Chapter 13

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1
card image

The nasal cavity is indicated by ________.

A) Label D

B) Label C

C) Label B

D) Label H

E) Label A

E

2
card image

The right main (primary) bronchus is indicated by ________.

A) Label H

B) Label I

C) Label J

D) Label B

E) Label F

A

3
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The trachea is indicated by ________. A) Label D

B) Label I

C) Label B

D) Label F

E) Label G

B

4
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The diaphragm muscle is indicated by ________.

A) Label C

B) Label E

C) Label F

D) Label G

E) Label J

D

5
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The oral cavity is indicated by ________.

A) Label C

B) Label A

C) Label E

D) label B

E) Label G

A

6
card image

The inferior lobe of the right lung is indicated by ________.

A) Label E

B) Label J

C) Label I

D) Label G

E) Label F

E

7
card image

The nostrils, or nares, are indicated by ________.

A) Label C

B) Label G

C) Label B

D) Label A

E) Label F

C

8
card image

The apex of the right lung is indicated by ________.

A) Label E

B) Label F

C) Label H

D) Label G

E) Label J

A

9
card image

The larynx is indicated by ________.

A) Label H

B) Label G

C) Label F

D) Label A

E) Label D

E

10
card image

The pharynx is indicated by ________.

A) Label H

B) Label I

C) Label J

D) Label F

E) Label B

C

11

The three mucosa-covered projections into the nasal cavity that greatly increase surface area of mucosa exposed to air are called ________.

A) tonsils

B) adenoids

C) conchae

D) paranasal sinuses

C

12

The posterior portion of the palate that is not supported by bone is called the ________.

A) soft palate

B) paranasal sinus

C) epiglottis

D) hard palate

A

13

From superior to inferior, the three regions of the pharynx are the ________.

A) oropharynx, nasopharynx, laryngopharynx

B) nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx

C) laryngopharynx, oropharynx, nasopharynx

D) nasopharynx, laryngopharynx, oropharynx

B

14

The ________ tonsil, or adenoid, is located high in the nasopharynx region.

A) lingual

B) laryngeal

C) pharyngeal

D) palatine

C

15

The ________ routes air and food into their proper channels and plays a role in speech.

A) tongue

B) pharynx

C) nasal conchae

D) larynx

D

16

The mucosa-lined windpipe that extends from the larynx to the level of the fifth thoracic vertebra is called the ________.

A) trachea

B) oropharynx

C) main (primary) bronchus

D) nasopharynx

A

17

________ lining the mucosa of the trachea beat continuously to propel contaminated mucus to the throat. A) Microvilli

B) Coarse hairs

C) Cilia

D) Flagella

C

18

When breathing in, air enters the trachea through the ________.

A) glottis

B) epiglottis

C) esophagus

D) thyroid cartilage

A

19

The C-shaped rings that reinforce the trachea are constructed of ________.

A) fibrocartilage

B) elastic cartilage

C) hyaline cartilage

D) compact bone

C

20

The flap of ________ cartilage that protects the opening of the larynx is called the epiglottis.

A) thyroid cartilage

B) elastic

C) hyaline

D) fibrous

B

21

Folds of mucous membrane called ________ vibrate to provide speech. A) vocal folds (true vocal cords)

B) hyaline cartilage rings

C) epiglottis

D) uvula

A

22

The serous membrane that surrounds each lung is created by a parietal and visceral ________.

A) pleura

B) pericardium

C) peritoneum

D) mediastinum

A

23

The division of the trachea produces two tubes called the right and left main (primary) ________.

A) bronchioles

B) bronchi

C) alveolar ducts

D) alveolar sacs

B

24

The smallest conducting passageways of the lungs are known as ________.

A) main (primary) bronchi

B) alveoli

C) bronchioles

D) alveolar ducts

C

25

The ________ zone includes the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli and is where gas exchange occurs.

A) respiratory

B) conducting

C) terminal

D) filtering

A

26

The process of moving air into and out of the lungs is commonly called breathing or ________.

A) cellular respiration

B) internal respiration

C) respiratory gas transport

D) pulmonary ventilation

D

27

Gas exchange between the pulmonary blood and alveoli is called ________.

A) pulmonary ventilation

B) inhalation

C) external respiration

D) internal respiration

C

28

The inspiratory muscles that contract so we can inspire air are the ________ and ________.

A) rectus abdominis; external obliques

B) diaphragm; external intercostals

C) trapezius; latissimus dorsi

D) diaphragm; external obliques

B

29

Air flowing out of the lungs is known as ________.

A) expiration

B) respiratory gas transport

C) inhalation

D) inspiration

A

30

Lung collapse, or ________, can occur if the intrapleural pressure equals atmospheric pressure when air enters the pleural space.

A) pleurisy

B) atelectasis

C) rales

D) wheezing

B

31

________ volume is the air moved into and out of the lungs during normal quiet breathing and is approximately 500 mL of air.

A) Tidal

B) Vital capacity

C) Residual

D) Inspiratory capacity

A

32

The total amount of exchangeable air is known as ________.

A) residual volume

B) inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) C) tidal volume (TV)

D) vital capacity (VC)

D

33

Respiratory capacities are measured with a ________.

A) thermometer

B) spirometer

C) spygmomanometer D) stethoscope

B

34

During ________, oxygen binds to hemoglobin to form oxyhemoglobin. A) internal respiration

B) external respiration

C) cellular respiration

D) expiration

B

35

________ is an odorless, colorless gas which binds preferentially with the same binding site on hemoglobin as oxygen.

A) Hydrogen sulfide

B) Carbon monoxide

C) Nitrous oxide

D) Methane

B

36

When carbon dioxide dissolves in water, it forms ________.

A) carbaminohemoglobin

B) deoxyhemoglobin

C) carbon monoxide

D) carbonic acid

D

37

The normal respiratory rate of 12-15 breaths per minute is known as ________.

A) hyperpnea

B) eupnea

C) dyspnea

D) apnea

B

38

The portions of the brain that contain respiratory centers and set the breathing rate are the ________. A) medulla and pons

B) pons and cerebellum

C) cerebrum and cerebellum

D) thalamus and hypothalamus

A

39

The regulation of the activity of the breathing muscles, the diaphragm and external intercostals, is controlled by nerve impulses transmitted from the brain via the ________ and ________ nerves.

A) splanchic; sacral

B) trochlear; trigeminal

C) phrenic; intercostal

D) cranial; spinal

C

40

The most important stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is the body's need to rid itself of the blood gas called ________.

A) carbon dioxide

B) oxygen

C) methane

D) nitrous oxide

A

41

In order to return acidic blood pH to normal, breathing becomes deeper and more rapid, a phenomenon known as ________.

A) hypoventilation

B) hyperventilation

C) apnea

D) dyspnea

B

42

________ is a fatty molecule made by alveolar cells to reduce surface tension and prevent alveolar collapse between breaths.

A) Sebum

B) Surfactant

C) Nicotine

D) Mucus

B

43

Gas exchange occurs in the ________. A) nose

B) pharynx

C) larynx

D) trachea

E) alveoli

E

44

The respiratory conducting passageways perform all of the following functions EXCEPT ________. A) allow air to reach the lungs

B) purify air

C) humidify air

D) exchange gases

E) warm incoming air

D

45

What sweeps contaminated mucus from the nasal cavity to the throat? A) tonsils

B) flagella

C) cilia

D) coarse hairs

E) air turbulence

C

46

What is the role of mucus in the nasal cavity?

A) increase the air turbulence in the nasal cavity

B) separate the oral cavity from the nasal cavity

C) lighten the skull

D) act as a resonance chamber for speech

E) trap incoming bacteria and other foreign debris

E

47

The nasal cavity is separated from the oral cavity by ________.

A) the pharynx

B) the nasal conchae

C) the larynx

D) both the hard and soft palate

E) both the nasal conchae and hard palate

D

48

Which one of the following bones does NOT contain paranasal sinuses?

A) frontal

B) sphenoid

C) mandible

D) ethmoid

E) maxilla

C

49

Which tonsil(s) is/are located in the oropharynx at the end of the soft palate?

A) adenoid

B) pharyngeal tonsil

C) thymus

D) palatine tonsils

E) lingual tonsils

D

50

Air from the nasal cavity enters the superior portion of the pharynx called the ________.

A) nasopharynx

B) oropharynx

C) palatopharynx

D) laryngopharynx

E) tracheopharynx

A

51

The pharynogotympanic tubes, which drain the middle ear, open into the ________.

A) nasopharynx

B) oropharynx

C) palatopharynx

D) laryngopharynx

E) tracheopharynx

A

52

The correct pathway air flows through the respiratory system is ________.

A) nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, main (primary) bronchi

B) nose, larynx, pharynx, trachea, main (primary) bronchi

C) nose, pharynx, trachea, larynx, main (primary) bronchi

D) nose, larynx, trachea, pharynx, main (primary) bronchi

E) nose, pharynx, larynx, main (primary) bronchi, trachea

A

53

Following the removal of the larynx, a person would be unable to ________.

A) speak

B) sneeze

C) eat

D) hear

E) breathe

A

54

The opening between the vocal cords is called the ________.

A) epiglottis

B) glottis

C) larynx

D) thyroid cartilage

E) esophagus

B

55

The flap of elastic cartilage that protects food from entering the larynx when swallowing is the ________.

A) glottis

B) thyroid cartilage

C) Adam's apple

D) epiglottis

E) trachea

D

56

Vibration due to exhaled air that results in speech is a function of the ________.

A) complete voice box

B) true vocal cords

C) false vocal cords

D) glottis

E) epiglottis

B

57

The superior portion of each lung is the ________.

A) pleura

B) base

C) apex

D) mediastinum

E) fissure

C

58

The serous membrane covering the surface of the lungs is called the ________.

A) mediastinum

B) visceral pleura

C) parietal pleura

D) main (primary) bronchi

E) pleurisy

B

59

Which one of the following is NOT true of the lungs?

A) the narrower portion of each lung is called the apex

B) the bases rest on the diaphragm

C) the left lung has two lobes

D) the right lung has three lobes

E) both lungs have two lobes

E

60

What is the function of an alveolar macrophage?

A) secrete mucus

B) facilitate gas exchange

C) produce surfactant

D) engulf bacteria, carbon particles, and debris

E) sweep contaminated mucus and debris from the alveoli

D

61

Which one of the following structures is NOT part of the respiratory zone?

A) respiratory bronchioles

B) alveolar ducts

C) alveolar sacs

D) alveoli

E) primary bronchi

E

62

Which of the following is NOT one of the four main events of respiration? A) pulmonary ventilation

B) respiratory gas transport

C) residual volume

D) external respiration

E) internal respiration

C

63

Exchange of both oxygen and carbon dioxide through the respiratory membrane occurs by ________.

A) osmosis

B) simple diffusion

C) facilitated diffusion

D) active transport

E) endocytosis

B

64

The lipid molecule critical to lung function that coats the gas-exposed alveolar surfaces is called ________. A) surfactant

B) interferon

C) kinin

D) renin

E) lecithin

A

65

Air moving in and out of the lungs during normal quiet breathing is called ________.

A) internal respiration

B) inspiration

C) external respiration

D) expiration

E) pulmonary ventilation

E

66

Which one of the following is NOT true of inspiration?

A) contraction of the diaphragm muscle helps increase the size of the thoracic cavity

B) relaxation of the external intercostal muscles helps increase the size of the thoracic cavity

C) increased intrapulmonary volume causes inhaled gases to spread out

D) the decreased gas pressure produces a partial vacuum that forcibly sucks air in

E) air continues to move into the lungs until intrapulmonary pressure equals atmospheric pressure

B

67

The gas exchange that occurs between blood and tissue cells at systemic capillaries is called ________.

A) pulmonary ventilation

B) expiration

C) internal respiration

D) external respiration

E) respiratory gas transport

C

68

Expiration (exhalation) occurs when ________.

A) the diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract

B) air moves into the lungs

C) intrapulmonary volume increases

D) the diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax

E) intrapulmonary pressure decreases

D

69

Which nonrespiratory air movement clears the upper respiratory passageways?

A) coughing

B) yawning

C) laughing

D) hiccupping

E) sneezing

E

70

Laura's lung collapsed during a skiing accident when a rib punctured her lung. The condition of a collapsed lung is known as ________. A) atelectasis

B) asthma

C) eupnea

D) pleurisy

E) pneumothorax

A

71

The respiratory movement representing the total amount of exchangeable air is the ________.

A) tidal volume

B) inspiratory reserve volume

C) expiratory reserve volume

D) vital capacity

E) dead space volume

D

72

Even after a forceful expiration, air still remains in the lungs for gas exchange to continue. This volume is about ________.

A) 500 mL

B) 1200 mL

C) 2100 mL

D) 4800 mL

E) 6000 mL

B

73

The amount of air exchanged during normal quiet breathing is about ________.

A) 500 mL

B) 1200 mL

C) 2100 mL

D) 4800 mL

E) 6000 mL

A

74

Most carbon dioxide dissolves in blood plasma for transport as ________.

A) carbohemoglobin

B) bicarbonate ion

C) oxyhemoglobin

D) carbon monoxide

E) deoxyhemoglobin

B

75

Oxygen is unloaded from the blood stream and diffuses into surrounding cells and tissues during ________.

A) internal respiration

B) pulmonary ventilation

C) external respiration

D) respiratory gas transport

E) tidal volume

A

76

Oxygen is transported in the blood as ________.

A) bicarbonate ion

B) oxyhemoglobin

C) carbonic acid

D) deoxyhemoglobin

E) carbonic anhydrase

B

77

Which of the following breathing rates represents eupnea?

A) 5 breaths per minute

B) 10 breaths per minute

C) 14 breaths per minute

D) 18 breaths per minute

E) 24 breaths per minute

C

78

Hyperventilation is the body's response to ________.

A) increased carbon dioxide levels in the blood

B) increased oxygen levels in the blood

C) decreased carbon dioxide levels in the blood

D) alkalosis

E) increased blood pH

A

79

Hypoventilation dramatically increases carbonic acid concentration and involves ________. A) extremely deep breathing

B) extremely fast breathing

C) extremely slow breathing

D) intermittent breathing

E) irregular breathing

C

80

Hyperventilation leads to all of the following except ________.

A) brief periods of apnea

B) cyanosis

C) dizziness

D) fainting

E) buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood

E

81

The most important chemical stimulus leading to increased rate and depth of breathing is ________.

A) decreased oxygen level in the blood

B) increased blood pH

C) increased carbon dioxide in the blood

D) increased hydrogen ion in the blood

E) decreased carbon dioxide in the blood

C

82

Which one of the following is NOT a feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

A) most patients have a genetic predisposition to COPD

B) dyspnea becomes progressively more severe

C) frequent pulmonary infections are common

D) most COPD victims are hypoxic

E) most patients have a history of smoking

A

83

Which respiratory disease in which sufferers are often called "pink puffers," is characterized by enlarged alveoli, lung inflammation, and fibrosis of the lungs?

A) asthma

B) emphysema

C) cleft palate

D) chronic bronchitis

E) cystic fibrosis

B

84

What accounts for the majority of cases of lung cancer?

A) small cell carcinoma

B) adenocarcinoma

C) melanoma

D) squamous cell carcinoma

E) basal cell carcinoma

B

85

Surfactant is usually present in fetal lungs in adequate quantities by ________.

A) 20-22 weeks of pregnancy

B) 22-24 weeks of pregnancy

C) 24-26 weeks of pregnancy

D) 26-28 weeks of pregnancy

E) 28-30 weeks of pregnancy

E

86

The abbreviation IRDS stands for ________.

A) infant respiratory disease state

B) intermittent respiratory distress state

C) infant respiratory distress syndrome

D) intermittent respiratory disease syndrome

E) infant respiratory disease syndrome

C

87

What is the most common cause for lung cancer?

A) diet

B) work environment

C) asthma

D) hereditary

E) smoking

E

88

The respiratory rate in infants is ________.

A) 5-10 respirations per minute

B) 12-18 respirations per minute

C) 20-25 respirations per minute

D) 30 respirations per minute

E) over 40 respirations per minute

E

89

The homeostatic imbalance associated with the death of many full-term newborn infants is called ________.

A) CF

B) SIDS

C) CTRL

D) COPD

E) IRDS

B

90

Chronically inflamed, hypersensitive bronchial passages that respond to many irritants are characteristic of ________.

A) atelectasis

B) pleurisy

C) asthma

D) pneumothorax

E) pulmonary tamponade

C

91

Which of these age-related disorders is related to loss of elasticity of the lungs?

A) asthma

B) sleep apnea

C) tuberculosis

D) pneumonia

E) sudden infant death syndrome

B

92

Which one of the following is NOT true of lung cancer?

A) it is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S.

B) it slows down the movement of cilia

C) it is generally more prevalent in males than females

D) most types of lung cancer are very aggressive

E) lung cancers often metastasize rapidly and widely

C

93

T/F: Olfactory receptors are located in the mucosa in the nasal cavity.

TRUE

94

T/F: The nasal cavity is separated from the oral cavity by the nasal conchae

FALSE

95

T/F: Paranasal sinuses warm, cleanse, and humidify air entering the nasal cavity

FALSE

96

T/F: The portion of the pharynx continuous with the mouth is termed the oropharynx.

TRUE

97

T/F: The opening between the vocal cords is known as the epiglottis.

FALSE

98

T/F: The larynx routes air and food into their proper channel and plays an important role in speech production.

TRUE

99

T/F: The "guardian of the airways" that prevents food from entering the superior opening of the larynx is the thyroid cartilage.

FALSE

100

T/F: The function of the C-rings of hyaline cartilage in the trachea is to keep the airway patent or open for breathing.

TRUE

101

T/F: The Heimlich maneuver is a procedure in which air in a person's own lungs is used to eject an obstructing piece of food.

TRUE

102

T/F: Each main (primary) bronchus enters the lung at the apex

FALSE

103

T/F: The surface of each lung is covered by pulmonary, or visceral pleura.

TRUE

104

T/F: The bronchioles are the smallest of the conducting passageways in the lungs

TRUE

105

T/F: The respiratory zone is the only site of gas exchange within the lungs.

TRUE

106

T/F: The respiratory membrane is the air-blood barrier, where gases are exchanged.

TRUE

107

T/F: Alveolar macrophages patrol the alveoli to engulf and remove bacteria, carbon particles, and other debris

TRUE

108

T/F: The process of breathing is known as pulmonary ventilation.

TRUE

109

T/F: Inspiration results when the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles relax

FALSE

110

T/F: Expiration occurs when the thoracic and intrapulmonary volumes decrease and the intrapulmonary pressure increases.

TRUE

111

T/F: The amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after a tidal expiration is around 1200 mL

TRUE

112

T/F: Normal quiet breathing, known as tidal volume, is around 500 mL of air.

TRUE

113

T/F: Sudden inspirations resulting from spasms of the diaphragm are hiccups.

TRUE

114

T/F: Bronchial sounds are produced as air fills the alveoli of the lungs.

FALSE

115

T/F: Wheezing is a whistling sound associated with diseased respiratory tissue, mucus, or pus.

TRUE

116

T/F: According to the laws of diffusion, movement of a respiratory gas occurs toward the area of higher concentration of that particular respiratory gas.

FALSE

117

T/F: The general term for inadequate oxygen delivery to body tissues regardless of the cause is called hypoxia.

TRUE

118

T/F: Venous blood in systemic circulation is poorer in oxygen and richer in carbon dioxide.

TRUE

119

T/F: Hyperpnea results from exercise when breathing becomes deeper and more vigorous.

TRUE

120

T/F: Surfactant prevents lung collapse since it lowers surface tension of the film of water lining each alveolar air sac.

TRUE

121

T/F: Changes in oxygen levels in the blood are the most important stimuli for breathing in a healthy person.

FALSE