Dr. Langley’s work is devoted to understanding constancy and change
throughout the lifespan. Dr.
Langley’s field of study is __________.
D) developmental science
Although great diversity characterizes the interests and concerns of
investigators who study
development, they share a single goal: to identify __________.
D) those factors that influence consistencies and transformations in people from conception to death
Developmental science is __________ because it has grown through the
combined efforts of people
from many fields of study.
A theory of development __________.
B) describes, explains, and predicts behavior
According to the __________ view of development, the difference
between the immature and mature
being is simply one of amount or complexity.
The discontinuous view of development holds that __________.
C) infants and children have unique ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving
Dr. Kostel believes that development takes place in stages. This
belief is consistent with the
New evidence increasingly emphasizes that __________.
D) people not only are affected by but also contribute to the contexts in which they develop
Tammy’s father is an exceptional gymnast. When Tammy was just a
toddler, her father believed that
Tammy already showed great promise as a gymnast. Tammy’s father probably believes that athletic
ability is mostly determined by __________.
Although Justin spent his first 18 months in an orphanage, his
adoptive mother believes sensitive
caregiving will help Justin overcome his early experiences. Justin’s mother emphasizes the role of
__________ in development.
Theorists who contend that powerful negative events in the first few
years cannot be fully overcome
by later, more positive ones emphasize __________.
Theorists who emphasize plasticity believe that __________.
A) change in response to influential experiences is possible
Increasingly, researchers view human development as __________.
D) a perpetually ongoing process
The lifespan perspective on human development assumes that development is __________.
B) multidimensional and multidirectional
According to the lifespan perspective, __________ is supreme in its impact on the life course.
D) no age period
Max, age 65, learned to play the piano at a local senior center. Max demonstrates that __________.
C) development is plastic at all ages
Which statement provides an example of an age-graded influence?
B) Frank got his driver’s license at age 16.
People born during the baby boom between 1946 and 1964 tend to be
alike in ways that set them apart
from people born at other times, due to __________ influences.
__________ influences are irregular and do not follow a predictable timetable.
Although Betty grew up in a rundown neighborhood, had divorced
parents, and rarely saw her father,
she is a successful, happy, and healthy adult. Betty’s ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to
development is known as __________.
The most consistent asset of resilient children is __________.
A) a strong bond with a competent, caring adult
The baby boomers __________.
D) were labeled a narcissistic, indulged, “me” generation
As a generation, the baby boomers are __________ than any previous mid- or late-life cohort.
D) healthier, better educated, and financially better off
__________ is regarded as the founder of the child study movement.
B) G. Stanley Hall
Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution emphasized __________ and __________.
D) natural selection; survival of the fittest
G. Stanley Hall and his student Arnold Gesell __________.
B) launched the normative approach
Arnold Gesell __________.
A) was among the first to make knowledge about child development meaningful to parents
Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon __________.
D) constructed the first successful intelligence test
The first successful intelligence test was originally constructed to __________.
C) identify children with learning problems for placement in special classes
Dr. Torrez believes that how conflicts between biological drives and
social expectations are resolved
determines a person’s ability to learn, to get along with others, and to cope with anxiety. Dr. Torrez
accepts the __________.
A) psychoanalytic perspective
Sigmund Freud constructed his psychosexual theory __________.
A) on the basis of his adult patients’ memories of painful childhood events
Psychosexual theory emphasizes that __________.
C) how parents manage their child’s sexual and aggressive drives in
the first few years is crucial for
healthy personality development
__________ theory was the first to stress the influence of the early
parent‒child relationship on
One criticism of Freud’s psychosexual theory was that it __________.
A) did not apply in other cultures
Dr. Singh believes that a basic psychosocial conflict, which is
resolved along a continuum from
positive to negative, determines healthy or maladaptive outcomes at each stage of development. Dr.
Singh’s beliefs are aligned with those of which theorist?
C) Erik Erikson
Dr. Faulkner believes that directly observable events—stimuli and
responses—are the appropriate
focus of the study of development. Dr. Faulkner probably follows the __________ perspective of
Ivan Pavlov discovered __________.
B) classical conditioning
In a historic experiment with 11-month-old Albert, John Watson demonstrated that __________.
C) children can be conditioned to fear a formerly neutral stimulus
According to operant conditioning theory, __________.
D) the frequency of a behavior can be increased by following it with a wide variety of reinforcers
Baby Gabriella claps her hands after her mother does. Gabriella is displaying __________.
C) observational learning
According to __________ theory, modeling is a powerful source of development.
C) social learning
Today, Albert Bandura’s theory stresses the importance of __________.
Cindy tells her daughter, “I know you can do a good job on that
homework” because she believes that
if she encourages persistence, her daughter will start to view herself as hardworking and high-achieving.
Cindy is applying the __________ approach.
The goal of applied behavior analysis is to __________.
B) eliminate undesirable behaviors and increase desirable responses
Behaviorism and social learning theory __________.
C) offer too narrow a view of important environmental influences
According to Jean Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory, __________.
A) children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world
Central to Piaget’s theory is the concept of __________.
According to Jean Piaget, __________ is the balance between internal
structures and information that
children encounter in their everyday worlds.
Four-year-old R’Monte engages in make-believe play. He stirs beads in
a bowl and says, “Soup is
ready!” According to Piaget, R’Monte is in the __________ stage of cognitive development.
Sydney, when faced with a problem, starts with a hypothesis, deduces
testable inferences, and isolates
and combines variables to see which inferences are confirmed. Sydney is in Piaget’s __________ stage of
D) formal operational
Piaget’s critics point out that __________.
B) his stagewise account pays insufficient attention to social and cultural influences
The information-processing approach views the human mind as a __________.
D) symbol-manipulating system through which information flows
Lillian uses flowcharts to map the precise steps individuals use to
solve problems and complete tasks.
Lillian is a(n) __________ theorist.
54. Like Piaget’s theory, the information-processing approach __________.
C) regards people as actively making sense of their own thinking
The findings of information-processing researchers have important implications for __________.
Dr. Rizvi studies the relationship between changes in the brain and
the developing person’s cognitive
processing and behavior patterns. She is part of a group of researchers from the fields of psychology,
biology, neuroscience, and medicine. Their approach to development is known as __________.
D) developmental cognitive neuroscience
Developmental social neuroscience __________.
C) is devoted to studying the relationship between changes in the
brain and emotional and social
Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen laid the modern foundations for __________.
Observations of imprinting led to which major concept in human development?
C) the critical period
What did John Bowlby believe?
B) The infant‒caregiver bond has lifelong consequences for human relationships.
Evolutionary developmental psychology __________.
B) seeks to understand the adaptive value of species-wide
competencies as those competencies change
Dr. Whiren studies how culture is transmitted to the next generation.
Dr. Whiren’s research best aligns
with the perspective of which theorist?
C) Lev Vygotsky
Vygotsky’s emphasis on culture and social experience led him to __________.
A) neglect the biological side of development
Ecological systems theory views the person as __________.
B) developing within a complex system of relationships affected by
multiple levels of the surrounding
Dr. Redmund characterizes his view of development as a bioecological
model. His perspective is
aligned with that of which theorist?
B) Urie Bronfenbrenner
According to ecological systems theory, interactions between Marina
and her child, Tyler, occur in the
The outermost level of Bronfenbrenner’s model is the __________.
Toby moved with his family just before he entered fourth grade. In
ecological systems theory, the
move represents a change in Toby’s __________.
Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory, information processing, and
Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory
all stress __________.
B) changes in thinking
Dr. George predicted that positive reinforcement would increase
prosocial behavior in preschoolers.
Dr. George’s prediction is an example of a __________.
Which major theory of human development emphasizes plasticity at all ages?
D) lifespan perspective
Taking tests and answering questionnaires are examples of __________.
D) research methods
Which statement describes a strength of naturalistic observation?
A) It allows investigators a view of participants’ everyday lives.
Dr. Wu observes children’s responses to bullying by watching them
play in a park. This is an example
of a(n) __________.
B) naturalistic observation
In a __________, each participant has an equal opportunity to display the behavior of interest.
C) structured observation
One limitation of systematic observation is that it __________.
B) tells investigators little about the reasoning behind behaviors
C) range from relatively unstructured interviews to highly structured interviews, questionnaires, and tests
One major strength of the clinical interview is that it __________.
B) can provide a large amount of information in a fairly brief period
The parents at Central Elementary School responded to a
multiple-choice questionnaire that asked
them what they considered the most important activity they do with their child. This questionnaire is an
example of a __________.
A) structured interview
Structured interviews __________.
A) do not yield the same depth of information as clinical interviews
Which research method is an outgrowth of psychoanalytic theory?
D) the clinical method
Dr. Bigelow is interested in studying musical prodigies. Which method
is best suited for this type of
C) case study
The clinical method __________.
D) yields richly detailed case narratives that offer valuable insights
Which statement describes a limitation of the clinical method?
C) The findings cannot be applied to individuals other than the participant.
Which research method was borrowed from the field of anthropology?
Ethnographic research is directed toward understanding a culture through __________ observation.
Jade spent two years in a Mexican-American community studying
communication between parents
and children. Jade was using __________.
What is one limitation of the ethnographic method?
A) Investigators’ cultural values sometimes lead them to misinterpret what they see.
The two main types of designs used in all research on human behavior
are __________ and
B) correlational; experimental
In a correlational design, researchers __________.
A) gather information on individuals without altering their experiences
Students who are foreign-born or first-generation Americans
__________ than students of native-born
C) often achieve in school as well as or better
Ethnographies reveal that immigrant parents view __________ as the
surest way to improve life
Dr. Dias’s research shows that the death of a spouse in old age is
correlated with a decline in the
surviving partner’s physical health. Which conclusion is supported by this study?
B) The death of a spouse is related to a decline in the surviving partner’s physical health.
In correlational studies, a(n) __________ can range in value from +1.00 to −1.00.
D) correlation coefficient
Dr. Anodyne found a correlation of +.49 between illegal drug use and
levels of adolescent
delinquency. This correlation is __________ and __________.
A) moderate; positive
Dr. Anderson wants to conduct a study to determine the
cause-and-effect relationship between
domestic violence and anger in children. Dr. Anderson should use a(n) __________ design.
An experimental design __________.
C) permits inferences about cause and effect because researchers
evenhandedly assign people to treatment
In an experiment, the independent variable __________.
B) is the one the investigator expects to cause changes in another variable
In an experimental study examining whether the way angry encounters
end affect children’s emotional
reactions, the dependent variable would be the __________.
D) children’s emotional reactions
In an experimental study examining whether children who are read to
more often score higher on
vocabulary tests in first grade, the independent variable would be the __________.
A) frequency of read-alouds
By using __________ assignment of participants to treatment
conditions, investigators increase the
chances that participants’ characteristics will be equally distributed across treatment groups.
Dr. McBride wants to know if a teacher’s use of encouragement in the
classroom affects the
children’s self-esteem. To assign children to treatment conditions, Dr. McBride should __________.
C) draw the children’s names out of a hat
In field experiments, researchers __________.
C) assign participants randomly to treatment conditions in natural settings
Researchers randomly assigned adolescents to either a single-grade
classroom or a mixed-grade
classroom. This is an example of a __________.
D) field experiment
What is one strength of the cross-sectional design?
C) It is not plagued with dropout or practice effects.
In a(n) __________ design, participants are studied repeatedly at
different ages, and changes are
noted as they get older.
Longitudinal research can identify common patterns as well as
individual differences in development
because the investigator __________.
C) tracks the performance of each person over time
A major strength of the longitudinal design is that researchers can __________.
A) examine relationships between early and later behaviors
What is one problem with longitudinal research?
B) Participants may move away or drop out of the research.
Bernadette, a participant in a longitudinal study, became quite
familiar with the test over time and, as
a result, her performance improved. This limitation of longitudinal research is known as __________.
B) practice effects
Professor Higgins is concerned about the findings of a longitudinal
study on childhood depression
that she conducted between 1985 and 2015 in New York because many of the participants witnessed the
terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center. Professor Higgins is concerned about __________ effects.
In a cross-sectional design, researchers study __________.
B) groups of participants differing in age at the same point in time
What is a major disadvantage of cross-sectional research?
C) Evidence about development at the individual level is not provided.
Like longitudinal research, cross-sectional studies can be threatened by __________.
D) cohort effects
To overcome some of the limitations of traditional developmental
designs, investigators sometimes
use __________ designs, in which they conduct several similar cross-sectional or longitudinal studies.
A sequential design __________.
B) permits researchers to check if cohort effects are operating
Today, research that combines an experimental strategy with
__________ approach is becoming
C) either a longitudinal or a cross-sectional
When children are research participants, __________.
D) informed consent of their parents as well as others who act on their behalf should be obtained
In his research study, Dr. Johnson gives participants false feedback
about their performance.
Consequently, Dr. Johnson should use __________ after the research session is over.
Ethical standards permit deception in research studies if __________.
B) investigators satisfy institutional review boards that such practices are necessary