other nations on indicators of
children’s health and well-being
shows that the United States __________.
A) has a higher infant death rate than Canada
Which statement about affordable child care in the United States is true?
A) Much of it is mediocre to poor in quality.
One reason that public policies safeguarding children are slow to
emerge in the United States is that
C) children cannot vote or speak out to protect their own interests
Which statement about Medicare is true?
B) About two-thirds of older adults’ health expenditures are covered by Medicare.
Which of the following is true about the minimum income guaranteed to
Americans age 65 and older
from Social Security?
C) The guaranteed amount is below the poverty line.
Senior citizens in the United States today are __________.
B) more likely than other age groups to be among the “near poor”
The Children’s Defense Fund is a nonprofit organization that __________.
D) engages in public education and partners with other organizations to improve policies for children
Behavioral genetics is a(n) __________.
C) field devoted to uncovering the contributions of nature and nurture to human diversity
A growing number of researchers regard the question of how much
heredity and environment each
contribute to differences among people as __________.
Dr. Rudy wants to compare the characteristics of family members.
Which type of research would you
recommend that Dr. Rudy use?
A) kinship study
Currently, most kinship findings support a __________ role for heredity in __________.
B) moderate; intelligence
Heritability estimates are __________.
D) likely to exaggerate the role of heredity
The concept of __________ means that because of their genetic makeup,
individuals differ in their
responsiveness to qualities of the environment.
A) gene‒environment interaction
According to the concept of gene‒environment correlation, __________.
C) our genes influence the environments to which we are exposed
The child has no control over __________ correlation.
Bart and Nadia are gymnasts. Their 4-year-old son, Dylan,
participates in children’s gymnastics. This
is an example of __________.
D) passive correlation
A gene‒environment correlation is evocative when __________.
D) a child’s heredity influences responses that strengthen the child’s original style
Angela, a cooperative and attentive child, receives more patient and
sensitive interactions from her
parents than Carlos, who is inattentive and hyperactive. This is an example of a(n) __________ gene–
Identical twins evoke __________.
C) similar maternal treatment in warmth and negativity because of their identical heredity
__________ gene–environment correlation becomes common at older ages.
Anthony, a well-coordinated and muscular boy, decides to play high
school football. This is an
example of __________ gene–environment correlation.
Emma, an intellectually curious child, is a familiar patron at her
local library. This is an example of
Which age group is likely to do more niche-picking?
__________ explains why pairs of identical twins reared apart during
childhood and later reunited
may find that they have similar hobbies, food preferences, and vocations.
Which statement is true of the influence of parents and other caring adults on gene expression?
B) They can uncouple unfavorable gene‒environment correlations by
providing children with positive
Which concept emphasizes development resulting from ongoing
bidirectional exchanges between
heredity and all levels of the environment?
__________ help explain why identical twins, though precisely the
same in DNA sequencing,
sometimes display strikingly different phenotypes with age.
D) Methylation levels
Environmental modification of gene expression __________.
C) can occur at any age, even prenatally
Parental post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is __________.
A) a strong predictor of child PTSD
In a study of Tutsi women who were pregnant during the genocide of
1994, in comparison with non-
exposed mothers, mothers who witnessed the genocidal carnage had __________.
B) substantially higher PTSD and depression scores, and their children displayed stronger GR methylation
Development is best understood as __________.
C) a series of complex exchanges between nature and nurture