AAD CH 2

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1

Christine is 5′7′′ and has blue eyes. Such directly observable characteristics are called __________.

B) phenotypes

2

Phenotypes depend in part on an individual’s __________.

C) genotype

3

Our __________ determine(s) our species and influences all our unique characteristics.

A) genotype

4

The __________ is the control center of a cell in the human body.

D) nucleus

5

Chromosomes look like __________.

C) rods

6

Which statement about human chromosomes is true?

B) They store and transmit genetic information.

7

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) looks like a __________.

C) twisted ladder

8

A __________ is a segment of DNA along the length of the chromosome.

C) gene

9

Protein-coding genes __________.

A) directly affect our body’s characteristics

10

The area surrounding the cell nucleus is called the __________.

B) cytoplasm

11

__________, which trigger chemical reactions throughout the body, are the biological foundation on
which our characteristics are built.

B) Proteins

12

Lynn, a Canadian, and Sasha, a Russian, are about __________ percent genetically identical.

D) 99.6

13

Which of the following statements about human genetic makeup is true?

C) The species-specific genetic material responsible for human attributes is extensive.

14

The sperm and the ovum are sex cells, or __________.

B) gametes

15

A gamete __________.

C) contains 23 chromosomes

16

__________ halves the number of chromosomes normally present in body cells.

D) Meiosis

17

When sperm and ovum unite at conception, a(n) __________ results.

C) zygote

18

The exchange of chromosome segments during meiosis results in __________.

B) an extremely low likelihood that nontwin siblings will be genetically identical

19

A healthy man can father a child __________.

A) at any age after sexual maturity

20

Autosomes are chromosomes that are __________.

D) not sex cells

21

In females, the twenty-third pair of chromosomes is called __________.

C) XX

22

Taylor’s twenty-third pair of chromosomes is XY. Taylor is __________.

A) male

23

Patsy and Terry are fraternal twins. This type of twinning results from __________.

C) the release and fertilization of two ova

24

Fraternal twins are __________.

B) no more alike than ordinary siblings

25

In industrialized nations, fraternal twinning occurs __________.

D) more often among women taking fertility drugs

26

A zygote that separates into two clusters of cells instead of just one produces __________.

A) identical twins

27

Animal research shows that a variety of environmental influences prompt monozygotic twinning,
including __________.

C) variation in oxygen levels

28

During their early years, children of single births __________ than twins.

B) are healthier

29

In dominant–recessive inheritance, the one allele that affects the child’s characteristics is called
__________.

B) dominant

30

Phil has blond hair. This means that Phil inherited a __________ pair of __________ alleles for hair
color.

A) homozygous; recessive

31

Eric is more likely than his sister to be negatively affected by X-linked disorders because __________.

C) the Y chromosome lacks many corresponding genes to override those on the X chromosome

32

Which of the following is true about sex differences?

D) Worldwide, a greater number of boys are conceived and born than girls.

33

In which disease or disorder does genomic imprinting operate on the sex chromosomes?

A) fragile X syndrome

34

Which of the following statements about mutation is true?

A) Some mutations occur spontaneously, simply by chance.

35

In __________, normal body cells mutate, an event that can occur at any time of life.

A) somatic mutation

36

Terrace is 6′2′′ and weighs 165 pounds, while his brother, Jayquan, is 5′9′′ and weighs 210 pounds.
These traits are due to __________.

B) polygenic inheritance

37

Most chromosomal defects result from __________.

C) mistakes occurring during meiosis

38

As a result of a failure of the twenty-first pair of chromosomes to separate during meiosis, Aziz
received three of these chromosomes rather than the normal two. Aziz has __________ syndrome.

D) Down

39

About 70 percent of individuals with Down syndrome who live past age 40 show symptoms of
__________ disease.

C) Alzheimer’s

40

Research on sex chromosome disorders shows that __________.

C) females who are missing an X chromosome often have trouble with spatial relationships

41

Manny inherited an extra X chromosome. If he is like many boys with Klinefelter syndrome, Manny
will have difficulty __________.

A) reading

42

Which of the following is true about genetic counseling?

B) It helps couples assess their chances of giving birth to a baby with a hereditary disorder.

43

If a family history of intellectual disabilities, psychological disorders, physical defects, or inherited
diseases exists, a genetic counselor prepares a __________, which identifies affected relatives in a
couple’s family tree.

A) pedigree

44

Which statement about donor insemination is true?

C) It permits women without a male partner to become pregnant.

45

Usually, in vitro fertilization __________.

C) is used to treat women whose fallopian tubes are permanently damaged

46

Which statement about children conceived through reproductive technologies is true?

B) Compared with their naturally conceived counterparts, caregiving is somewhat warmer for young
children conceived through donor insemination or in vitro fertilization.

47

To detect developmental problems before birth, doctors use __________.

A) prenatal diagnostic methods

48

Except for __________, prenatal diagnosis should not be used routinely because of injury risk to the
developing organism.

D) maternal blood analysis

49

__________ is the most widely used prenatal diagnostic method.

A) Amniocentesis

50

Which prenatal diagnostic method is used after in vitro fertilization but before implantation?

D) preimplantation genetic diagnosis

51

The modification of gene-specified proteins involved in biological aging and disease is known as
________.

C) proteomics

52

Adopted children and adolescents tend to __________.

D) have more learning and emotional difficulties than other children

53

Most adopted children __________.

A) fare well, despite the risks

54

When Erin and Brooke cooperate, their parents are likely to be warm and gentle in the future. This is
an example of a(n) __________ influence between parents and their children.

A) direct

55

Amelia and Andrew praise and stimulate their children, and they mutually support each other’s
parenting behaviors. Amelia and Andrew engage in effective __________.

C) coparenting

56

Young people today are more likely to have __________ than at any time in history.

A) older relatives

57

People who work in skilled and semiskilled manual occupations tend to __________ than people in
professional and technical occupations.

B) have more children

58

When asked about personal qualities they desire for their children, higher-SES parents are more likely
to emphasize __________.

C) happiness

59

Of all Western nations, __________ has the highest percentage of extremely poor children.

A) the United States

60

Nearly 10 percent of __________ children live in deep poverty.

B) U.S.

61

In several studies, affluent teenagers were __________ likely than youths in general to __________.

B) more; report high levels of anxiety and depression

62

An experimental study of neighborhood mobility found that compared with peers who remained in
poverty-stricken areas, children and youths who moved into low-poverty neighborhoods and remained
there for several years showed __________.

B) better school achievement

63

Neighborhood resources __________.

D) have a greater impact on economically disadvantaged than on well-to-do young people

64

Longitudinal follow-up research on the Better Beginnings, Better Futures Project of Ontario, Canada,
revealed a(n) __________.

C) improved sense of community connection

65

Well-educated adults tend to have __________ than adults with less education.

B) access to more social support

66

One reason that the American people have been reluctant to accept the idea of publicly supported child
care is that __________.

D) American values emphasize independence and self-reliance

67

In __________, people hold different beliefs and customs from those held by the larger culture.

B) subcultures

68

Which of the following is true about extended-family households?

D) Extended-family households are a vital feature of black family life that has promoted resilience in its
members.

69

In cultures that emphasize collectivism, people value __________ more.

C) collaborative endeavors

70

The United States is more __________ than most Western European countries, which place greater
weight on __________.

D) individualistic; collectivism

71

In the United States, public policies safeguarding __________ lag behind policies for __________.

B) children and youths; older adults

72

__________ does not rank well on any key measure of children’s health and well-being.

D) The United States

73

A comparison of the United States with other nations on indicators of children’s health and well-being
shows that the United States __________.

A) has a higher infant death rate than Canada

74

Which statement about affordable child care in the United States is true?

A) Much of it is mediocre to poor in quality.

75

One reason that public policies safeguarding children are slow to emerge in the United States is that
__________.

C) children cannot vote or speak out to protect their own interests

76

Which statement about Medicare is true?

B) About two-thirds of older adults’ health expenditures are covered by Medicare.

77

Which of the following is true about the minimum income guaranteed to Americans age 65 and older
from Social Security?

C) The guaranteed amount is below the poverty line.

78

Senior citizens in the United States today are __________.

B) more likely than other age groups to be among the “near poor”

79

The Children’s Defense Fund is a nonprofit organization that __________.

D) engages in public education and partners with other organizations to improve policies for children

80

Behavioral genetics is a(n) __________.

C) field devoted to uncovering the contributions of nature and nurture to human diversity

81

A growing number of researchers regard the question of how much heredity and environment each
contribute to differences among people as __________.

A) unanswerable

82

Dr. Rudy wants to compare the characteristics of family members. Which type of research would you
recommend that Dr. Rudy use?

A) kinship study

83

Currently, most kinship findings support a __________ role for heredity in __________.

B) moderate; intelligence

84

Heritability estimates are __________.

D) likely to exaggerate the role of heredity

85

The concept of __________ means that because of their genetic makeup, individuals differ in their
responsiveness to qualities of the environment.

A) gene‒environment interaction

86

According to the concept of gene‒environment correlation, __________.

C) our genes influence the environments to which we are exposed

87

The child has no control over __________ correlation.

A) passive

88

Bart and Nadia are gymnasts. Their 4-year-old son, Dylan, participates in children’s gymnastics. This
is an example of __________.

D) passive correlation

89

A gene‒environment correlation is evocative when __________.

D) a child’s heredity influences responses that strengthen the child’s original style

90

Angela, a cooperative and attentive child, receives more patient and sensitive interactions from her
parents than Carlos, who is inattentive and hyperactive. This is an example of a(n) __________ gene–
environment correlation.

B) evocative

91

Identical twins evoke __________.

C) similar maternal treatment in warmth and negativity because of their identical heredity

92

__________ gene–environment correlation becomes common at older ages.

B) Active

93

Anthony, a well-coordinated and muscular boy, decides to play high school football. This is an
example of __________ gene–environment correlation.

A) active

94

Emma, an intellectually curious child, is a familiar patron at her local library. This is an example of
__________.

B) niche-picking

95

Which age group is likely to do more niche-picking?

A) adolescents

96

__________ explains why pairs of identical twins reared apart during childhood and later reunited
may find that they have similar hobbies, food preferences, and vocations.

D) Niche-picking

97

Which statement is true of the influence of parents and other caring adults on gene expression?

B) They can uncouple unfavorable gene‒environment correlations by providing children with positive
experiences.

98

Which concept emphasizes development resulting from ongoing bidirectional exchanges between
heredity and all levels of the environment?

C) epigenesis

99

__________ help explain why identical twins, though precisely the same in DNA sequencing,
sometimes display strikingly different phenotypes with age.

D) Methylation levels

100

Environmental modification of gene expression __________.

C) can occur at any age, even prenatally

101

Parental post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is __________.

A) a strong predictor of child PTSD

102

In a study of Tutsi women who were pregnant during the genocide of 1994, in comparison with non-
exposed mothers, mothers who witnessed the genocidal carnage had __________.

B) substantially higher PTSD and depression scores, and their children displayed stronger GR methylation

103

Development is best understood as __________.

C) a series of complex exchanges between nature and nurture