AAD CH 1 Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 3 years ago by ukhan5
7,505 views
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Dr. Langley’s work is devoted to understanding constancy and change throughout the lifespan. Dr.
Langley’s field of study is __________.

D) developmental science

2

Although great diversity characterizes the interests and concerns of investigators who study
development, they share a single goal: to identify __________.

D) those factors that influence consistencies and transformations in people from conception to death

3

Developmental science is __________ because it has grown through the combined efforts of people
from many fields of study.

A) interdisciplinary

4

A theory of development __________.

B) describes, explains, and predicts behavior

5

According to the __________ view of development, the difference between the immature and mature
being is simply one of amount or complexity.

D) continuous

6

The discontinuous view of development holds that __________.

C) infants and children have unique ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving

7

Dr. Kostel believes that development takes place in stages. This belief is consistent with the
__________ perspective.

C) discontinuous

8

New evidence increasingly emphasizes that __________.

D) people not only are affected by but also contribute to the contexts in which they develop

9

Tammy’s father is an exceptional gymnast. When Tammy was just a toddler, her father believed that
Tammy already showed great promise as a gymnast. Tammy’s father probably believes that athletic
ability is mostly determined by __________.

C) nature

10

Although Justin spent his first 18 months in an orphanage, his adoptive mother believes sensitive
caregiving will help Justin overcome his early experiences. Justin’s mother emphasizes the role of
__________ in development.

A) nurture

11

Theorists who contend that powerful negative events in the first few years cannot be fully overcome
by later, more positive ones emphasize __________.

B) stability

12

Theorists who emphasize plasticity believe that __________.

A) change in response to influential experiences is possible

13

Increasingly, researchers view human development as __________.

D) a perpetually ongoing process

14

The lifespan perspective on human development assumes that development is __________.

B) multidimensional and multidirectional

15

According to the lifespan perspective, __________ is supreme in its impact on the life course.

D) no age period

16

Max, age 65, learned to play the piano at a local senior center. Max demonstrates that __________.

C) development is plastic at all ages

17

Which statement provides an example of an age-graded influence?

B) Frank got his driver’s license at age 16.

18

People born during the baby boom between 1946 and 1964 tend to be alike in ways that set them apart
from people born at other times, due to __________ influences.

B) history-graded

19

__________ influences are irregular and do not follow a predictable timetable.

A) Nonnormative

20

Although Betty grew up in a rundown neighborhood, had divorced parents, and rarely saw her father,
she is a successful, happy, and healthy adult. Betty’s ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to
development is known as __________.

B) resilience

21

The most consistent asset of resilient children is __________.

A) a strong bond with a competent, caring adult

22

The baby boomers __________.

D) were labeled a narcissistic, indulged, “me” generation

23

As a generation, the baby boomers are __________ than any previous mid- or late-life cohort.

D) healthier, better educated, and financially better off

24

__________ is regarded as the founder of the child study movement.

B) G. Stanley Hall

25

Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution emphasized __________ and __________.

D) natural selection; survival of the fittest

26

G. Stanley Hall and his student Arnold Gesell __________.

B) launched the normative approach

27

Arnold Gesell __________.

A) was among the first to make knowledge about child development meaningful to parents

28

Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon __________.

D) constructed the first successful intelligence test

29

The first successful intelligence test was originally constructed to __________.

C) identify children with learning problems for placement in special classes

30

Dr. Torrez believes that how conflicts between biological drives and social expectations are resolved
determines a person’s ability to learn, to get along with others, and to cope with anxiety. Dr. Torrez
accepts the __________.

A) psychoanalytic perspective

31

Sigmund Freud constructed his psychosexual theory __________.

A) on the basis of his adult patients’ memories of painful childhood events

32

Psychosexual theory emphasizes that __________.

C) how parents manage their child’s sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years is crucial for
healthy personality development

33

__________ theory was the first to stress the influence of the early parent‒child relationship on
development.

B) Freud’s

34

One criticism of Freud’s psychosexual theory was that it __________.

A) did not apply in other cultures

35

Dr. Singh believes that a basic psychosocial conflict, which is resolved along a continuum from
positive to negative, determines healthy or maladaptive outcomes at each stage of development. Dr.
Singh’s beliefs are aligned with those of which theorist?

C) Erik Erikson

36

Dr. Faulkner believes that directly observable events—stimuli and responses—are the appropriate
focus of the study of development. Dr. Faulkner probably follows the __________ perspective of
development.

C) behaviorist

37

Ivan Pavlov discovered __________.

B) classical conditioning

38

In a historic experiment with 11-month-old Albert, John Watson demonstrated that __________.

C) children can be conditioned to fear a formerly neutral stimulus

39

According to operant conditioning theory, __________.

D) the frequency of a behavior can be increased by following it with a wide variety of reinforcers

40

Baby Gabriella claps her hands after her mother does. Gabriella is displaying __________.

C) observational learning

41

According to __________ theory, modeling is a powerful source of development.

C) social learning

42

Today, Albert Bandura’s theory stresses the importance of __________.

C) cognition

43

Cindy tells her daughter, “I know you can do a good job on that homework” because she believes that
if she encourages persistence, her daughter will start to view herself as hardworking and high-achieving.
Cindy is applying the __________ approach.

D) social-cognitive

44

The goal of applied behavior analysis is to __________.

B) eliminate undesirable behaviors and increase desirable responses

45

Behaviorism and social learning theory __________.

C) offer too narrow a view of important environmental influences

46

According to Jean Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory, __________.

A) children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world

47

Central to Piaget’s theory is the concept of __________.

B) adaptation

48

According to Jean Piaget, __________ is the balance between internal structures and information that
children encounter in their everyday worlds.

D) equilibrium

49

Four-year-old R’Monte engages in make-believe play. He stirs beads in a bowl and says, “Soup is
ready!” According to Piaget, R’Monte is in the __________ stage of cognitive development.

B) preoperational

50

Sydney, when faced with a problem, starts with a hypothesis, deduces testable inferences, and isolates
and combines variables to see which inferences are confirmed. Sydney is in Piaget’s __________ stage of
development.

D) formal operational

51

Piaget’s critics point out that __________.

B) his stagewise account pays insufficient attention to social and cultural influences

52

The information-processing approach views the human mind as a __________.

D) symbol-manipulating system through which information flows

53

Lillian uses flowcharts to map the precise steps individuals use to solve problems and complete tasks.
Lillian is a(n) __________ theorist.

B) information-processing

54

54. Like Piaget’s theory, the information-processing approach __________.

C) regards people as actively making sense of their own thinking

55

The findings of information-processing researchers have important implications for __________.

C) education

56

Dr. Rizvi studies the relationship between changes in the brain and the developing person’s cognitive
processing and behavior patterns. She is part of a group of researchers from the fields of psychology,
biology, neuroscience, and medicine. Their approach to development is known as __________.

D) developmental cognitive neuroscience

57

Developmental social neuroscience __________.

C) is devoted to studying the relationship between changes in the brain and emotional and social
development

58

Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen laid the modern foundations for __________.

A) ethology

59

Observations of imprinting led to which major concept in human development?

C) the critical period

60

What did John Bowlby believe?

B) The infant‒caregiver bond has lifelong consequences for human relationships.

61

Evolutionary developmental psychology __________.

B) seeks to understand the adaptive value of species-wide competencies as those competencies change
with age

62

Dr. Whiren studies how culture is transmitted to the next generation. Dr. Whiren’s research best aligns
with the perspective of which theorist?

C) Lev Vygotsky

63

Vygotsky’s emphasis on culture and social experience led him to __________.

A) neglect the biological side of development

64

Ecological systems theory views the person as __________.

B) developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding
environment

65

Dr. Redmund characterizes his view of development as a bioecological model. His perspective is
aligned with that of which theorist?

B) Urie Bronfenbrenner

66

According to ecological systems theory, interactions between Marina and her child, Tyler, occur in the
__________.

A) microsystem

67

The outermost level of Bronfenbrenner’s model is the __________.

B) macrosystem

68

Toby moved with his family just before he entered fourth grade. In ecological systems theory, the
move represents a change in Toby’s __________.

D) chronosystem

69

Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory, information processing, and Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory
all stress __________.

B) changes in thinking

70

Dr. George predicted that positive reinforcement would increase prosocial behavior in preschoolers.
Dr. George’s prediction is an example of a __________.

C) hypothesis

71

Which major theory of human development emphasizes plasticity at all ages?

D) lifespan perspective

72

Taking tests and answering questionnaires are examples of __________.

D) research methods

73

Which statement describes a strength of naturalistic observation?

A) It allows investigators a view of participants’ everyday lives.

74

Dr. Wu observes children’s responses to bullying by watching them play in a park. This is an example
of a(n) __________.

B) naturalistic observation

75

In a __________, each participant has an equal opportunity to display the behavior of interest.

C) structured observation

76

One limitation of systematic observation is that it __________.

B) tells investigators little about the reasoning behind behaviors

77

Self-reports __________.

C) range from relatively unstructured interviews to highly structured interviews, questionnaires, and tests

78

One major strength of the clinical interview is that it __________.

B) can provide a large amount of information in a fairly brief period

79

The parents at Central Elementary School responded to a multiple-choice questionnaire that asked
them what they considered the most important activity they do with their child. This questionnaire is an
example of a __________.

A) structured interview

80

Structured interviews __________.

A) do not yield the same depth of information as clinical interviews

81

Which research method is an outgrowth of psychoanalytic theory?

D) the clinical method

82

Dr. Bigelow is interested in studying musical prodigies. Which method is best suited for this type of
research?

C) case study

83

The clinical method __________.

D) yields richly detailed case narratives that offer valuable insights

84

Which statement describes a limitation of the clinical method?

C) The findings cannot be applied to individuals other than the participant.

85

Which research method was borrowed from the field of anthropology?

A) ethnography

86

Ethnographic research is directed toward understanding a culture through __________ observation.

B) participant

87

Jade spent two years in a Mexican-American community studying communication between parents
and children. Jade was using __________.

B) ethnography

88

What is one limitation of the ethnographic method?

A) Investigators’ cultural values sometimes lead them to misinterpret what they see.

89

The two main types of designs used in all research on human behavior are __________ and
__________.

B) correlational; experimental

90

In a correlational design, researchers __________.

A) gather information on individuals without altering their experiences

91

Students who are foreign-born or first-generation Americans __________ than students of native-born
parents.

C) often achieve in school as well as or better

92

Ethnographies reveal that immigrant parents view __________ as the surest way to improve life
chances.

B) education

93

Dr. Dias’s research shows that the death of a spouse in old age is correlated with a decline in the
surviving partner’s physical health. Which conclusion is supported by this study?

B) The death of a spouse is related to a decline in the surviving partner’s physical health.

94

In correlational studies, a(n) __________ can range in value from +1.00 to −1.00.

D) correlation coefficient

95

Dr. Anodyne found a correlation of +.49 between illegal drug use and levels of adolescent
delinquency. This correlation is __________ and __________.

A) moderate; positive

96

Dr. Anderson wants to conduct a study to determine the cause-and-effect relationship between
domestic violence and anger in children. Dr. Anderson should use a(n) __________ design.

D) experimental

97

An experimental design __________.

C) permits inferences about cause and effect because researchers evenhandedly assign people to treatment
conditions

98

In an experiment, the independent variable __________.

B) is the one the investigator expects to cause changes in another variable

99

In an experimental study examining whether the way angry encounters end affect children’s emotional
reactions, the dependent variable would be the __________.

D) children’s emotional reactions

100

In an experimental study examining whether children who are read to more often score higher on
vocabulary tests in first grade, the independent variable would be the __________.

A) frequency of read-alouds

101

By using __________ assignment of participants to treatment conditions, investigators increase the
chances that participants’ characteristics will be equally distributed across treatment groups.

B) random

102

Dr. McBride wants to know if a teacher’s use of encouragement in the classroom affects the
children’s self-esteem. To assign children to treatment conditions, Dr. McBride should __________.

C) draw the children’s names out of a hat

103

In field experiments, researchers __________.

C) assign participants randomly to treatment conditions in natural settings

104

Researchers randomly assigned adolescents to either a single-grade classroom or a mixed-grade
classroom. This is an example of a __________.

D) field experiment

105

What is one strength of the cross-sectional design?

C) It is not plagued with dropout or practice effects.

106

In a(n) __________ design, participants are studied repeatedly at different ages, and changes are
noted as they get older.

C) longitudinal

107

Longitudinal research can identify common patterns as well as individual differences in development
because the investigator __________.

C) tracks the performance of each person over time

108

A major strength of the longitudinal design is that researchers can __________.

A) examine relationships between early and later behaviors

109

What is one problem with longitudinal research?

B) Participants may move away or drop out of the research.

110

Bernadette, a participant in a longitudinal study, became quite familiar with the test over time and, as
a result, her performance improved. This limitation of longitudinal research is known as __________.

B) practice effects

111

Professor Higgins is concerned about the findings of a longitudinal study on childhood depression
that she conducted between 1985 and 2015 in New York because many of the participants witnessed the
terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center. Professor Higgins is concerned about __________ effects.

D) cohort

112

In a cross-sectional design, researchers study __________.

B) groups of participants differing in age at the same point in time

113

What is a major disadvantage of cross-sectional research?

C) Evidence about development at the individual level is not provided.

114

Like longitudinal research, cross-sectional studies can be threatened by __________.

D) cohort effects

115

To overcome some of the limitations of traditional developmental designs, investigators sometimes
use __________ designs, in which they conduct several similar cross-sectional or longitudinal studies.

A) sequential

116

A sequential design __________.

B) permits researchers to check if cohort effects are operating

117

Today, research that combines an experimental strategy with __________ approach is becoming
increasingly common.

C) either a longitudinal or a cross-sectional

118

When children are research participants, __________.

D) informed consent of their parents as well as others who act on their behalf should be obtained

119

In his research study, Dr. Johnson gives participants false feedback about their performance.
Consequently, Dr. Johnson should use __________ after the research session is over.

C) debriefing

120

Ethical standards permit deception in research studies if __________.

B) investigators satisfy institutional review boards that such practices are necessary